Effect of a Long-Term Physical Activity Intervention on Resting Pulse Rate in Older Persons: Results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To assess the utility of a long-term physical activity (PA) intervention for reducing resting pulse rate (RPR) in older persons. DESIGN:Community. SETTING:Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study. PARTICIPANTS:Individuals aged 70 to 89 (N = 1,635, 67.2% women) were randomized to a moderate-intensity PA intervention (n = 818) or a health education-based successful aging (SA) intervention (n = 817). MEASUREMENTS:RPR was recorded at baseline and 6, 18, and 30 months. Longitudinal changes in RPR of intervention groups were compared using a mixed-effects analysis of covariance model for repeated-measure outcomes, generating least squares means with standard errors (SEs) or 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:Mean duration of the study was 2.6 years (median 2.7 years, interquartile range 2.3-3.1 years). The average effect of the PA intervention on RPR over the course of the study period was statistically significant but clinically small (average intervention difference = 0.84 beats/min; 95% CI = 0.17-1.51; Paverage = .01), with the most pronounced effect observed at 18 months (PA, 66.5 beats/min (SE 0.32 beats/min); SA, 67.8 beats/min (SE 0.32 beats/min); difference = 1.37 beats/min, 95% CI = 0.48-2.26 beats/min). The relationship became somewhat weaker and was not statistically significant at 30 months. There were no significant differences between several prespecified subgroups. CONCLUSION:A long-term moderate-intensity PA program was associated with a small and clinically insignificant slowing of RPR in older persons. Whether PA can deliver a beneficial reduction in RPR requires further examination in older adults.
Project description:Elevated resting pulse rate (RPR) is a well-recognized risk factor for adverse outcomes. Epidemiological evidence supports the beneficial effects of regular exercise for lowering RPR, but studies are mainly confined to persons younger than 65 years. We set out to evaluate the utility of a physical activity (PA) intervention for slowing RPR among older adults.A total of 424 seniors (ages 70-89 years) were randomized to a moderate intensity PA intervention or an education-based "successful aging" health program. Resting pulse rate was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Longitudinal differences in RPR were evaluated between treatment groups using generalized estimating equation models, reporting unstandardized ? coefficients with robust SEs.Increased frequency and duration of aerobic training were observed for the PA group at 6 and 12 months as compared with the successful aging group (P < .001). In both groups, RPR remained unchanged over the course of the 12-month study period (P = .67). No significant improvement was observed (? [SE] = 0.58 [0.88]; P = .51) for RPR when treatment groups were compared using the generalized estimating equation method. Comparable results were found after omitting participants with a pacemaker, cardiac arrhythmia, or who were receiving ?-blockers.Twelve months of moderate intensity aerobic training did not improve RPR among older adults. Additional studies are needed to determine whether PA of longer duration and/or greater intensity can slow RPR in older persons.
Project description:Coupled with an aging society, the rising obesity prevalence is likely to increase the future burden of physical disability. We set out to determine whether obesity modified the effects of a physical activity (PA) intervention designed to prevent mobility disability in older adults. Older adults at risk for disability (N = 424, age range: 70-88 years) were randomized to a 12 month PA intervention involving moderate intensity aerobic, strength, balance, and flexibility exercise (150 min per week) or a successful aging (SA) intervention involving weekly educational workshops. Individuals were stratified by obesity using a BMI >or=30 (n = 179). Mobility function was assessed as usual walking speed over 400 m and scores on a short physical performance battery (SPPB), which includes short distance walking, balance tests, and chair rises. Over 12 months of supervised training, the attendance and total amount of walking time was similar between obese and nonobese subjects and no weight change was observed. Nonobese participants in the PA group had significant increases in 400-m walking speed (+1.5%), whereas their counterparts in the SA group declined (-4.3%). In contrast, obese individuals declined regardless of their assigned intervention group (PA: -3.1%; SA: -4.9%). SPPB scores, however, increased following PA in both obese (PA: +13.5%; SA: +2.5%) and nonobese older adults (PA: +18.6%; SA: +6.1%). A moderate intensity PA intervention improves physical function in older adults, but the positive benefits are attenuated with obesity.
Project description:Background:Because chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with muscle wasting, older adults with CKD are likely to have physical function deficits. Physical activity can improve these deficits, but whether CKD attenuates the benefits is unknown. Our objective was to determine if CKD modified the effect of a physical activity intervention in older adults. Methods:This is an exploratory analysis of the LIFE-P study, which compared a 12-month physical activity program (PA) to a successful aging education program (SA) in older adults. CKD was defined as a baseline eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We examined the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included serious adverse events (SAE) and adherence to intervention frequency. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, CKD, intervention, site, visit, baseline SPPB, and interactions of intervention and visit and of intervention, visit, and baseline CKD. Results:The sample included 368 participants. CKD was present in 105 (28.5%) participants with a mean eGFR of 49.2 ± 8.1 mL/min/1.73 m2. Mean SPPB was 7.38 ± 1.41 in CKD participants; 7.59 ± 1.44 in those without CKD (p = 0.20). For CKD participants in PA, 12-month SPPBs increased to 8.90 (95% CI 8.32, 9.47), while PA participants without CKD increased to 8.40 (95% CI 8.01, 8.79, p = 0.43). For CKD participants in SA, 12-month SPPBs increased to 7.67 (95% CI 7.07, 8.27), while participants without CKD increased to 8.12 (95% CI 7.72, 8.52, p = 0.86). Interaction between CKD and intervention was non-significant (p = 0.88). Number and type of SAEs were not different between CKD and non-CKD participants (all p > 0.05). In PA, adherence for CKD participants was 65.5 ± 25.4%, while for those without CKD was 74.0 ± 22.2% (p = 0.12). Conclusion:Despite lower adherence, older adults with CKD likely derive clinically meaningful benefits from physical activity with no apparent impact on safety, compared to those without CKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study reports the accelerometer-based physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in hypertensive older adults. METHODS:Thirty-five hypertensive older adults were included in this observational study. Accelerometer-based PA and SB measures were assessed before (January to March 2020) and during (June 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. Linear mixed models were used to assess within-group changes in PA and SB measures, adjusted by accelerometer wear time. RESULTS:Before COVID-19 pandemic participants presented: 5809 steps/day (SE = 366), 303.1 min/day (SE = 11.9) of light PA, 15.5 min/day (SE = 2.2) of moderate-vigorous PA, and 653.0 min/day (SE = 12.6) of SB. During COVID-19 pandemic there was a decrease in steps/day (? = -886 steps/day, SE = 361, p = 0.018), in moderate-vigorous PA (? = -2.8 min/day, SE = 2.4, p = 0.018), and a trend in light PA (? = -26.6 min/day, SE = 13.4, p = 0.053). In addition, SB increased during the COVID-19 pandemic (? = 29.6 min/day, SE = 13.4, p = 0.032). The magnitude of changes was greater on the weekend, mainly for steps/day (? = -1739 steps/day, SE = 424, p < 0.001) and the SB pattern (more time spent in bouts of ?10 and 30 min, less breaks/day and breaks/h). CONCLUSIONS:The COVID-19 pandemic may elicit unhealthy changes in movement behavior in hypertensive older adults. Lower PA, higher and more prolonged SB on the weekend are the main features of the behavioral changes.
Project description:eHealth interventions aimed at improving physical activity (PA) can reach large populations with few resources and demands on the population as opposed to centre-based interventions. Active Plus is a proven effective computer-tailored PA intervention for the older adult population focusing on PA in daily life. This manuscript describes the effects of the Active Plus intervention (N = 260) on PA of older adults with chronic illnesses (OACI), compared to a waiting list control group (N = 325). It was part of a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effects of the Active Plus intervention on cognitive functioning. OACI (?65 years) with at least one chronic illness were allocated to one of the conditions. Intervention group participants received PA advice. Baseline and follow-up measurements were assessed after 6 and 12 months. Intervention effects on objectively measured light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) min/week were analysed with multilevel linear mixed-effects models adjusted for the clustered design. Intervention effects on self-reported MVPA min/week on common types of PA were analysed with two-part generalized linear mixed-effects models adjusted for the clustered design. The dropout rate was 19.1% after 6 months and 25.1% after 12 months. Analyses showed no effects on objectively measured PA. Active Plus increased the likelihood to perform self-reported cycling and gardening at six months and participants who cycled increased their MVPA min/week of cycling. Twelve months after baseline the intervention increased the likelihood to perform self-reported walking and participants who cycled at 12 months increased their MVPA min/week of cycling. Subgroup analyses showed that more vulnerable participants (higher degree of impairment, age or body mass index) benefitted more from the intervention on especially the lower intensity PA outcomes. In conclusion, Active Plus only increased PA behaviour to a limited extent in OACI 6 and 12 months after baseline measurements. The Active Plus intervention may yet be not effective enough by itself in OACI. A blended approach, where this eHealth intervention and face-to-face contact are combined, is advised to improve the effects of Active Plus on PA in this target group.
Project description:Limitations in mobility are common among older adults with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic disorders and have profound effects on health and well-being. With the growing population of older adults in the United States, effective and scalable public health approaches are needed to address this problem. Our goal was to determine the effects of a physical activity and weight loss intervention on 18-month change in mobility among overweight or obese older adults in poor cardiovascular health.The study design was a translational, randomized controlled trial of physical activity (PA) and weight loss (WL) on mobility in overweight or obese older adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or at risk for CVD. The study was conducted within the community infrastructure of Cooperative Extension Centers. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 interventions: PA, WL + PA, or a successful aging (SA) education control arm. The primary outcome was time to complete a 400-m walk in seconds (400MWT).A significant treatment effect (P = .002) and follow-up testing revealed that the WL + PA group improved their 400MWT (adjusted mean [SE], 323.3 [3.7] seconds) compared with both PA (336.3 [3.9] seconds; P = .02) and SA (341.3 [3.9] seconds; P < .001). Participants with poorer mobility at baseline benefited the most (P < .001).Existing community infrastructures can be effective in delivering lifestyle interventions to enhance mobility in older adults in poor cardiovascular health with deficits in mobility; attention should be given to intervening on both weight and sedentary behavior since weight loss is critical to long-term improvement in mobility.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00119795.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the efficacy of a small change behavioral weight loss intervention with or without a positive affect/self-affirmation (PA/SA) component on weight loss at 12 months.<h4>Methods</h4>Black and Hispanic adults (N?=?405) with body mass index 25-50 kg/m<sup>2</sup> selected one of ten small change eating strategies and a physical activity goal, randomly with/without PA/SA. Participants were followed by community health workers at set intervals (weekly in months 1-3; biweekly in months 4-9; once monthly in months 10-12).<h4>Results</h4>There was no difference in weight loss at 12 months between participants in the small change approach alone (1.1%) versus the small change PA/SA intervention (1.2%). During treatment, 9% of participants lost at least 7% of their initial body weight. Participants who reported more interval life events had a lower likelihood of losing weight (P?<?0.0001). However, those randomized to the small change PA/SA intervention gained less weight (+0.3% vs. 2.3% gain; P <?0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The small change PA/SA intervention did not lead to a significant difference in weight loss in comparison to the small change approach alone. It did, however, decrease the negative impact of psychosocial stressors on weight gain among participants with more interval life events.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a physical activity (PA)-focused behavioural intervention during and after pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on PA levels (primary aim), health-related outcomes and self-efficacy (secondary aims) of patients with COPD. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG received a PA-focused behavioural intervention during PR (3 months) and follow-up support (3 months). The CG received PR (3 months). Daily PA was collected: number of steps; time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), total PA and sedentary activities (SA). Secondary outcomes comprised exercise capacity, muscle strength, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-efficacy. Measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Compared with the CG, the EG improved the number of steps (p = 0.006) and time spent in MVPA (p = 0.007), total PA (p = 0.014) and SA (p = 0.018) at 3 months. Differences were maintained after follow-up support (0.025 ? p ? 0.040), except for SA (p = 0.781). Exercise capacity, muscle strength and HRQOL were increased at 3 and 6 months (p ? 0.002) with no between-group differences (0.148 ? p ? 0.987). No changes were observed in self-efficacy (p = 0.899). A PA-focused behavioural intervention during and after PR may improve patients' PA levels. Further research is warranted to assess the sustainability of the findings.
Project description:Lack of physical activity (PA) is a known risk factor for many health conditions. The workplace is a setting often used to promote activity and health. We investigated the effectiveness of an intervention on PA and productivity-related outcomes in an occupational setting.We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 12?months duration with two 1:1 allocated parallel groups of insurance company employees. Eligibility criteria included permanent employment and absence of any condition that risked the participant's health during PA. Subjects in the intervention group monitored their daily PA with an accelerometer, set goals, had access to an online service to help them track their activity levels, and received counseling via telephone or web messages for 12?months. The control group received the results of a fitness test and an information leaflet on PA at the beginning of the study. The intervention's aim was to increase PA, improve work productivity, and decrease sickness absence. Primary outcomes were PA (measured as MET minutes per week), work productivity (quantity and quality of work; QQ index), and sickness absence (SA) days at 12?months. Participants were assigned to groups using block randomization with a computer-generated scheme. The study was not blinded.There were 544 randomized participants, of which 521 were included in the analysis (64% female, mean age 43?years). At 12?months, there was no significant difference in physical activity levels between the intervention group (n?=?264) and the control group (n?=?257). The adjusted mean difference was -206 MET min/week [95% Bayesian credible interval -540 to 128; negative values favor control group]. There was also no significant difference in the QQ index (-0.5 [-4.4 to 3.3]) or SA days (0.0 [-1.2 to 0.9]). Of secondary outcomes, body weight (0.5?kg [0.0 to 1.0]) and percentage of body fat (0.6% [0.2% to 1.1%]) were slightly higher in the intervention group. An exploratory subgroup analysis revealed no subgroups in which the intervention affected physical activity. No adverse events were reported.The intervention was not found effective, and this study does not provide support for the effectiveness of the workplace PA intervention used here.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00994565.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) for older adults are well known. However, few older adults reach the health guideline of 150 min per week of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Electronic health (eHealth) interventions are effective in increasing PA levels in older adults in the short term but, rarely, intermediate-term effects after a period without the support of a website or an app have been examined. Furthermore, current theory-based interventions focus mainly on preintentional determinants, although postintentional determinants should also be included to increase the likelihood of successful behavior change. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate the effect of the theory-based eHealth intervention, MyPlan 2.0, focusing on pre- and postintentional determinants on both accelerometer-based and self-reported PA levels in older Belgian adults in the short and intermediate term. METHODS:This study was a randomized controlled trial with three data collection points: baseline (N=72), post (five weeks after baseline; N=65), and follow-up (three months after baseline; N=65). The study took place in Ghent, and older adults (aged ?65 years) were recruited through a combination of random and convenience sampling. At all the time points, participants were visited by the research team. Self-reported domain-specific PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and accelerometers were used to objectively assess PA. Participants in the intervention group got access to the eHealth intervention, MyPlan 2.0, and used it independently for five consecutive weeks after baseline. MyPlan 2.0 was based on the self-regulatory theory and focused on both pre- and postintentional processes to increase PA. Multilevel mixed-models repeated measures analyses were performed in R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing). RESULTS:Significant (borderline) positive intervention effects were found for accelerometer-based MVPA (baseline-follow-up: intervention group +5 min per day and control group -5 min per day; P=.07) and for accelerometer-based total PA (baseline-post: intervention group +20 min per day and control group -24 min per day; P=.05). MyPlan 2.0 was also effective in increasing self-reported PA, mainly in the intermediate term. A positive intermediate-term intervention effect was found for leisure-time vigorous PA (P=.02), moderate household-related PA (P=.01), and moderate PA in the garden (P=.04). Negative intermediate-term intervention effects were found for leisure-time moderate PA (P=.01) and cycling for transport (P=.07). CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that theory-based eHealth interventions focusing on pre- and postintentional determinants have the potential for behavior change in older adults. If future studies including larger samples and long-term follow-up can confirm and clarify these findings, researchers and practitioners should be encouraged to use a self-regulation perspective for eHealth intervention development. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03194334; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03783611.