Suppressor of fused regulates Gli activity through a dual binding mechanism.
ABSTRACT: The Hedgehog pathway drives proliferation and differentiation by activating the Gli/Ci family of zinc finger transcription factors. Gli/Ci proteins form Hedgehog signaling complexes with other signaling components, including the kinesin-like protein Costal-2, the serine-threonine kinase Fused, and Suppressor of Fused [Su(fu)]. In these complexes Gli/Ci proteins are regulated by cytoplasmic sequestration, phosphorylation, and proteolysis. Here we characterize structural and functional determinants of Su(fu) required for Gli regulation and show that Su(fu) contains at least two distinct domains: a highly conserved carboxy-terminal region required for binding to the amino-terminal ends of the Gli proteins and a unique amino-terminal domain that binds the carboxy-terminal tail of Gli1. While each domain is capable of binding to different Gli1 regions independently, interactions between Su(fu) and Gli1 at both sites are required for cytoplasmic tethering and repression of Gli1. Furthermore, we have solved the crystal structure of the amino-terminal domain of human Su(fu)(27-268) at 2.65 A resolution. This domain forms a concave pocket with a prominent acidic patch. Mutation at Asp(159) in the acidic patch disrupts Gli1 tethering and repression while not strongly disrupting binding, indicating that the amino-terminal domain of Su(fu) likely impacts Gli binding through a mechanism distinct from that for tethering and repression. These studies provide a structural basis for understanding the function of Su(fu).
Project description:Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, via the key signal transducer Smoothened (SMO) and Gli transcription factors, is essential for embryonic development and carcinogenesis. While the biological relevance of hedgehog signaling to cancer is well established, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which signaling transduction of this pathway occurs. Rab23 was discovered as a negative regulator of the Hh pathway through a mouse genetic study. Here we report that Rab23 directly associates with Su(Fu) and inhibits Gli1 function in a Su(Fu)-dependent manner. By confocal microscope and immunoprecipitation, we detected interaction between Rab23 and Su(Fu). Using Gli1-mediated reporter gene analysis, we found that Rab23 can suppress Gli1 transcriptional activity in wild type but not Su(Fu) null fibroblasts. Similarly, Rab23 expression reduced the nuclear localization of Gli1 in wild type but not Su(Fu) null fibroblast cells. Consistent with the GTPase motif in the protein, we showed that Rab23 has GTPase activity. The dominant negative form of Rab23 was unable to suppress Gli1-mediated transcriptional activity. Taken together, these data provide evidence to support that Rab23 negatively regulates Gli1 activity in a Su(Fu)-dependent manner.
Project description:The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is crucial for pattern formation during metazoan development. Although originially characterized in Drosophila, vertebrate homologs have been identified for several, but not all, genes in the pathway. Analysis of mutants in Drosophila demonstrates that Suppressor of fused [Su(fu)] interacts genetically with genes encoding proteins in the Hh signal transduction pathway, and its protein product physically interacts with two of the proteins in the Hh pathway. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of chicken and mouse homologs of Su(fu). The chick and mouse proteins are 27% identical and 53% similar at the amino acid level to the Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis proteins. Vertebrate Su(fu) is widely expressed in the developing embryo with higher levels in tissues that are known to be patterned by Hh signaling. The chick Su(fu) protein can physically interact with factors known to function in Hh signal transduction including the Drosophila serine/threonine kinase, Fused, and the vertebrate transcriptional regulators Gli1 and Gli3. This interaction may be significant for transcriptional regulation, as recombinant Su(fu) enhances the ability of Gli proteins to bind DNA in electrophoretic mobility shift assays.
Project description:Suppressor of fused (Su(fu)/Sufu), one of the most conserved components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, binds Ci/Gli transcription factors and impedes activation of target gene expression. In Drosophila, the Su(fu) mutation has a minimal phenotype, and we show here that Ci transcriptional activity in large part is regulated independently of Su(fu) by other pathway components. Mutant mice lacking Sufu in contrast show excessive pathway activity and die as embryos with patterning defects. Here we show that in cultured cells Hh stimulation can augment transcriptional activity of a Gli2 variant lacking Sufu interaction and, surprisingly, that regulation of Hh pathway targets is nearly normal in the neural tube of Sufu-/- mutant embryos that also lack Gli1 function. Some degree of Hh-induced transcriptional activation of Ci/Gli thus can occur independently of Sufu in both flies and mammals. We further note that Sufu loss can also reduce Hh induction of high-threshold neural tube fates, such as floor plate, suggesting a possible positive pathway role for Sufu.
Project description:Hedgehog (Hh) proteins signal by inhibiting the proteolytic processing of Ci/Gli family transcription factors and by increasing Ci/Gli-specific activity. When Hh is absent, phosphorylation of Ci/Gli triggers binding to SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes and consequent proteolysis. Here we show that multiple successively phosphorylated CK1 sites on Ci create an atypical extended binding site for the SCF substrate recognition component Slimb. GSK3 enhances binding primarily through a nearby region of Ci, which might contact an SCF component other than Slimb. Studies of Ci variants with altered CK1 and GSK3 sites suggest that the large number of phosphorylation sites that direct SCF(Slimb) binding confers a sensitive and graded proteolytic response to Hh, which collaborates with changes in Ci-specific activity to elicit a morphogenetic response. We also show that when Ci proteolysis is compromised, its specific activity is limited principally by Su(fu), and not by Cos2 cytoplasmic tethering or PKA phosphorylation.
Project description:FU is the human homologue of the Drosophila gene fused whose product fused is a positive regulator of the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci). Thus, FU may act as a regulator of the human counterparts of Ci, the GLI transcription factors. Since Ci and GLI are targets of Hedgehog signaling in development and morphogenesis, it is expected that FU plays an important role in Sonic, Desert and/or Indian Hedgehog induced cellular signaling.The FU gene was identified on chromosome 2q35 at 217.56 Mb and its exon-intron organization determined. The human developmental disorder Syndactyly type 1 (SD1) maps to this region on chromosome 2 and the FU coding region was sequenced using genomic DNA from an affected individual in a linked family. While no FU mutations were found, three single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. The expression pattern of FU was thoroughly investigated and all examined tissues express FU. It is also clear that different tissues express transcripts of different sizes and some tissues express more than one transcript. By means of nested PCR of specific regions in RT/PCR generated cDNA, it was possible to verify two alternative splicing events. This also suggests the existence of at least two additional protein isoforms besides the FU protein that has previously been described. This long FU and a much shorter isoform were compared for the ability to regulate GLI1 and GLI2. None of the FU isoforms showed any effects on GLI1 induced transcription but the long form can enhance GLI2 activity. Apparently FU did not have any effect on SUFU induced inhibition of GLI.The FU gene and its genomic structure was identified. FU is a candidate gene for SD1, but we have not identified a pathogenic mutation in the FU coding region in a family with SD1. The sequence information and expression analyses show that transcripts of different sizes are expressed and subjected to alternative splicing. Thus, mRNAs may contain different 5'UTRs and encode different protein isoforms. Furthermore, FU is able to enhance the activity of GLI2 but not of GLI1, implicating FU in some aspects of Hedgehog signaling.
Project description:In flies and mammals, extracellular Hedgehog (Hh) molecules alter cell fates and proliferation by regulating the levels and activities of Ci/Gli family transcription factors. How Hh-induced activation of transmembrane Smoothened (Smo) proteins reverses Ci/Gli inhibition by Suppressor of Fused (SuFu) and kinesin family protein (Cos2/Kif7) binding partners is a major unanswered question. Here we show that the Fused (Fu) protein kinase is activated by Smo and Cos2 via Fu- and CK1-dependent phosphorylation. Activated Fu can recapitulate a full Hh response, stabilizing full-length Ci via Cos2 phosphorylation and activating full-length Ci by antagonizing Su(fu) and by other mechanisms. We propose that Smo/Cos2 interactions stimulate Fu autoactivation by concentrating Fu at the membrane. Autoactivation primes Fu for additional CK1-dependent phosphorylation, which further enhances kinase activity. In this model, Smo acts like many transmembrane receptors associated with cytoplasmic kinases, such that pathway activation is mediated by kinase oligomerization and trans-phosphorylation.
Project description:The Ca<sup>2+</sup>-activated Cl<sup>-</sup> channel, anoctamin 1 (Ano1, also known as transmembrane protein 16A) contributes to intestinal pacemaking, fluid secretion, cellular excitability, and tissue development. The human <i>ANO1</i> promoter contains binding sites for the glioma-associated oncogene (Gli) proteins. We investigated regulation of <i>ANO1</i> transcription by Gli. <i>ANO1</i> promoter activity was determined using a luciferase reporter system. Binding and functional effects of Glis on <i>ANO1</i> transcription and expression were demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation, small interfering RNA knockdown, PCR, immunolabeling, and recordings of Ca<sup>2+</sup>-activated Cl<sup>-</sup> currents in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Results from previous genome-wide association studies were used to test <i>ANO1</i> promoter polymorphisms for association with disease. Gli1 and Gli2 bound to the promoter and repressed <i>ANO1</i> transcription. Repression depended on Gli binding to a site close to the <i>ANO1</i> transcriptional start site. Mutation of this site prevented Gli binding and transcriptional repression. Knockdown of Gli expression and inhibition of Gli activity increased expression of <i>ANO1</i> RNA and Ca<sup>2+</sup>-activated Cl<sup>-</sup> currents in HEK293 cells. A single-nucleotide polymorphism prevented Gli binding and showed association with irritable bowel syndrome. We conclude that Gli1 and Gli2 repress <i>ANO1</i> by a novel mechanism that is independent of Gli cleavage and that has a role in gastrointestinal function.-Mazzone, A., Gibbons, S. J., Eisenman, S. T., Strege, P. R., Zheng, T., D'Amato, M., Ordog, T., Fernandez-Zapico, M. E., Farrugia, G. Direct repression of anoctamin 1 (<i>ANO1</i>) gene transcription by Gli proteins.
Project description:The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway plays multiple roles during embryonic development and under pathological conditions. Although the core components of the Shh pathway are conserved, the regulation of signal transduction varies significantly among species and cell types. Protein kinases Ulk3 and Pka are involved in the Shh pathway as modulators of the activities of Gli transcription factors, which are the nuclear mediators of the signal. Here, we investigate the regulation and activities of two GLI1 isoforms, full-length GLI1 (GLI1FL) and GLI1?N. The latter protein lacks the first 128 amino acids including the conserved phosphorylation cluster and the binding motif for SUFU, the key regulator of GLI activity. Both GLI1 isoforms are co-expressed in all human cell lines analysed and possess similar DNA binding activity. ULK3 potentiates the transcriptional activity of both GLI1 proteins, whereas PKA inhibits the activity of GLI1?N, but not GLI1FL. In addition to its well-established role as a transcriptional activator, GLI1FL acts as a repressor by inhibiting transcription from the early promoters of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18). Additionally, compared to GLI1?N, GLI1FL is a more potent suppressor of replication of several HPV types. Altogether, our data show that the N-terminal part of GLI1FL is crucial for the realization of its full potential as a transcriptional regulator.
Project description:We recently described a sequence similarity between the small ruminant lentivirus surface unit glycoprotein (SU) gp135 and the second conserved region (C2) of the primate lentivirus gp120 which indicates a structural similarity between gp135 and the inner proximal domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 (I. Hötzel and W. P. Cheevers, Virus Res. 69:47-54, 2000). Here we found that the seven-amino-acid sequence of the gp120 strand beta 25 in the C5 region, which is also part of the inner proximal domain, was conserved in the SU of all lentiviruses in similar or identical positions relative to the carboxy terminus of SU. Sequences conforming to the gp135-gp120 consensus for beta-strand 5 in the C2 region, which is antiparallel to beta 25, were then sought in the SU of other lentiviruses and retroviruses. Except for the feline immunodeficiency virus, sequences similar to the gp120-gp135 consensus for beta 5 and part of the preceding strand beta 4 were present in the SU of all lentiviruses. This motif was highly conserved among strains of each lentivirus and included a strictly conserved cysteine residue in beta 4. In addition, the beta 4/beta 5 consensus motif was also present in the conserved carboxy-terminal region of all type A and B retroviral envelope surface glycoproteins analyzed. Thus, the antiparallel beta-strands 5 and 25 of gp120 form an SU surface highly conserved among the lentiviruses and at least partially conserved in the type A and B retroviral envelope glycoproteins.
Project description:To define the structure of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) env gene and characterize genetic changes which occur during antigenic variation, we sequenced the env genes of CAEV-63 and CAEV-Co, two antigenic variants of CAEV defined by serum neutralization. The deduced primary translation product of the CAEV env gene consists of a 60- to 80-amino-acid signal peptide followed by an amino-terminal surface protein (SU) and a carboxy-terminal transmembrane protein (TM) separated by an Arg-Lys-Lys-Arg cleavage site. The signal peptide cleavage site was verified by amino-terminal amino acid sequencing of native CAEV-63 SU. In addition, immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled CAEV-63 proteins by sera from goats immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the CAEV-63 env gene confirmed that antibodies induced by env-encoded recombinant proteins react specifically with native virion SU and TM. The env genes of CAEV-63 and CAEV-Co encode 28 conserved cysteines and 25 conserved potential N-linked glycosylation sites. Nucleotide sequence variability results in 62 amino acid changes and one deletion within the SU and 34 amino acid changes within the TM.