Atg8 family LC3/GABARAP proteins are crucial for autophagosome-lysosome fusion but not autophagosome formation during PINK1/Parkin mitophagy and starvation.
ABSTRACT: Members of the Atg8 family of proteins are conjugated to autophagosomal membranes, where they have been proposed to drive autophagosome formation and selective sequestration of cargo. In mammals, the Atg8 family consists of six members divided into the LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies. To define Atg8 function, we used genome editing to generate knockouts of the LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies as well as all six Atg8 family members in HeLa cells. We show that Atg8s are dispensable for autophagosome formation and selective engulfment of mitochondria, but essential for autophagosome-lysosome fusion. We find that the GABARAP subfamily promotes PLEKHM1 recruitment and governs autophagosome-lysosome fusion, whereas the LC3 subfamily plays a less prominent role in these processes. Although neither GABARAPs nor LC3s are required for autophagosome biogenesis, loss of all Atg8s yields smaller autophagosomes and a slowed initial rate of autophagosome formation. Our results clarify the essential function of the Atg8 family and identify GABARAP subfamily members as primary contributors to PINK1/Parkin mitophagy and starvation autophagy.
Project description:The mammalian Atg8 family (Atg8s proteins) consists of two subfamilies: GABARAP and LC3. All members can bind to the LC3-interacting region (LIR) or Atg8-interacting motif and participate in multiple steps of autophagy. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) autophagy receptor FAM134B contains an LIR motif that can bind to Atg8s, but whether it can differentially bind to the two subfamilies and, if so, the structural basis for this preference remains unknown. Here, we found that FAM134B bound to the GABARAP subfamily more strongly than to the LC3 subfamily. We then solved the crystal structure of the FAM134B-GABARAP complex and demonstrated that FAM134B used both its LIR core and the C-terminal helix to bind to GABARAP. We further showed that these properties might be conserved in FAM134A or FAM134C. The structure also allowed us to identify the structural determinants for the binding selectivity. Our work may be valuable for studying the differential functions of GABARAP and LC3 subfamilies in ER phagy in future.
Project description:Autophagy, a critical process for bulk degradation of proteins and organelles, requires conjugation of Atg8 proteins to phosphatidylethanolamine on the autophagic membrane. At least eight different Atg8 orthologs belonging to two subfamilies (LC3 and GATE-16/GABARAP) occur in mammalian cells, but their individual roles and modes of action are largely unknown. In this study, we dissect the activity of each subfamily and show that both are indispensable for the autophagic process in mammalian cells. We further show that both subfamilies act differently at early stages of autophagosome biogenesis. Accordingly, our results indicate that LC3s are involved in elongation of the phagophore membrane whereas the GABARAP/GATE-16 subfamily is essential for a later stage in autophagosome maturation.
Project description:Selective autophagy and macroautophagy sequester specific organelles/substrates or bulk cytoplasm, respectively, inside autophagosomes as cargo for delivery to lysosomes. The mammalian ATG8 orthologues (MAP1LC3A/B/C and GABARAP/L1/L2) are ubiquitin (UB)-like proteins conjugated to the autophagosome membrane and are thought to facilitate cargo receptor recruitment, vesicle maturation, and lysosomal fusion. To elucidate the molecular functions of the ATG8 proteins, we engineered cells lacking genes for each subfamily as well as all six mammalian ATG8s. Loss of GABARAPs alone attenuates autophagic flux basally and in response to macroautophagic or selective autophagic stimuli, including parkin-dependent mitophagy, and cells lacking all ATG8 proteins accumulate cytoplasmic UB aggregates, which are resolved following ectopic expression of individual GABARAPs. Autophagosomes from cells lacking GABARAPs had reduced lysosomal content by quantitative proteomics, consistent with fusion defects, but accumulated regulators of late endosome (LE)/autophagosome maturation. Through interaction proteomics of proteins accumulating in GABARAP/L1/L2-deficient cells, we identified C18orf8/RMC1 as a new subunit of the CCZ1-MON1 RAB7 guanine exchange factor (GEF) that positively regulates RAB7 recruitment to LE/autophagosomes. This work defines unique roles for GABARAP and LC3 subfamilies in macroautophagy and selective autophagy and demonstrates how analysis of autophagic machinery in the absence of flux can identify new regulatory circuits.
Project description:Syntaxin17, a key autophagosomal <i>N</i>-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, can associate with ATG8 family proteins SNAP29 and VAMP8 to facilitate the membrane fusion process between the double-membraned autophagosome and single-membraned lysosome in mammalian macroautophagy. However, the inherent properties of Syntaxin17 and the mechanistic basis underlying the interactions of Syntaxin17 with its binding proteins remain largely unknown. Here, using biochemical, NMR, and structural approaches, we systemically characterized Syntaxin17 as well as its interactions with ATG8 family proteins, SNAP29 and VAMP8. We discovered that Syntaxin17 alone adopts an autoinhibited conformation mediated by a direct interaction between its Habc domain and the Qa-SNARE motif. In addition, we revealed that the Qa-SNARE region of Syntaxin17 contains one LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif, which preferentially binds to GABARAP subfamily members. Importantly, the GABARAP binding of Syntaxin17 can release its autoinhibited state. The determined crystal structure of the Syntaxin17 LIR-GABARAP complex not only provides mechanistic insights into the interaction between Syntaxin17 and GABARAP but also reveals an unconventional LIR motif with a C-terminally extended 3<sub>10</sub> helix for selectively binding to ATG8 family proteins. Finally, we also elucidated structural arrangements of the autophagic Syntaxin17-SNAP29-VAMP8 SNARE core complex, and uncovered its conserved biochemical and structural characteristics common to all other SNAREs. In all, our findings reveal three distinct states of Syntaxin17, and provide mechanistic insights into the Syntaxin17-mediated autophagosome-lysosome fusion process.
Project description:The Atg8-family proteins are subdivided into two subfamilies: the GABARAP and LC3 subfamilies. These proteins, which are major players of the autophagy pathway, present a conserved glycine in their C-terminus necessary for their association to the autophagosome membrane. This family of proteins present multiple roles from autophagy induction to autophagosome-lysosome fusion and have been described to play a role during cancer progression. Indeed, GABARAPs are described to be downregulated in cancers, and high expression has been linked to a good prognosis. Regarding LC3 s, their expression does not correlate to a particular tumor type or stage. The involvement of Atg8-family proteins during cancer, therefore, remains unclear, and it appears that their anti-tumor role may be associated with their implication in selective protein degradation by autophagy but might also be independent, in some cases, of their conjugation to autophagosomes. In this review, we will then focus on the involvement of GABARAP and LC3 subfamilies during autophagy and cancer and highlight the similarities but also the differences of action of each subfamily member.<b>Abbreviations</b>: AIM: Atg8-interacting motif; AMPK: adenosine monophosphate-associated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy-related; BECN1: beclin 1; BIRC6/BRUCE: baculoviral IAP repeat containing 6; BNIP3L/NIX: BCL2 interacting protein 3 like; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GABARAPL1/2: GABA type A receptor associated protein like 1/2; GABRA/GABA<sub>A</sub>: gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit; LAP: LC3-associated phagocytosis; LMNB1: lamin B1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PI4K2A/PI4KIIα: phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 alpha; PLEKHM1: plecktrin homology and RUN domain containing M1; PtdIns3K-C1: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex 1; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; ULK1: unc51-like autophagy activating kinase 1.
Project description:ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) is the key mediator of MTORC1 signaling to macroautophagy/autophagy. ULK1 functions as a protein complex by interacting with ATG13, RB1CC1/FIP200, and ATG101. How the ULK1 complex is regulated to trigger autophagy induction remains unclear. In this study, we have determined roles of Atg8-family proteins (ATG8s) in regulating ULK1 activity and autophagy. Using human cells depleted of each subfamily of ATG8, we found that the GABARAP subfamily positively regulates ULK1 activity and phagophore and autophagosome formation in response to starvation. In contrast, the LC3 subfamily negatively regulates ULK1 activity and phagophore formation. By reconstituting ATG8-depleted cells with individual ATG8 members, we identified GABARAP and GABARAPL1 as positive and LC3B and LC3C as negative regulators of ULK1 activity. To address the role of ATG8 binding to ULK1, we mutated the LIR of endogenous ULK1 to disrupt the ATG8-ULK1 interaction by genome editing. The mutation drastically reduced the activity of ULK1, autophagic degradation of SQSTM1, and phagophore formation in response to starvation. The mutation also suppressed the formation and turnover of autophagosomes in response to starvation. Similar to the mutation of the ULK1 LIR, disruption of the ATG13-ATG8 interaction suppressed ULK1 activity and autophagosome formation. In contrast, RB1CC1 did not show any specific binding to ATG8s, and mutation of its LIR did not affect ULK1 activity. Together, this study demonstrates differential binding and opposite regulation of the ULK1 complex by GABARAPs and LC3s, and an important role of the ULK1- and ATG13-ATG8 interactions in autophagy induction.<b>Abbreviations:</b> ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; ATG8: autophagy related 8; ATG13: autophagy related 13; ATG14: autophagy related 14; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16 like 1; ATG101: autophagy related 101; BAFA1: bafilomycin A<sub>1</sub>; BECN1: beclin 1; Cas9: CRISPR associated protein 9; CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; EBSS: earle's balanced salt solution; DAPI: 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GABARAPL1: GABA type A receptor-associated protein like 1; GABARAPL2: GABA type A receptor-associated protein like 2; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFP: green fluorescence protein; gRNA: guide RNA; KI: kinase inactive mutant; KO: knockout; LC3A: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha; LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; LC3C: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma; LIR: LC3-interacting region; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; PBS: phosphate buffered saline; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; qPCR: quantitative PCR; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; RPS6KB1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; SEM: standard error of the mean; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TALEN: transcription activator-like effector nuclease; TUBA: tubulin alpha; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WB: western blotting; WIPI2: WD repeat domain phosphoinositide interacting 2; WT: wild type.
Project description:The Atg8 autophagy proteins are essential for autophagosome biogenesis and maturation. The ?-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) Atg8 family is much less understood than the LC3 Atg8 family, and the relationship between the GABARAPs' previously identified roles as modulators of transmembrane protein trafficking and autophagy is not known. Here we report that GABARAPs recruit palmitoylated PI4KII?, a lipid kinase that generates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and binds GABARAPs, from the perinuclear Golgi region to autophagosomes to generate PI4P in situ. Depletion of either GABARAP or PI4KII?, or overexpression of a dominant-negative kinase-dead PI4KII? mutant, decreases autophagy flux by blocking autophagsome:lysosome fusion, resulting in the accumulation of abnormally large autophagosomes. The autophagosome defects are rescued by overexpressing PI4KII? or by restoring intracellular PI4P through "PI4P shuttling." Importantly, PI4KII?'s role in autophagy is distinct from that of PI4KIII? and is independent of subsequent phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate (PIP2) generation. Thus, GABARAPs recruit PI4KII? to autophagosomes, and PI4P generation on autophagosomes is critically important for fusion with lysosomes. Our results establish that PI4KII? and PI4P are essential effectors of the GABARAP interactome's fusion machinery.
Project description:Autophagy-related (Atg) proteins are eukaryotic factors participating in various stages of the autophagic process. Thus far 34 Atgs have been identified in yeast, including the key autophagic protein Atg8. The Atg8 gene family encodes ubiquitin-like proteins that share a similar structure consisting of two amino-terminal ? helices and a ubiquitin-like core. Atg8 family members are expressed in various tissues, where they participate in multiple cellular processes, such as intracellular membrane trafficking and autophagy. Their role in autophagy has been intensively studied. Atg8 proteins undergo a unique ubiquitin-like conjugation to phosphatidylethanolamine on the autophagic membrane, a process essential for autophagosome formation. Whereas yeast has a single Atg8 gene, many other eukaryotes contain multiple Atg8 orthologs. Atg8 genes of multicellular animals can be divided, by sequence similarities, into three subfamilies: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1LC3 or LC3), ?-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) and Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer of 16 kDa (GATE-16), which are present in sponges, cnidarians (such as sea anemones, corals and hydras) and bilateral animals. Although genes from all three subfamilies are found in vertebrates, some invertebrate lineages have lost the genes from one or two subfamilies. The amino terminus of Atg8 proteins varies between the subfamilies and has a regulatory role in their various functions. Here we discuss the evolution of Atg8 proteins and summarize the current view of their function in intracellular trafficking and autophagy from a structural perspective.
Project description:Autophagy maintains cellular health and homeostasis during stress by delivering cytosolic material captured by autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosome formation is complex: initiated by the recruitment of autophagy (Atg) proteins to the formation site, it is sustained by activation of Atg proteins to allow growth and closure of the autophagosome. How Atg proteins are translocated to the forming autophagosome is not fully understood. Transport of the ATG8 family member GABARAP from the centrosome occurs during starvation-induced autophagosome biogenesis, but how centrosomal proteins regulate GABARAP localization is unknown. We show that the centriolar satellite protein PCM1 regulates the recruitment of GABARAP to the pericentriolar material. In addition to residing on the pericentriolar material, GABARAP marks a subtype of PCM1-positive centriolar satellites. GABARAP, but not another ATG8 family member LC3B, binds directly to PCM1 through a canonical LIR motif. Loss of PCM1 results in destabilization of GABARAP, but not LC3B, through proteasomal degradation. GABARAP instability is mediated through the centriolar satellite E3 ligase Mib1, which interacts with GABARAP through its substrate-binding region and promotes K48-linked ubiquitination of GABARAP. Ubiquitination of GABARAP occurs in the N terminus, a domain associated with ATG8-family-specific functions during autophagosome formation, on residues absent in the LC3 family. Furthermore, PCM1-GABARAP-positive centriolar satellites colocalize with forming autophagosomes. PCM1 enhances GABARAP/WIPI2/p62-positive autophagosome formation and flux but has no significant effect on LC3B-positive autophagosome formation. These data suggest a mechanism for how centriolar satellites can specifically regulate an ATG8 ortholog, the centrosomal GABARAP reservoir, and centrosome-autophagosome crosstalk.
Project description:The retroviral restriction factor tripartite motif-containing 5? (Trim5?) acts during the early postentry stages of the retroviral life cycle to block infection by a broad range of retroviruses, disrupting reverse transcription and integration. The mechanism of this restriction is poorly understood, but it has recently been suggested to involve recruitment of components of the autophagy machinery, including members of the mammalian autophagy-related 8 (ATG8) family involved in targeting proteins to the autophagosome. To better understand the molecular details of this interaction, here we utilized analytical ultracentrifugation to characterize the binding of six ATG8 isoforms and determined the crystal structure of the Trim5? Bbox coiled-coil region in complex with one member of the mammalian ATG8 proteins, autophagy-related protein LC3 B (LC3B). We found that Trim5? binds all mammalian ATG8s and that, unlike the typical LC3-interacting region (LIR) that binds to mammalian ATG8s through a ?-strand motif comprising approximately six residues, LC3B binds to Trim5? via the ?-helical coiled-coil region. The orientation of the structure demonstrated that LC3B could be accommodated within a Trim5? assembly that can bind the retroviral capsid. However, mutation of the binding interface does not affect retroviral restriction. Comparison of the typical linear ?-strand LIR with our atypical helical LIR reveals a conservation of the presentation of residues that are required for the interaction with LC3B. This observation expands the range of LC3B-binding proteins to include helical binding motifs and demonstrates a link between Trim5? and components of the autophagosome.