Global Lysine Acetylome Analysis of Desiccated Somatic Embryos of Picea asperata.
ABSTRACT: Partial desiccation treatment (PDT) promotes the germination capacity of conifer somatic embryos. Lysine acetylation (LysAc) is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays a key role in many biological processes including metabolic pathways and stress response. To investigate the functional impact of LysAc in the response of Picea asperata somatic embryos to PDT, we performed a global lysine acetylome analysis. Here, combining antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified and validated 1079 acetylation sites in 556 acetylated proteins from P. asperata somatic embryos during PDT. These data represent a novel large-scale dataset of lysine-acetylated proteins from the conifer family. Intensive bioinformatics analysis of the Gene Ontology of molecular functions demonstrated that lysine-acetylated proteins were mainly associated with binding, catalytic activities, and structural molecular activities. Functional characterization of the acetylated proteins revealed that in the desiccated somatic embryos, LysAc is mainly involved in the response to stress and central metabolism. Accordingly, the majority of these interacting proteins were also highly enriched in ribosome, proteasome, spliceosome, and carbon metabolism clusters. This work provides the most comprehensive profile of LysAc for a coniferous species obtained to date and facilitates the systematic study of the physiological role of LysAc in desiccated somatic embryos of P. asperata.
Project description:Partial desiccation treatment (PDT) stimulates germination and enhances the conversion of conifer somatic embryos. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the responses of somatic embryos to PDT, we used proteomic and physiological analyses to investigate these responses during PDT in Picea asperata. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that, during PDT, stress-related proteins were mainly involved in osmosis, endogenous hormones, antioxidative proteins, molecular chaperones and defence-related proteins. Compared with those in cotyledonary embryos before PDT, these stress-related proteins remained at high levels on days 7 (D7) and 14 (D14) of PDT. The proteins that differentially accumulated in the somatic embryos on D7 were mapped to stress and/or stimuli. They may also be involved in the glyoxylate cycle and the chitin metabolic process. The most significant difference in the differentially accumulated proteins occurred in the metabolic pathways of photosynthesis on D14. Furthermore, in accordance with the changes in stress-related proteins, analyses of changes in water content, abscisic acid, indoleacetic acid and H2 O2 levels in the embryos indicated that PDT is involved in water-deficit tolerance and affects endogenous hormones. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the transition from morphologically mature to physiologically mature somatic embryos during the PDT process in P. asperata.
Project description:By the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, large-scale lysine acetylome analysis was performed in picea asperata. Altogether, 1,360 lysine acetylation sites in 717 protein groups were identified. Intensive bioinformatic analysis was then carried out to annotate those lysine acetylated targets, including protein annotation, functional classification, functional enrichment, etc.
Project description:Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Mimosa asperata collected in Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, in 2005. Mimosa asperata is the only legume described so far to exclusively associates with Cupriavidus symbionts. Moreover, strain AMP6 represents an early-diverging lineage within the symbiotic Cupriavidus group and has the capacity to develop an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with three other species of Mimosa. Therefore, the genome of Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 enables comparative analyses of symbiotic trait evolution in this genus and here we describe the general features, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,579,563 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 260 scaffolds of 262 contigs, contains 7,033 protein-coding genes and 97 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.
Project description:Somatic embryogenesis (SE), which is in vitro regeneration of plant bodies from somatic cells, represents a useful means of clonal propagation and genetic engineering of forest trees. While protocols to obtain calluses and induce regeneration in somatic embryos have been reported for many tree species, the knowledge of molecular mechanisms of SE development is still insufficient to achieve an efficient supply of somatic embryos required for the industrial application. Cryptomeria japonica, a conifer species widely used for plantation forestry in Japan, is one of the tree species waiting for a secure SE protocol; the probability of normal embryo development appears to depend on genotype. To discriminate the embryogenic potential of embryonal masses (EMs) and efficiently obtain normal somatic embryos of C. japonica, we investigated the effects of genotype and transcriptome on the variation in embryogenic potential. Using an induction experiment with 12 EMs each from six genotypes, we showed that embryogenic potential differs between/within genotypes. Comparisons of gene expression profiles among EMs with different embryogenic potentials revealed that 742 differently expressed genes were mainly associated with pattern forming and metabolism. Thus, we suggest that not only genotype but also gene expression profiles can determine success in SE development. Consistent with previous findings for other conifer species, genes encoding leafy cotyledon, wuschel, germin-like proteins, and glutathione-S-transferases are likely to be involved in SE development in C. japonica and indeed highly expressed in EMs with high-embryogenic potential; therefore, these proteins represent candidate markers for distinguishing embryogenic potential.
Project description:Regulation of seed development by small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) is an important mechanism controlling a crucial phase of the life cycle of seed plants. In this work, sRNAs from seed tissues (zygotic embryos and megagametophytes) and from somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster were analysed to identify putative regulators of seed/embryo development in conifers. In total, sixteen sRNA libraries covering several developmental stages were sequenced. We show that embryos and megagametophytes express a large population of 21-nt sRNAs and that substantial amounts of 24-nt sRNAs were also detected, especially in somatic embryos. A total of 215 conserved miRNAs, one third of which are conifer-specific, and 212 high-confidence novel miRNAs were annotated. MIR159, MIR171 and MIR394 families were found in embryos, but were greatly reduced in megagametophytes. Other families, like MIR397 and MIR408, predominated in somatic embryos and megagametophytes, suggesting their expression in somatic embryos is associated with in vitro conditions. Analysis of the predicted miRNA targets suggests that miRNA functions are relevant in several processes including transporter activity at the cotyledon-forming stage, and sulfur metabolism across several developmental stages. An important resource for studying conifer embryogenesis is made available here, which may also provide insightful clues for improving clonal propagation via somatic embryogenesis.
Project description:Culture of cassava somatic embryos on media with an altered macro- and micro-nutrient salt concentration affected embryo development and germination capability. In the tests, quarter-, half-, full- or double-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were compared. The maximum number of somatic embryos differentiated from a proliferative nodular embryogenic callus (NEC) on either half- or full-strength MS medium, and the greatest numbers of cotyledonary stage embryos were formed on full-strength MS medium. Developed somatic embryos were then desiccated above a saturated K2SO4 solution for 10 d. After transfer to germination medium, embryos that had developed on half- and full-strength MS medium yielded 8.3 and 8.6 germinants g(-1) NEC tissue, respectively. For this important but often disregarded culture factor, either half- or full-strength MS medium is recommended for both the differentiation and development of cassava somatic embryos that are capable of germination.
Project description:Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) plays an important role in plant nitrogen (N) nutrition and regulates plant responded to climate warming. We conducted a field experiment in a natural forest and a plantation in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to estimate the warming effects of open-top chambers (OTC) on ECM and N nutrition of Picea asperata seedlings. Four-year warming significantly decreased ECM colonization, ECM fungal biomass, fine root vigor, and the N concentration of leaf, stem and coarse root, but significantly increased fine root N concentration and N content of leaf, stem, fine root and whole plant in natural forest. Contrarily, warming induced no obvious change in most of these parameters in plantation. Moreover, warming decreased rhizospheric soil inorganic N content in both forests. Our results showed that four-year warming was not beneficial for ECM colonization of P. asperata seedlings in the two forests, and the seedlings in natural forest were more sensitive and flexible to experimental warming than in plantation. The changes of ECM colonization and fine root biomass for effective N uptake would be good for plant growth and remit N leaching under future warming in natural forest.
Project description:Multiplication of banana cvs. Grand Naine (Musa AAA, Cavendish-sub group) and Rasthali (Musa AAB, Silk-sub group) were attempted through somatic embryogenesis. The influence of position of male flower buds, amino acid supplements in the induction of somatic embryogenesis and field performance of embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) derived banana plants were studied. Differentiated immature male flower buds positioned at 6-8?th bract whorl as explants showed better callus induction and somatic embryogenesis. Supplementation with glutamine at 400?mg?L-1 along with 20:20?g?L-1sucrose: maltose in maturation media induced a 10-fold increase in somatic embryo formation compared to control. Cotyledonary stage somatic embryos desiccated for 2?h showed higher germination compared to non-desiccated embryos. The plantlets generated were hardened, and the genetic fidelity of the plantlets was confirmed using ISSR marker. To check the field performance of ECS derived plants, plantlets were hardened and planted in the field along with meristem and sucker. During the field growth, these ECS derived plants were morphologically similar to those of control plants. In this experiment, it was observed that ECS derived banana plants displayed normal phenotype as that of plants grown from meristem and sucker. The protocol developed could be useful highly for large-scale micropropagation or genetic manipulation studies in these commercially important banana cultivars.
Project description:Conifer somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a process driven by exogenously supplied plant growth regulators (PGRs). Exogenous PGRs and endogenous phytohormones trigger particular ontogenetic events. Complex mechanisms involving a number of endogenous phytohormones control the differentiation of cells and tissues, as well as the establishment of structures and organs. Most of the mechanisms and hormonal functions in the SE of conifers have not yet been described. With the aim to better understand these mechanisms, we provided detailed analysis of the spectrum of endogenous phytohormones over the course of SE in Norway spruce <i>(Picea abies)</i>. Concentrations of endogenous phytohormones including auxins, cytokinins (CKs), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonates, and salicylic acid (SA) in somatic <i>P. abies</i> embryos were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results revealed that the concentrations of particular phytohormone classes varied substantially between proliferation, maturation, desiccation, and germination. Endogenous ABA showed a maximum concentration at the maturation stage, which reflected the presence of exogenous ABA in the medium and demonstrated its efficient perception by the embryos as a prerequisite for their further development. Auxins also had concentration maxima at the maturation stage, suggesting a role in embryo polarization. Endogenous jasmonates were detected in conifer somatic embryos for the first time, and reached maxima at germination. According to our knowledge, we have presented evidence for the involvement of the non-indole auxin phenylacetic acid, <i>cis</i>-zeatin- and dihydrozeatin-type CKs and SA in SE for the first time. The presented results represent the currently most comprehensive overview of plant hormone levels in embryos throughout the whole process of conifer SE. The differences in concentrations of various classes of phytohormones over the proliferation, maturation, desiccation, and germination in somatic <i>P. abies</i> embryos clearly indicate correlations between endogenous phytohormone profiles and particular developmental stages of the SE of conifers.
Project description:Investigating the responses of trees to the heterogeneous distribution of nutrients in soil and simultaneous presence of neighboring roots could strengthen the understanding of an influential mechanism on tree growth and provide a scientific basis for forest management. Here, we conducted two split-pot experiments to investigate the effects of nutrient heterogeneity and intraspecific competition on the fine root morphology and nutrient capture of Picea asperata. The results showed that P. asperata efficiently captured nutrients by increasing the specific root length (SRL) and specific root area (SRA) of first-and second-order roots and decreasing the tissue density of first-order roots to avoid competition for resources and space with neighboring roots. The nutrient heterogeneity and addition of fertilization did not affect the fine root morphology, but enhanced the P and K concentrations in the fine roots in the absence of a competitor. On the interaction between nutrient heterogeneity and competition, competition decreased the SRL and SRA but enhanced the capture of K under heterogeneous soil compared with under homogeneous soil. Additionally, the P concentration, but not the K concentration, was linearly correlated to root morphology in heterogeneous soil, even when competition was present. The results suggested that root morphological features were only stimulated when the soil nutrients were insufficient for plant growth and the nutrients accumulations by root were mainly affected by the soil nutrients more than the root morphology.