Sialic acid removal from dendritic cells improves antigen cross-presentation and boosts anti-tumor immune responses.
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) hold promise for anti-cancer immunotherapy. However, clinically, their efficiency is limited and novel strategies to improve DC-mediated anti-tumor responses are needed. Human DCs display high content of sialic acids, which inhibits their maturation and co-stimulation capacity. Here, we aimed to understand whether exogenous desialylation of DCs improves their anti-tumor immunity. Compared to fully sialylated DCs, desialylated human DCs loaded with tumor-antigens showed enhanced ability to induce autologous T cells to proliferate, to secrete Th1 cytokines, and to specifically induce tumor cell apoptosis. Desialylated DCs showed an increased expression of MHC-I and -II, co-stimulatory molecules and an augmented secretion of IL-12. Desialylated HLA-A*02:01 DCs pulsed with gp100 peptides displayed enhanced peptide presentation through MHC-I, resulting in higher activation ofgp100280-288 specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. Desialylated murine DCs also exhibited increased MHC and co-stimulatory molecules and higher antigen cross-presentation via MHC-I. These DCs showed higher ability to activate antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and to specifically induce tumor cell apoptosis. Collectively, our data demonstrates that desialylation improves DCs' ability to elicit T cell-mediated anti-tumor activity, due to increased MHC-I expression and higher antigen presentation via MHC-I. Sialidase treatment of DCs may represent a technology to improve the efficacy of antigen loaded-DC-based vaccines for anti-cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:Maturation of human Dendritic Cells (DCs) is characterized by increased expression of antigen presentation molecules, and overall decreased levels of sialic acid at cell surface. Here, we aimed to identify sialylated proteins at DC surface and comprehend their role and modulation. Mass spectrometry analysis of DC's proteins, pulled down by a sialic acid binding lectin, identified molecules of the major human histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), known as human leucocyte antigen (HLA). After desialylation, DCs showed significantly higher reactivity with antibodies specific for properly folded MHC-I-?2-microglobulin complex and for ?2-microglobulin but showed significant lower reactivity with an antibody specific for free MHC-I heavy chain. Similar results for antibody reactivities were observed for TAP2-deficient lymphoblastoid T2 cells, which express HLA-A*02:01. Using fluorescent peptide specifically fitting the groove of HLA-A*02:01, instead of antibody staining, also showed higher peptide binding on desialylated cells, confirming higher surface expression of MHC-I complex. A decay assay showed that desialylation doubled the half-life of MHC-I molecules at cell surface in both DCs and T2 cells. The biological impact of DC´s desialylation was evaluated in co-cultures with autologous T cells, showing higher number and earlier immunological synapses, and consequent significantly increased production of IFN-? by T cells. In summary, sialic acid content modulates the expression and stability of complex MHC-I, which may account for the improved DC-T synapses.
Project description:Antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) stimulates naive CD4+ T cells, triggering T cell activation and the adaptive arm of the immune response. Newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules accumulate at MHC-II-enriched endosomal compartments and are transported to the plasma membrane of DCs after binding to antigenic peptides to enable antigen presentation. In DCs, MHC-II molecules are included in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). However, the role of tetraspanin CD9 in these processes remains largely undefined. Here, we show that CD9 regulates the T cell-stimulatory capacity of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs), without affecting antigen presentation by fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L)-dependent BMDCs. CD9 knockout (KO) GM-CSF-dependent BMDCs, which resemble monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs), induce lower levels of T cell activation than wild-type DCs, and this effect is related to a reduction in MHC-II surface expression in CD9-deficient MoDCs. Importantly, MHC-II targeting to the plasma membrane is largely impaired in immature CD9 KO MoDCs, in which MHC-II remains arrested in acidic intracellular compartments enriched in LAMP-1 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1), and MHC-II internalization is also blocked. Moreover, CD9 participates in MHC-II trafficking in mature MoDCs, regulating its endocytosis and recycling. Our results demonstrate that the tetraspanin CD9 specifically regulates antigenic presentation in MoDCs through the regulation of MHC-II intracellular trafficking.
Project description:Dendritic cell (DC)-mediated presentation of MHC class I (MHC-I)/peptide complexes is a crucial first step in the priming of CTL responses, and the cytoplasmic tail of MHC-I plays an important role in modulating this process. Several species express a splice variant of the MHC-I tail that deletes exon 7-encoding amino acids (?7), including a conserved serine phosphorylation site. Previously, it has been shown that ?7 MHC-I molecules demonstrate extended DC surface half-lives, and that mice expressing ?7-K(b) generate significantly augmented CTL responses to viral challenge. Herein, we show that ?7-D(b)-expressing DCs stimulated significantly more proliferation and much higher cytokine secretion by melanoma antigen-specific (Pmel-1) T cells. Moreover, in combination with adoptive Pmel-1 T-cell transfer, ?7-D(b) DCs were superior to WT-D(b) DCs at stimulating anti-tumor responses against established B16 melanoma tumors, significantly extending mouse survival. Human DCs engineered to express ?7-HLA-A*0201 showed similarly enhanced CTL stimulatory capacity. Further studies demonstrated impaired lateral membrane movement and clustering of human ?7-MHC-I/peptide complexes, resulting in significantly increased bioavailability of MHC-I/peptide complexes for specific CD8+ T cells. Collectively, these data suggest that targeting exon 7-encoded MHC-I cytoplasmic determinants in DC vaccines has the potential to increase CD8+ T-cell stimulatory capacity and substantially improve their clinical efficacy.
Project description:Subvisible proteinaceous particles which are present in all therapeutic protein formulations are in the focus of intense discussions between health authorities, academics and biopharmaceutical companies in the context of concerns that such particles could promote unwanted immunogenicity via anti-drug antibody formation. In order to provide further understanding of the subject, this study closely examines the specific biological effects proteinaceous particles may exert on dendritic cells (DCs) as the most efficient antigen-presenting cell population crucial for the initiation of the adaptive immune response. Two different model IgG antibodies were subjected to three different types of exaggerated physical stress to generate subvisible particles in far greater concentrations than the ones typical for the currently marketed biotherapeutical antibodies. The aggregated samples were used in in vitro biological assays in order to interrogate the early DC-driven events that initiate CD4 T-cell dependent humoral adaptive immune responses--peptide presentation capacity and co-stimulatory activity of DCs. Most importantly, antigen presentation was addressed with a unique approach called MHC-associated Peptide Proteomics (MAPPs), which allows for identifying the sequences of HLA-DR associated peptides directly from human dendritic cells. The experiments demonstrated that highly aggregated solutions of two model mAbs generated under controlled conditions can induce activation of human monocyte-derived DCs as indicated by upregulation of typical maturation markers including co-stimulatory molecules necessary for CD4 T-cell activation. Additional data suggest that highly aggregated proteins could induce in vitro T-cell responses. Intriguingly, strong aggregation-mediated changes in the pattern and quantity of antigen-derived HLA-DR associated peptides presented on DCs were observed, indicating a change in protein processing and presentation. Increasing the amounts of subvisible proteinaceous particles correlated very well with the pronounced increase in the peptide number and clusters presented in the context of class II HLA-DR molecules, suggesting a major involvement of a mass-action mechanism of altering the presentation.
Project description:CD8+ T cells mediate antigen-specific immune responses that can induce rejection of solid tumors. In this process, dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to take up tumor antigens, which are processed into peptides and loaded onto MHC-I molecules, a process called "cross-presentation." Neither the actual contribution of cross-presentation to antitumor immune responses nor the intracellular pathways involved in vivo are clearly established because of the lack of experimental tools to manipulate this process. To develop such tools, we generated mice bearing a conditional DC-specific mutation in the sec22b gene, a critical regulator of endoplasmic reticulum-phagosome traffic required for cross-presentation. DCs from these mice show impaired cross-presentation ex vivo and defective cross-priming of CD8+ T cell responses in vivo. These mice are also defective for antitumor immune responses and are resistant to treatment with anti-PD-1. We conclude that Sec22b-dependent cross-presentation in DCs is required to initiate CD8+ T cell responses to dead cells and to induce effective antitumor immune responses during anti-PD-1 treatment in mice.
Project description:Cross-presentation is the process by which professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) (B cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages) present endocytosed antigens (Ags) via MHC-I to CD8+ T cells. This process is crucial for induction of adaptive immune responses against tumors and infected cells. The pathways and cellular compartments involved in cross-presentation are unresolved and controversial. Among the cells with cross-presenting capacity, DCs are the most efficient, which was proposed to depend on prevention of endosomal acidification to block degradation of the epitopes. Contrary to this view, we show in this report that some cargoes induce strong endosomal acidification following uptake by human DCs, while others not. Moreover, processing of the tumor-associated antigen HER2/neu delivered in nanoparticles (NP) for cross-presentation of the epitope HER2/neu369-377 on HLA-A2 depended on endosomal acidification and cathepsin activity as well as proteasomes, and newly synthesized HLA class I. However, the HLA-A*0201/HER2/neu369-377 complexes were not found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) nor in endolysosomes but in hitherto not described vesicles. The data thus indicate spatial separation of antigen processing and loading of MHC-I for cross-presentation: antigen processing occurs in the uptake compartment and the cytosol whereas MHC-I loading with peptide takes place in a distinct subcellular compartment. The findings further elucidate the cellular pathways involved in the cross-presentation of a full-length, clinically relevant tumor-associated antigen by human DCs, and the impact of the vaccine formulation on antigen processing and CD8+ T cell induction.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are key activators of cellular immune responses through their capacity to induce naïve T cells and sustained effector T cell responses. This capacity is a function of their superior efficiency of antigen presentation via MHC class I and class II molecules, and the expression of co-stimulatory cell surface molecules and cytokines. Maturation of DCs is induced by microbial factors via pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines or cognate interaction with CD4(+) T cells. Here we show that, unexpectedly, the PanDR helper T cell epitope PADRE, a generic T helper cell antigen presented by a large fraction of HLA-DR alleles, when delivered in particle-bound form induced maturation of human DCs. The DCs that received the particle-bound PADRE displayed all features of fully mature DCs, such as high expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, CD83, the MHC-II molecule HLA-DR, secretion of high levels of the biologically active IL-12 (IL-12p70) and induction of vigorous proliferation of naïve CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, the maturation of DCs induced by particle-bound PADRE was shown to involve sphingosine kinase, calcium signaling from internal sources and downstream signaling through the MAP kinase and the p72syk pathways, and finally activation of the transcription factor NF-?B. Based on our findings, we propose that particle-bound PADRE may be used as a DC activator in DC-based vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The manipulation of dendritic cells (DCs) for cancer vaccination has not reached its full potential, despite the revolution in cancer immunotherapy. DCs are fundamental for CD8+ T cell activation, which relies on cross-presentation of exogenous antigen on MHC-I and can be fostered by immunogenic cancer cell death. Translational and clinical research has focused on in vitro-generated monocyte-derived DCs, while the vaccination efficacy of natural conventional type 1?DCs (cDC1s), which are associated with improved anti-tumor immunity and specialize on antigen cross-presentation, remains unknown. METHODS:We isolated primary spleen mouse cDC1s and established a protocol for fast ex vivo activation and antigen-loading with lysates of tumor cells that underwent immunogenic cell death by UV irradiation. Natural tumor antigen-loaded cDC1s were transferred and their potential for induction of endogenous CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses in vivo, cancer prevention and therapy were assessed in three grafted cancer models. Further, we tested the efficacy of natural cDC1 vaccination in combination and comparison with anti-PD-1 treatment in two "wildtype" tumor models not expressing exogenous antigens. RESULTS:Herein, we reveal that primary mouse cDC1s ex vivo loaded with dead tumor cell-derived antigen are activated and induce strong CD8+ T cell responses from the endogenous repertoire upon adoptive transfer in vivo through tumor antigen cross-presentation. Notably, cDC1-based vaccines enhance tumor infiltration by cancer-reactive CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and halt progression of engrafted cancer models, including tumors that are refractory to anti-PD-1 treatment. Moreover, combined tumor antigen-loaded primary cDC1 and anti-PD-1 therapy had strong synergistic effects in a PD-1 checkpoint inhibition susceptible cancer model. CONCLUSIONS:This preclinical proof-of-principle study is first to support the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapy with syngeneic dead tumor cell antigen-loaded mouse cDC1s, the equivalents of the human dendritic cell subset that correlates with beneficial prognosis of cancer patients. Our data pave the way for translation of cDC1-based cancer treatments into the clinic when isolation of natural human cDC1s becomes feasible.
Project description:Cancer vaccinations sensitize the immune system to recognize tumor-specific antigens de novo or boosting preexisting immune responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are regarded as the most potent antigen presenting cells (APCs) for induction of (cancer) antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) used as delivery vehicle have been shown to improve anti-tumor responses. This study aimed at exploring the potential of CNPs as antigen delivery system by assessing activation and expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells by DCs and subsequent T cell-mediated lysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. As model antigen the ovalbumin-derived peptide SIINFEKL was chosen. Using imaging cytometry, intracellular uptake of FITC-labelled CNPs of three different sizes and qualities (90/10, 90/20 and 90/50) was demonstrated in DCs and in pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages to different extents. While larger particles (90/50) impaired survival of all APCs, small CNPs (90/10) were not toxic for DCs. Internalization of SIINFEKL-loaded but not empty 90/10-CNPs promoted a pro-inflammatory phenotype of DCs indicated by elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment of murine DC2.4 cells with SIINFEKL-loaded 90/10-CNPs led to a marked MHC-related presentation of SIINFEKL and enabled DC2.4 cells to potently activate SIINFEKL-specific CD8+ OT-1 T cells finally leading to effective lysis of the PDAC cell line Panc-OVA. Overall, our study supports the suitability of CNPs as antigen vehicle to induce potent anti-tumor immune responses by activation and expansion of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) process and present self and foreign antigens to induce tolerance or immunity. In vitro models suggest that induction of immunity is controlled by regulating the presentation of antigen, but little is known about how DCs control antigen presentation in vivo. To examine antigen processing and presentation in vivo we specifically targeted antigens to the two major subsets of DCs using chimeric monoclonal antibodies. Unlike CD8+ DCs that express the cell surface protein CD205, CD8- DCs, which are positive for the 33D1 antigen, are specialized for presentation on MHC class II. This difference in antigen processing is intrinsic to the DC subsets and associated with increased expression of proteins associated with MHC processing. Experiment Overall Design: This study includes data from cell sort purified dendritic cells, B cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells. The genearray was performed to identify the transmembrane molecule recognized by the antibody 33D1. The antibody 33D1 binds specifically to CD8-CD11cHigh DCs in the spleen. Therfore the data set was reduced in this way that all molecules that are expressed either in CD8=CD11cHigh DCs, B cells and T cells were diminished of the CD8+CD11cHigh DC data set. This Genearray was also used to analyze MHC class I and MHC class II associated moelcules as the DC subsets differ in the antigen presentation. Each Series consists of 3 individuall samples