Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 in ovarian granulosa and theca cells of cattle.
ABSTRACT: To determine the mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) alters granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell proliferation, cell cycle proteins that regulate progression through G1 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin D1 (CCND1) and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4; CCND1's catalytic partner), were evaluated. Ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir, GC were harvested from small (1-5 mm) and large (8-22 mm) follicles, and TC were harvested from large follicles. GC and TC were plated in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum followed by various treatments in serum-free medium. Treatment with 30 ng/mL of either FGF9 or IGF1 significantly increased GC numbers and when combined, synergized to further increase GC numbers by threefold. Abundance of CCND1 and CDK4 mRNA in TC and GC were quantified via real-time PCR. Alone and in combination with IGF1, FGF9 significantly increased CCND1 mRNA expression in both GC and TC. Western blotting revealed that CCND1 protein levels were increased by FGF9 in TC after 6 h and 12 h of treatment, but CDK4 protein was not affected. A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway inhibitor, U0126, significantly reduced FGF9-induced CCND1 mRNA expression to basal levels. For the first time we show that CCND1 mRNA expression is increased by FGF9 in bovine TC and GC, and that FGF9 likely uses the MAPK pathway to induce CCND1 mRNA production in bovine TC.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) has been suggested to act as an antidifferentiation factor in cattle by reducing steroidogenesis and increasing cell proliferation in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cells. The objective of this study was to characterize FGF9 mRNA abundance in GC and TC during development of dominant follicles in dairy cattle. Estrous cycles of nonlactating dairy cattle were synchronized, and ovaries were collected on either d 3 to 4 (n=8) or 5 to 6 (n=8) postovulation for GC and TC RNA extraction from small (1-5mm), medium (5.1-8mm), and large (8.1-18mm) follicles for PCR analysis. The FGF9 mRNA abundance was greater in GC than in TC. In GC, FGF9 mRNA abundance was greater in small, medium, and large estrogen-inactive [i.e., concentrations of estradiol (E2)<progesterone (P4)] follicles than in large E2-active (i.e., concentrations of E2>P4) follicles at both early (d 3-4) and late (d 5-6) growing phases of first dominant follicle. Abundance of FGF9 mRNA increased in medium-sized follicles from early to late growing phase of the dominant follicle. In TC, FGF9 mRNA abundance was greater in large E2-inactive follicles than in large E2-active follicles on d 3 to 4 postovulation; no significant differences in TC FGF9 mRNA existed among follicle types on d 5 to 6 postovulation. Correlations among levels of follicular fluid hormones and FGF9 mRNA levels revealed significant negative correlations between GC FGF9 mRNA abundance and follicular fluid E2 (r=-0.68), free IGF-1 (r=-0.63), and E2-to-P4 ratio (r=-0.58). In summary, abundance of FGF9 mRNA in GC and TC increases in medium-sized follicles during development of dominant follicles and is less in dominant E2-active than subordinate E2-inactive follicles, suggesting that FGF9 signaling could contribute to normal follicle development and steroidogenesis in dairy cattle.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) stimulates angiogenesis and is associated with increased vascularity in ovarian follicles of cattle. The objectives of this study were to investigate the developmental and hormonal regulation of VEGFA expression in ovarian granulosa and theca cells (TC) of cattle. Bovine ovaries were collected from a local slaughterhouse and granulosa cells (GC) and TC were collected from small (SM; 1 to 5 mm) and large (LG; 8 to 20 mm) follicles. Cells were collected fresh or cultured in serum-free medium and treated with various factors that regulate angiogenesis and follicular development. RNA was collected for analysis of VEGFA mRNA abundance via quantitative PCR. In SM-follicle GC (SMGC), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and FSH decreased (P < 0.05) VEGFA mRNA abundance by 30 to 46%, whereas in LG-follicle GC (LGGC), PGE2 and FSH were without effect (P > 0.10). In SMGC, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sonic hedgehog (SHH), and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) decreased (P < 0.05) VEGFA expression by 30 to 40%. Fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9) and estradiol (E2) were without effect (P > 0.10) on VEGFA mRNA in both SMGC and LGGC, whereas progesterone increased (P < 0.05) VEGFA mRNA in LGGC but had no effect in LGTC. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4), LH, and FGF9 increased (P < 0.05) abundance of VEGFA mRNA by 1.5- to 1.9-fold in LGTC. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) was without effect (P > 0.10) on VEGFA mRNA in both TC and GC. An E2F transcription factor inhibitor, HLM0064741 (E2Fi), dramatically (i.e., 8- to 13-fold) stimulated (P < 0.01) the expression of VEGFA mRNA expression in both SMGC and LGTC. Abundance of VEGFA mRNA was greater (P < 0.05) in LGGC and SMGC than in LGTC. Also, SMTC had greater (P < 0.05) abundance of VEGFA mRNA than LGTC. In conclusion, VEGFA mRNA abundance was greater in GC than TC, and VEGFA expression decreased in TC during follicle development. Some treatments either suppressed, stimulated, or had no effect on VEGFA expression depending on the cell type. The inhibition of E2F transcription factors had the greatest stimulatory effect of all treatments evaluated, and thus, E2Fs may play an important role in regulating angiogenesis during follicle growth in cattle.
Project description:We reported previously that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) acts as an antidifferentiation factor, stimulating proliferation of granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) while suppressing hormone-induced steroidogenesis of these cells. How FGF9 acts to simultaneously suppress steroidogenesis and stimulate proliferation remains to be fully elucidated. Thus, this study was undertaken to clarify the effects of FGF9 on the TC transcriptome. Ovaries were obtained from beef heifers at a local abattoir, TCs were isolated from large antral follicles, and cultured with or without 30 ng/mL of FGF9 for 24 h in the presence of LH and IGF-1. After treatment, total RNA was extracted from TC and processed for microarray using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays (n = 4/group). Transcriptome analysis comparing FGF9-treated TC with control TC using 1.3-fold cutoff, and a P < 0.05 significance level identified 355 differentially expressed transcripts, with 164 elements upregulated and 191 elements downregulated by FGF9. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to investigate how FGF9 treatment affects molecular pathways, biological functions, and the connection between molecules in bovine TC. The IPA software identified 346 pathways in response to FGF9 in TC involved in several biological functions and unveiled interesting relationships among genes related to cell proliferation (eg, CCND1, FZD5, and MYB), antioxidation/cytoprotection (eg, HMOX1 and NQO1), and steroidogenesis (eg, CYP11A1 and STAR). Overall, genes, pathways, and networks identified in this study painted a picture of how FGF9 may regulate folliculogenesis, providing novel candidate genes for further investigation of FGF9 functions in ovarian follicular development.
Project description:Cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) together with its binding partner Cdk4 act as a transcriptional regulator to control cell proliferation and migration, and abnormal Ccnd1·Cdk4 expression promotes tumour growth and metastasis. While different nuclear Ccnd1·Cdk4 targets participating in cell proliferation and tissue development have been identified, little is known about how Ccnd1·Cdk4 controls cell adherence and invasion. Here, we show that the focal adhesion component paxillin is a cytoplasmic substrate of Ccnd1·Cdk4. This complex phosphorylates a fraction of paxillin specifically associated to the cell membrane, and promotes Rac1 activation, thereby triggering membrane ruffling and cell invasion in both normal fibroblasts and tumour cells. Our results demonstrate that localization of Ccnd1·Cdk4 to the cytoplasm does not simply act to restrain cell proliferation, but constitutes a functionally relevant mechanism operating under normal and pathological conditions to control cell adhesion, migration and metastasis through activation of a Ccnd1·Cdk4-paxillin-Rac1 axis.
Project description:MiR-33a is found as a regulator of cell proliferation in many cancer cells. However, it remains unknown if and how miR-33a plays a role in myoblast proliferation. To investigate the effect of miR-33a on myoblast proliferation, miR-33a mimic or inhibitor was co-administered with or without insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) to simulation myoblasts. Our study showed that up-regulation of miR-33a impaired myoblast proliferation, while down-regulation of miR-33a enhanced myoblast proliferation. Mechanistically, we examined that miR-33a can inhibit the transcription of IGF1, follistatin (FST) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) by targeting their 3'UTR region in both HEK293T cells and duck myoblasts. Moreover, up-regulation of miR-33a decreased and its down-regulation increased the mRNA expression of PI3K, Akt, mTOR and S6K. Importantly, the decreased PI3K, Akt, mTOR and S6K expression by miR-33a mimics was abrogated by co-administered with IGF1. Altogether, our results demonstrated that miR-33a may directly target IGF1, FST and CCND1 to inhibit myoblast proliferation via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In conclusion, miR-33a is a potential negative regulator of myoblast proliferation and by modulating its expression could promote the early development of skeletal muscle.
Project description:The present in vitro study analyzed whether the hormones that affect the ovarian follicular steroidogenesis process also participate in the regulation of AQP1 mRNA and protein expression. Granulosa (Gc) and theca cells (Tc) of medium and large porcine ovarian follicles were exposed to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) for 24 h in separated cells and co-cultures of these cells. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and volumetric analysis were then performed. Gonadotropins, PRL and GH had a stimulatory impact on AQP1 mRNA and protein expression in Gc and Tc of medium and large ovarian cells. Moreover, swelling assays, in response to a hypotonic environment, demonstrated the functional presence of AQPs in porcine Gc and Tc. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AQP1 protein was mainly localized in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, endosomes and cell membranes of Gc and Tc from medium and large follicles. It seems possible that AQP1 present in Gc and Tc cells may be implicated not only in the regulation of water homeostasis required for follicle development but also in cell proliferation and migration.
Project description:Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are important regulators of gene expression and often differentially expressed in cancer and other diseases. We have previously shown that miR-193b is hypermethylated in prostate cancer (PC) and suppresses cell growth. It has been suggested that miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in several malignancies. Here, our aim was to determine if miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer. Our data show that miR-193b is commonly methylated in PC samples compared to benign prostate hyperplasia. We found reduced miR-193b expression (P < 0.05) in stage pT3 tumors compared to pT2 tumors in a cohort of prostatectomy specimens. In 22Rv1 PC cells with low endogenous miR-193b expression, the overexpression of miR-193b reduced CCND1 mRNA levels and cyclin D1 protein levels. In addition, the exogenous expression of miR-193b decreased the phosphorylation level of RB, a target of the cyclin D1-CDK4/6 pathway. Moreover, according to a reporter assay, miR-193b targeted the 3'UTR of CCND1 in PC cells and the CCND1 activity was rescued by expressing CCND1 lacking its 3'UTR. Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclin D1 showed that castration-resistant prostate cancers have significantly (P = 0.0237) higher expression of cyclin D1 compared to hormone-naïve cases. Furthermore, the PC cell lines 22Rv1 and VCaP, which express low levels of miR-193b and high levels of CCND1, showed significant growth retardation when treated with a CDK4/6 inhibitor. In contrast, the inhibitor had no effect on the growth of PC-3 and DU145 cells with high miR-193b and low CCND1 expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer.
Project description:Little is known about the role of activin B during folliculogenesis. This study investigated the expression levels of activin/inhibin subunits (?A, ?B, and ?), steroid enzyme, and gonadotrophin receptors in theca (TC) and granulosa cells (GC) by QPCR and activin A and B and inhibin A protein levels in follicular fluid (FF) of developing sheep follicles during estrus and anestrus. The effect of activin B on androgen production from primary TC cultures in vitro was also assessed. During folliculogenesis, in anestrus and estrus, FF activin B concentrations and thecal and GC activin ?B mRNA levels decreased as follicle diameter increased from 1-3 to >6? mm regardless of estrogenic status. Estrogenic preovulatory follicles had reduced concentrations of FF activins B and A, and TC and GCs expressed higher levels of activin ?A mRNA at 3-4? mm, and TCs more inhibin ? mRNA at >4? mm stages of development compared with nonestrogenic follicles. Activin B decreased androstenedione production from primary TCs in vitro, an effect blocked by inhibin A. Thus, sheep follicles 1-3? mm in diameter contained high FF levels of activin B, which decreased as the follicle size increased, and, like activin A, suppressed thecal androgen production in vitro, an effect blocked by inhibin. Furthermore, the theca of large estrogenic follicles expressed high levels of inhibin ? and activin ?A mRNA suggesting local thecal derived inhibin A production. This would inhibit the negative effects of thecal activins B and A ensuring maximum androgen production for enhanced estradiol production by the preovulatory follicle(s).
Project description:Recent studies have shown that there is a considerable heterogeneity in the response of melanoma cell lines to MEK and BRAF inhibitors. In the current study, we address whether dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and/or cyclin D1 contribute to the BRAF inhibitor resistance of melanoma cells. Mutational screening identified a panel of melanoma cell lines that harbored both a BRAF V600E mutation and a CDK4 mutation: K22Q (1205Lu), R24C (WM39, WM46, and SK-Mel-28), and R24L (WM902B). Pharmacologic studies showed that the presence of a CDK4 mutation did not alter the sensitivity of these cell lines to the BRAF inhibitor. The only cell line with significant BRAF inhibitor resistance was found to harbor both a CDK4 mutation and a CCND1 amplification. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed that CCND1 was amplified in 17% of BRAF V600E-mutated human metastatic melanoma samples, indicating the clinical relevance of this finding. As the levels of CCND1 amplification in cell lines are lower than those seen in clinical specimens, we overexpressed cyclin D1 alone and in the presence of CDK4 in a drug-sensitive melanoma line. Cyclin D1 overexpression alone increased resistance and this was enhanced when cyclin D1 and CDK4 were concurrently overexpressed. In conclusion, increased levels of cyclin D1, resulting from genomic amplification, may contribute to the BRAF inhibitor resistance of BRAF V600E-mutated melanomas, particularly when found in the context of a CDK4 mutation/overexpression.
Project description:Thyroid cancer (TC) is a frequently occurring malignant tumor with a rising steadily incidence. microRNA (miRNA/miR)?193a?3p is an miRNA that is associated with tumors, playing a crucial role in the genesis and progression of various cancers. However, the expression levels of miR?193a?3p and its molecular mechanisms in TC remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to probe the expression of miR?193a?3p and its clinical significance in TC, including its underlying molecular mechanisms. Microarray and RNA sequencing data gathered from three major databases, specifically Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), ArrayExpress and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases, and the relevant data from the literature were used to examine miR?193a?3p expression. Meta?analysis was also conducted to evaluate the association between clinicopathological parameters and miR?193a?3p in 510 TC and 59 normal samples from the TCGA database. miRWalk 3.0, and the TCGA and GEO databases were used to predict the candidate target genes of miR?193a?3p. Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and protein?protein interaction network enrichment analyses were conducted by using the predicted candidate target genes to investigate the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. A dual luciferase assay was performed to validate the targeting regulatory association between the most important hub gene cyclin D1 (CCND1) and miR?193a?3p. miR?193a?3p expression was considerably downregulated in TC compared with in the non?cancer controls (P<0.001). The area under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristic was 0.80. Downregulation of miR?193a?3p was also significantly associated with age, sex and metastasis (P=0.020, 0.044 and 0.048, respectively). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that a low miR?193a?3p expression may augment CCND1 expression to affect the biological processes of TC. In addition, CCND1, as a straightforward target, was validated through a dual luciferase assay. miR?193a?3p and CCND1 may serve as prognostic biomarkers of TC. Finally, miR?193a?3p may possess a crucial role in the genesis and progression of TC by altering the CCND1 expression.