Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed independent of rRNA synthesis under specific conditions where further synthesis of ribosomes is not needed.
Project description:The genome of the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui contains two rRNA operons designated rrnA and rrnB. Genomic clones of the two operons and their flanking regions have been sequenced, and primary transcripts and processing intermediates derived from each operon have been characterized. The 16S, 23S, and 5S genes from the two operons were found to differ at 74 of 1,472 positions, 39 of 2,922 positions, and 2 of 122 positions, respectively. This degree of sequence divergence for multicopy (paralogous) rRNA genes was 10- to 50-fold or more higher than anticipated. The two operons exhibit other profound differences that include (i) the presence in rrnA and the absence in rrnB of tRNAAla and tRNACys genes in the intergenic and distal regions, respectively, (ii) divergent 5' flanking sequences, and (iii) distinct pathways for processing and maturation of 16S rRNA. Processing and maturation of 16S and 23S rRNA from rrnA operon transcripts and of 23S rRNA from rrnB operon transcripts follow the canonical halophilic pathway, whereas maturation of 16S rRNA from rrnB operon transcripts follows an unusual and different pathway that is apparently devoid of any 5' processing intermediate.
Project description:A 6.0-kb SalI DNA fragment containing an entire rRNA operon (rrnB) was cloned from a cosmid gene bank of the phytopathogenic strain Rhodococcus fascians D188. The nucleotide sequence of the 6-kb fragment was determined and had the organization 16S rRNA-spacer-23S rRNA-spacer-5S rRNA without tRNA-encoding genes in the spacer regions. The 5' and 3' ends of the mature 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNAs were determined by alignment with the rrn operons of Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive bacteria. Four copies of the rrn operons were identified by hybridization with an rrnB probe in R. fascians type strain ATCC 12974 and in the virulent strain R. fascians D188. However, another isolate, CECT 3001 (= NRRL B15096), also classified as R. fascians, produced five rrn-hybridizing bands. An integrative vector containing a 2.5-kb DNA fragment internal to rrnB was constructed for targeted integration of exogenous genes at the rrn loci. Transformants carrying the exogenous chloramphenicol resistance gene (cmr) integrated in different rrn operons were obtained. These transformants had normal growth rates in complex medium and minimal medium and were fully stable for the integrated marker.
Project description:Ribosomal RNA is an indispensable molecule in living organisms that plays an essential role in protein synthesis. Especially in bacteria, 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNAs are usually co-transcribed as operons. Despite the positive effects of rRNA co-transcription on growth and reproduction rate, a recent study revealed that bacteria with unlinked rRNA operons are more widespread than expected. However, it is still unclear why the rRNA operon is broken. Here, we explored rRNA operon linkage status in 15,898 bacterial genomes and investigated whether they have common features or lifestyles; 574 genomes were found to have unlinked rRNA operons and tended to be phylogenetically conserved. Most of them were symbionts and showed enhanced symbiotic genomic features such as reduced genome size and high adenine-thymine (AT) content. In an eggNOG-mapper analysis, they were also found to have significantly fewer genes than rRNA operon-linked bacteria in the "transcription" and "energy production and conversion in metabolism" categories. These genomes also tend to decrease RNases related to the synthesis of ribosomes and tRNA processing. Based on these results, the disruption of the rRNA operon seems to be one of the tendencies associated with the characteristics of bacteria requiring a low dynamic range.
Project description:The plant pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae has been classified as a separate species from Erwinia amylovora based in part on differences in molecular properties. In this study, these and other molecular properties were examined for E. pyrifoliae and for additional strains of E. amylovora, including strains from brambles (Rubus spp.). The nucleotide composition of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was determined for six of the seven 16S-23S rRNA operons detected in these species with a 16S rRNA gene probe. Each species contained four operons with a tRNA(Glu) gene and two with tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala) genes, and analysis of the operons from five strains of E. amylovora indicated a high degree of ITS variability among them. One tRNA(Glu)-containing operon from E. pyrifoliae Ep1/96 was identical to one in E. amylovora Ea110, but three tRNA(Glu) operons and two tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala) operons from E. pyrifoliae contained unique nucleotide changes. When groEL sequences were used for species-specific identification, E. pyrifoliae and E. amylovora were the closest phylogenetic relatives among a set of 12 bacterial species. The placement of E. pyrifoliae distinct from E. amylovora corroborated molecular hybridization data indicating low DNA-DNA similarity between them. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of plasmid pEP36 from E. pyrifoliae Ep1/96 revealed a number of presumptive genes that matched genes previously found in pEA29 from E. amylovora and similar organization for the genes and origins of replication. Also, pEP36 and pEA29 were incompatible with clones containing the reciprocal origin regions. Finally, the ColE1-like plasmid pEP2.6 from strain Ep1/96 contained sequences found in small plasmids in E. amylovora strains IL-5 and IH3-1.
Project description:We have identified, cloned and sequenced the three ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons (rrn) present in the facultative photoheterotroph Rhodobacter sphaeroides. DNA sequence analysis has identified the 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNAs, two tRNAs (ile and ala) in the spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNAs, and an f-met tRNA immediately following the 5S rRNA gene of all three operons. Physical mapping, genetic analysis, and Southern hybridization data indicate that rrnA is contained on a large chromosome and rrnB and rrnC are contained on a second smaller chromosome. These findings are discussed in relation to the origins of diploidy.
Project description:We describe here the presence of two distinct types of rRNA operons in the genome of a thermophilic actinomycete Thermomonospora chromogena. The genome of T. chromogena contains six rRNA operons (rrn), of which four complete and two incomplete ones were cloned and sequenced. Comparative analysis revealed that the operon rrnB exhibits high levels of sequence variations to the other five nearly identical ones throughout the entire length of the operon. The coding sequences for the 16S and 23S rRNA genes differ by approximately 6 and 10%, respectively, between the two types of operons. Normal functionality of rrnB is concluded on the basis of the nonrandom distribution of nucleotide substitutions, the presence of compensating nucleotide covariations, the preservation of secondary and tertiary rRNA structures, and the detection of correctly processed rRNAs in the cell. Comparative sequence analysis also revealed a close evolutionary relationship between rrnB operon of T. chromogena and rrnA operon of another thermophilic actinomycete Thermobispora bispora. We propose that T. chromogena acquired rrnB operon from T. bispora or a related organism via horizontal gene transfer.
Project description:The whole genome of Rummeliibacillus stabekisii PP9, isolated from a soil sample from Antarctica, consists of a circular chromosome of 3,412,092 bp and a circular plasmid of 8,647 bp, with 3,244 protein-coding genes, 12 copies of the 16S-23S-5S rRNA operon, 101 tRNA genes, and 6 noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs).
Project description:This study examined the sequences of the two rRNA (rrn) operons of pathogenic non-cultivable treponemes, comprising 11 strains of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), five strains of T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), two strains of T. pallidum ssp. endemicum (TEN), a simian Fribourg-Blanc strain and a rabbit T. paraluiscuniculi (TPc) strain. PCR was used to determine the type of 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacers in the rrn operons from 30 clinical samples belonging to five different genotypes. When compared with the TPA strains, TPc Cuniculi A strain had a 17 bp deletion, and the TPE, TEN and Fribourg-Blanc isolates had a deletion of 33 bp. Other than these deletions, only 17 heterogeneous sites were found within the entire region (excluding the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region encoding tRNA-Ile or tRNA-Ala). The pattern of nucleotide changes in the rrn operons corresponded to the classification of treponemal strains, whilst two different rrn spacer patterns (Ile/Ala and Ala/Ile) appeared to be distributed randomly across species/subspecies classification, time and geographical source of the treponemal strains. It is suggested that the random distribution of tRNA genes is caused by reciprocal translocation between repetitive sequences mediated by a recBCD-like system.
Project description:A highly divergent 16S rRNA gene was found in one of the five ribosomal operons present in a species complex currently circumscribed as Scytonema hyalinum (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) using clone libraries. If 16S rRNA sequence macroheterogeneity among ribosomal operons due to insertions, deletions or truncation is excluded, the sequence heterogeneity observed in S. hyalinum was the highest observed in any prokaryotic species thus far (7.3-9.0%). The secondary structure of the 16S rRNA molecules encoded by the two divergent operons was nearly identical, indicating possible functionality. The 23S rRNA gene was examined for a few strains in this complex, and it was also found to be highly divergent from the gene in Type 2 operons (8.7%), and likewise had nearly identical secondary structure between the Type 1 and Type 2 operons. Furthermore, the 16S-23S ITS showed marked differences consistent between operons among numerous strains. Both operons have promoter sequences that satisfy consensus requirements for functional prokaryotic transcription initiation. Horizontal gene transfer from another unknown heterocytous cyanobacterium is considered the most likely explanation for the origin of this molecule, but does not explain the ultimate origin of this sequence, which is very divergent from all 16S rRNA sequences found thus far in cyanobacteria. The divergent sequence is highly conserved among numerous strains of S. hyalinum, suggesting adaptive advantage and selective constraint of the divergent sequence.
Project description:Rhodothermus marinus, a gram-negative heterotrophic marine thermophile, has been the subject of several recent studies. Isolation, sequencing, and analyses of a 16S rRNA gene have shown that R. marinus diverges sharply from major bacterial phyla and is most closely allied to the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides group. Further analyses revealed that the R. marinus chromosome contains a single rRNA operon with a 16S-23S intergenic region coding for tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala).