Disease Model of GATA4 Mutation Reveals Transcription Factor Cooperativity in Human Cardiogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Mutation of highly conserved residues in transcription factors may affect protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions, leading to gene network dysregulation and human disease. Human mutations in GATA4, a cardiogenic transcription factor, cause cardiac septal defects and cardiomyopathy. Here, iPS-derived cardiomyocytes from subjects with a heterozygous GATA4-G296S missense mutation showed impaired contractility, calcium handling, and metabolic activity. In human cardiomyocytes, GATA4 broadly co-occupied cardiac enhancers with TBX5, another transcription factor that causes septal defects when mutated. The GATA4-G296S mutation disrupted TBX5 recruitment, particularly to cardiac super-enhancers, concomitant with dysregulation of genes related to the phenotypic abnormalities, including cardiac septation. Conversely, the GATA4-G296S mutation led to failure of GATA4 and TBX5-mediated repression at non-cardiac genes and enhanced open chromatin states at endothelial/endocardial promoters. These results reveal how disease-causing missense mutations can disrupt transcriptional cooperativity, leading to aberrant chromatin states and cellular dysfunction, including those related to morphogenetic defects.
Project description:Congenital heart disease is the most common type of birth defect with an incidence of 1%. Previously, we described a point mutation in GATA4 that segregated with cardiac defects in a family with autosomal dominant disease. The mutation (G296S) exhibited biochemical deficits and disrupted a novel interaction between Gata4 and Tbx5. To determine if Gata4 and Tbx5 genetically interact in vivo, we generated mice heterozygous for both alleles. We found that nearly 100% of mice heterozygous for Gata4 and Tbx5 were embryonic or neonatal lethal and had complete atrioventricular (AV) septal defects with a single AV valve and myocardial thinning. Consistent with this phenotype, Gata4 and Tbx5 are co-expressed in the developing endocardial cushions and myocardium. In mutant embryos, cardiomyocyte proliferation deficits were identified compatible with the myocardial hypoplasia. Similar to Gata4, Gata6 and Tbx5 are co-expressed in the embryonic heart, and the transcription factors synergistically activate the atrial natiuretic factor promoter. We demonstrate a genetic interaction between Gata6 and Tbx5 with an incompletely penetrant phenotype of neonatal lethality and thin myocardium. Gene expression analyses were performed on both sets of compound heterozygotes and demonstrated downregulation of alpha-myosin heavy chain only in Gata4/Tbx5 heterozygotes. These findings highlight the unique genetic interactions of Gata4 and Gata6 with Tbx5 for normal cardiac morphogenesis in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The most common type of congenital heart disease is the cardiac septal defects, which has reported to be caused by a missense mutation (G296S) in exon 3 of the GATA4 gene. AIMS:The present study was undertaken to find out whether GATA4 gene is the prime cause of the septal defects in Mysore population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:GATA4 gene analyses were undertaken on 21 confirmed CHD cases by PCR and DNA sequencing. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Analysis of this particular mutation in 21 septal defect patients revealed that none of the patients had the mutation, indicating that this mutation is population specific or septal defect in Mysore population is caused due to mutations in other regions of the GATA4 gene.
Project description:We report that the dominant human missense mutations G303E and G296S in GATA4, a cardiac-specific transcription factor gene, cause atrioventricular septal defects and valve abnormalities by disrupting a signaling cascade involved in endocardial cushion development. These GATA4 missense mutations, but not a mutation causing secundum atrial septal defects (S52F), demonstrated impaired protein interactions with SMAD4, a transcription factor required for canonical bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-? (BMP/TGF-?) signaling. Gata4 and Smad4 genetically interact in vivo: atrioventricular septal defects result from endothelial-specific Gata4 and Smad4 compound haploinsufficiency. Endothelial-specific knockout of Smad4 caused an absence of valve-forming activity: Smad4-deficient endocardium was associated with acellular endocardial cushions, absent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation, reduced endocardial proliferation, and loss of Id2 expression in valve-forming regions. We show that Gata4 and Smad4 cooperatively activated the Id2 promoter, that human GATA4 mutations abrogated this activity, and that Id2 deficiency in mice could cause atrioventricular septal defects. We suggest that one determinant of the phenotypic spectrum caused by human GATA4 mutations is differential effects on GATA4/SMAD4 interactions required for endocardial cushion development.
Project description:Defects of atrial and ventricular septation are the most frequent form of congenital heart disease, accounting for almost 50% of all cases. We previously reported that a heterozygous G296S missense mutation of GATA4 caused atrial and ventricular septal defects and pulmonary valve stenosis in humans. GATA4 encodes a cardiac transcription factor, and when deleted in mice it results in cardiac bifida and lethality by embryonic day (E)9.5. In vitro, the mutant GATA4 protein has a reduced DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity and abolishes a physical interaction with TBX5, a transcription factor critical for normal heart formation. To characterize the mutation in vivo, we generated mice harboring the same mutation, Gata4 G295S. Mice homozygous for the Gata4 G295S mutant allele have normal ventral body patterning and heart looping, but have a thin ventricular myocardium, single ventricular chamber, and lethality by E11.5. While heterozygous Gata4 G295S mutant mice are viable, a subset of these mice have semilunar valve stenosis and small defects of the atrial septum. Gene expression studies of homozygous mutant mice suggest the G295S protein can sufficiently activate downstream targets of Gata4 in the endoderm but not in the developing heart. Cardiomyocyte proliferation deficits and decreased cardiac expression of CCND2, a member of the cyclin family and a direct target of Gata4, were found in embryos both homozygous and heterozygous for the Gata4 G295S allele. To further define functions of the Gata4 G295S mutation in vivo, compound mutant mice were generated in which specific cell lineages harbored both the Gata4 G295S mutant and Gata4 null alleles. Examination of these mice demonstrated that the Gata4 G295S protein has functional deficits in early myocardial development. In summary, the Gata4 G295S mutation functions as a hypomorph in vivo and leads to defects in cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryogenesis, which may contribute to the development of congenital heart defects in humans.
Project description:Heterozygous mutations in GATA4 cause congenital heart defects and cardiomyopathy through unknown mechanisms. To gain insights into the genome-wide localization perturbations during human cardiac development due to GATA4 heterozygosity, we performed ChIP-seq of wildtype and GATA4-G296S diseased cardiomyocytes. Overall design: ChIP sequencing of GATA4, TBX5, MED1, H3K4me3, H3K36me3, H3K27ac, H3K27me3, plus input, from 75 wildtype or diseased pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes
Project description:Heterozygous mutations in GATA4 cause congenital heart defects and cardiomyopathy through unknown mechanisms. To gain insights into the open chromatin status during human cardiac development due to GATA4 heterozygosity, we performed ATAC-seq of wildtype and GATA4-G296S diseased cardiac progenitors. Overall design: ATAC sequencing of wildtype and diseased pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes
Project description:Mutations in GATA4 and TBX5 are associated with congenital heart defects in humans. Interaction between GATA4 and TBX5 is important for normal cardiac septation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that Gata4 and Tbx5 are co-expressed in the embryonic atria and ventricle, but after E15.5, ventricular expression of Tbx5 decreases. Co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate an interaction of Gata4 and Tbx5 in the developing atria and ventricles, but the ventricular interaction declines after E14.5. Gata4(+/-);Tbx5(+/-) mouse embryos display decreased atrial and ventricular myocardial thickness at E11.5, prior to cardiac septation. To determine the cell lineage in which the interaction was functionally significant in vivo, mice heterozygous for Gata4 in the myocardium or endocardium and heterozygous for Tbx5 (Gata4(MyoDel/wt);Tbx5(+/-) and Gata4(EndoDel/wt);Tbx5(+/-), respectively) were generated. Gata4(MyoDel/wt);Tbx5(+/-) mice displayed embryonic lethality, thin myocardium with reduced cell proliferation, and atrioventricular septation defects similar to Gata4;Tbx5 compound heterozygotes while Gata4(EndoDel/wt);Tbx5(+/-) embryos were normal. Cdk4 and Cdk2, cyclin-dependent kinases required for myocardial development and septation were reduced in Gata4(+/-);Tbx5(+/-) hearts. Cdk4 is a known direct target of Gata4 and the regulation of Cdk2 in the developing heart has not been studied. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transactivation studies demonstrate that Gata4 and Tbx5 directly regulate Cdk4 while only Tbx5 activates Cdk2 expression. These findings highlight the mechanisms by which disruption of the Gata4 and Tbx5 interaction in the myocardium contributes to cardiac septation defects in humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several genes encoding transcription factors are known to be the primary cause of congenital heart disease. NKX2-5 and GATA4 were the first congenital heart disease-causing genes identified by linkage analysis. This study designed to study the association of five single-nucleotide variants of NKX2-5, GATA4, and TBX5 genes with sporadic nonsyndromic cases of a congenital cardiac septal defect in Egyptian children. METHODS:Venous blood samples from 150 congenital heart disease children (including a ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, and patent ductus arteriosus) and 90 apparently healthy of matched age and sex were studied by polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing in order to study two single-nucleotide variants of NKX2-5 (rs2277923, rs28936670), two single-nucleotide variants of GATA4 (rs368418329, rs56166237) and one single-nucleotide variant TBX5 (rs6489957). The distribution of genotype and allele frequency in the congenital heart diseases (CHD) group and control group were analyzed. RESULTS:We found different genotype frequencies of the two variants of NKX2-5, as CT genotype of rs2277923 was present in 58% and 36% in cases and control respectively, and TT genotype present in 6% of the cases. Also regarding missense variant rs28936670, heterozygous AG presented in 82% of the cases. Also, we observed a five prime UTR variant rs368418329, GT (42% of the cases) and GG (46% of the cases) genotypes showed the most frequent presentation in cases. While regarding a synonymous variant rs56166237, GT and GG were the most presented in cases (41.4%, 56% respectively) in contrast to control group (20%, 1.7% respectively). Also, a synonymous variant in TBX5, the distribution of genotype frequency was significantly different between the CHD group and control group. CT genotype of TBX5 -rs6489957 was found in 12 ASD, 24 VSD, six PDA, three aortic coarctation and nine fallot that represent 42% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS:Significantly higher frequency of different allelle of five variants was observed in cases when compared to the control group, with significant risky effect for the development of septal defect. In addition to two polymorphisms of NKX2-5 (rs2277923, rs28936670) variant in the cardiac septal defect, two variants in GATA4 (rs368418329, rs56166237) and one variant in TBX5 (rs6489957) seem to have a role in the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease.
Project description:Heterozygous mutations in GATA4 cause congenital heart defects and cardiomyopathy through unknown mechanisms. To gain insights into the trancriptome perturbations during human cardiac development due to GATA4 heterozygosity, we performed RNA-seq of isogenic wildtype and GATA4-G296S diseased cardiac progenitors (CPCs) and cardiomyocytes (CMs). Overall design: Transcriptome profiling of total RNA isolated from 26 wildtype or diseased pluripotent stem cell derived cell types.
Project description:The T-box family transcription factor gene TBX20 acts in a conserved regulatory network, guiding heart formation and patterning in diverse species. Mouse Tbx20 is expressed in cardiac progenitor cells, differentiating cardiomyocytes, and developing valvular tissue, and its deletion or RNA interference-mediated knockdown is catastrophic for heart development. TBX20 interacts physically, functionally, and genetically with other cardiac transcription factors, including NKX2-5, GATA4, and TBX5, mutations of which cause congenital heart disease (CHD). Here, we report nonsense (Q195X) and missense (I152M) germline mutations within the T-box DNA-binding domain of human TBX20 that were associated with a family history of CHD and a complex spectrum of developmental anomalies, including defects in septation, chamber growth, and valvulogenesis. Biophysical characterization of wild-type and mutant proteins indicated how the missense mutation disrupts the structure and function of the TBX20 T-box. Dilated cardiomyopathy was a feature of the TBX20 mutant phenotype in humans and mice, suggesting that mutations in developmental transcription factors can provide a sensitized template for adult-onset heart disease. Our findings are the first to link TBX20 mutations to human pathology. They provide insights into how mutation of different genes in an interactive regulatory circuit lead to diverse clinical phenotypes, with implications for diagnosis, genetic screening, and patient follow-up.