Differential Modulation of IgT and IgM upon Parasitic, Bacterial, Viral, and Dietary Challenges in a Perciform Fish.
ABSTRACT: Three different immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes can be found in teleost fish, IgM, IgD, and the teleost-specific IgT. IgM is considered to have a systemic activity, and IgT is attributed a mucosal role, similar to mammalian IgA. In this study, the complete sequence of gilthead sea bream IgM and IgT in their membrane (m) and soluble (s) forms are described for the first time in a perciform fish. Their constitutive gene expression is analyzed in different tissues, and their regulation upon viral, bacterial, parasitic, mucosal vaccination and dietary challenges are studied. GCB IgM and IgT have the prototypical structure when compared to other fish Igs. The constitutive expression of sIgM was the highest overall in all tissues, whereas mIgT expression was highest in mucosal tissues, such as gills and intestine. IgM and IgT were differentially regulated upon infection. IgT was highly upregulated locally upon infection with the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei or systemically after Nodavirus infection. Long-term intestinal parasitic infections increased the serum titer of both isotypes. Mucosal vaccination against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida finely regulated the Ig response inducing a systemic increase of IgM titers in serum and a local IgT response in skin mucus when animals were exposed to the pathogen by bath challenge. Interestingly, plant-based diets inhibit IgT upregulation upon intestinal parasitic challenge, which was related to a worse disease outcome. All these results corroborate the mucosal role of IgT and emphasize the importance of a finely tuned regulation of Ig isotypes upon infection, which could be of special interest in vaccination studies.
Project description:During the analysis of Ig superfamily members within the available rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) EST gene index, we identified a unique Ig heavy-chain (IgH) isotype. cDNAs encoding this isotype are composed of a typical IgH leader sequence and a VDJ rearranged segment followed by four Ig superfamily C-1 domains represented as either membrane-bound or secretory versions. Because teleost fish were previously thought to encode and express only two IgH isotypes (IgM and IgD) for their humoral immune repertoire, we isolated all three cDNA isotypes from a single homozygous trout (OSU-142) to confirm that all three are indeed independent isotypes. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this previously undescribed divergent isotype is restricted to bony fish, thus we have named this isotype "IgT" (tau) for teleost fish. Genomic sequence analysis of an OSU-142 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone positive for all three IgH isotypes revealed that IgT utilizes the standard rainbow trout V(H) families, but surprisingly, the IgT isotype possesses its own exclusive set of D(H) and J(H) elements for the generation of diversity. The IgT D and J segments and tau constant (C) region genes are located upstream of the D and J elements for IgM, representing a genomic IgH architecture that has not been observed in any other vertebrate class. All three isotypes are primarily expressed in the spleen and pronephros (bone marrow equivalent), and ontogenically, expression of IgT is present 4 d before hatching in developing embryos.
Project description:Upon infection, B-lymphocytes expressing antibodies specific for the intruding pathogen develop clonal responses triggered by pathogen recognition via the B-cell receptor. The constant region of antibodies produced by such responding clones dictates their functional properties. In teleost fish, the clonal structure of B-cell responses and the respective contribution of the three isotypes IgM, IgD and IgT remain unknown. The expression of IgM and IgT are mutually exclusive, leading to the existence of two B-cell subsets expressing either both IgM and IgD or only IgT. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the variable heavy chain (VH) domain repertoires of the IgM, IgD and IgT in spleen of homozygous isogenic rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) before, and after challenge with a rhabdovirus, the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV), using CDR3-length spectratyping and pyrosequencing of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts. In healthy fish, we observed distinct repertoires for IgM, IgD and IgT, respectively, with a few amplified ? and ? junctions, suggesting the presence of IgM- and IgT-secreting cells in the spleen. In infected animals, we detected complex and highly diverse IgM responses involving all VH subgroups, and dominated by a few large public and private clones. A lower number of robust clonal responses involving only a few VH were detected for the mucosal IgT, indicating that both IgM(+) and IgT(+) spleen B cells responded to systemic infection but at different degrees. In contrast, the IgD response to the infection was faint. Although fish IgD and IgT present different structural features and evolutionary origin compared to mammalian IgD and IgA, respectively, their implication in the B-cell response evokes these mouse and human counterparts. Thus, it appears that the general properties of antibody responses were already in place in common ancestors of fish and mammals, and were globally conserved during evolution with possible functional convergences.
Project description:It is now appreciated that in addition to the immunoglobulin (Ig)M and D isotypes fish also make the mucosal IgT. In this study we sequenced the full length of Ig ? as well as ? in the commercially important Thunnus orientalis (Pacific bluefin tuna), the first molecular analysis of these two Ig isotypes in a member of the order Perciformes. Tuna IgM and IgT are each composed of four constant (CH) domains. We cloned and sequenced 48 different variable (VH) domain gene rearrangements of tuna immunoglobulins and grouped the VH gene sequences to four VH gene segment families based on 70% nucleotide identity. Three VH gene families were used by both IgM and IgT but one group was only found to be used by IgM. Most interestingly, both ? and ? clones appear to use the same diversity (DH) segment, unlike what has been described in other species, although they have dedicated IgT and IgM joining (JH) gene segments. We complemented this repertoire study with phylogenetic and tissue expression analysis. In addition to supporting the development of humoral vaccines in this important aquaculture species, these data suggest that the DH-JH recombination rather than the VH-DH recombination may be instructive for IgT versus IgM/D bearing lymphocyte lineages in some fish.
Project description:Teleost fish are the most primitive bony vertebrates that contain immunoglobulins. In contrast to mammals and birds, these species are devoid of immunoglobulin A (IgA) or a functional equivalent. This observation suggests that specialization of immunoglobulin isotypes into mucosal and systemic responses took place during tetrapod evolution. Challenging that paradigm, here we show that IgT, an immunoglobulin isotype of unknown function, acts like a mucosal antibody. We detected responses of rainbow trout IgT to an intestinal parasite only in the gut, whereas IgM responses were confined to the serum. IgT coated most intestinal bacteria. As IgT and IgA are phylogenetically distant immunoglobulins, their specialization into mucosal responses probably occurred independently by a process of convergent evolution.
Project description:Distinct methods are required for inducing mucosal versus systemic immunity in mammals for vaccine protection at the tissues most commonly breached by pathogens. Understanding of mucosal immunization in teleost fish is needed to combat aquaculture disease, understand emerging ecological threats, and know how vertebrate adaptive immunity evolved. Here, we quantitatively measured expression levels of IgM as well as the teleost mucosal immunoglobulin, IgZ/IgT, in zebrafish given an antigen systemically via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or mucosally via bath immersion. Both immunoglobulin isotypes and the B cell activating factor gene transcription was induced in fish injected with antigen as compared to saline injected or antigen immersed fish, though these failed to reach statistical significance. Here we provide additional reference hematology for this model species. Differential blood counts revealed a greater lymphocyte percentage in both i.p. and immersed fish, with increase in large lymphocyte counts and decrease in neutrophils. These humoral adaptive gene transcription and cytological data should provide a foundation for more studies connecting immunology in this dominant developmental and genetic fish model to other species where mucosal immunization is of greater commercial importance.
Project description:As key effector molecules of jawed vertebrate's adaptive immune system, immunoglobulins are produced by B lymphocytes, either as a secretory form (antibody) or as a membrane form (B cell receptor). Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD. In addition, IgM in these species was thought to be the only immunoglobulin isotype responding to pathogens both in systemic or mucosal compartments. However, the unexpected discovery of IgT, a new teleost immunoglobulin unearthed in 2005, has provided for new opportunities to analyze further roles of teleost immunoglobulins in these two physiologically distinct compartments. The smoke about the potential function of IgT has cleared recently with the finding that this immunoglobulin appears to be specialized in gut mucosal immunity. Significantly, the new capability of measuring not only IgM but also IgT responses will greatly facilitate the evaluation and understanding of fish immune responses as well as the protective effects of fish vaccines. The purpose of this review is to summarize the molecular characterization of new IgT orthologs and subtypes in teleosts, as well as to describe the new findings concerning the protein structure of IgT, the B cells producing it, and its role in mucosal immunity.
Project description:The olfactory organ of vertebrates receives chemical cues present in the air or water and, at the same time, they are exposed to invading pathogens. Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which serves as a mucosal inductive site for humoral immune responses against antigen stimulation in mammals, is present also in teleosts. IgT in teleosts is responsible for similar functions to those carried out by IgA in mammals. Moreover, teleost NALT is known to contain B-cells and teleost nasal mucus contains immunoglobulins (Igs). Yet, whether nasal B cells and Igs respond to infection remains unknown. We hypothesized that water-borne parasites can invade the nasal cavity of fish and elicit local specific immune responses. To address this hypothesis, we developed a model of bath infection with the Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) parasite in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, an ancient bony fish, and investigated the nasal adaptive immune response against this parasite. Critically, we found that Ich parasites in water could reach the nasal cavity and successfully invade the nasal mucosa. Moreover, strong parasite-specific IgT responses were detected in the nasal mucus, and the accumulation of IgT+ B-cells was noted in the nasal epidermis after Ich infection. Strikingly, local IgT+ B-cell proliferation and parasite-specific IgT generation were found in the trout olfactory organ, providing new evidence that nasal-specific immune responses were induced locally by a parasitic challenge. Overall, our findings suggest that nasal mucosal adaptive immune responses are similar to those reported in other fish mucosal sites and that an antibody system with a dedicated mucosal Ig performs evolutionary conserved functions across vertebrate mucosal surfaces.
Project description:The pharyngeal organ is located at the crossroad of the respiratory and digestive tracts in vertebrate, and it is continuously challenged by varying Ags during breathing and feeding. In mammals, the pharyngeal mucosa (PM) is a critical first line of defense. However, the evolutionary origins and ancient roles of immune defense and microbiota homeostasis of PM are still unknown. In this study, to our knowledge, we are the first to find that diffuse MALT is present in PM of rainbow trout, an early vertebrate. Importantly, following parasitic infection, we detect that strong parasite-specific mucosal IgT and dominant proliferation of IgT+ B cell immune responses occurs in trout PM, providing, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of local mucosal Ig responses against pathogens in pharyngeal organ of a nonmammal species. Moreover, we show that the trout PM microbiota is prevalently coated with secretory IgT and, to a much lesser degree, by IgM and IgD, suggesting the key role of mucosal Igs in the immune exclusion of teleost pharyngeal bacteria. Overall, to our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that pharyngeal mucosal immunity appear earlier than tetrapods.
Project description:The olfactory organs (OOs) of vertebrates play important roles in their extraordinary chemosensory capacity, a process during which they are continuously exposed to environmental pathogens. Nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) contains B cells and immunoglobulins (Igs), which function as the first defense line against antigens in mammals and also exist in teleosts. However, the immune responses of teleost NALT B cells and Igs during bacterial infection remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, rainbow trout were infected with <i>Flavobacterium columnare via</i> continuous immersion, after which the adaptive immune responses within NALT were evaluated. <i>F. columnare</i> could invade trout nasal mucosa and cause histopathological changes in trout OO. Moreover, the accumulation of IgT<sup>+</sup> B cells in trout nasal mucosa was induced by bacterial challenge, which was accompanied by strong bacteria-specific IgT responses in the nasal mucus. Importantly, our study is the first to report local nasal-specific immune responses in teleosts during bacterial challenge by characterizing the local proliferation of IgT<sup>+</sup> B cells and generation of bacteria-specific IgT in trout OOs after <i>F. columnare</i> infection. In addition to the strong IgT and IgT<sup>+</sup> B cells responses in OO, bacteria-specific IgT and IgM were also detected in serum following bacterial challenge. Taken together, our findings suggest that IgT functions as an important mucosal Ig in teleost NALT and mediates local adaptive immunity during bacterial infection, which is similar to their protective role during parasitic infection.
Project description:As the teleost specific immunoglobulin, IgT plays important roles in systemic and mucosal immunity. In the current study, in rainbow trout, we have cloned the heavy chain (Ig?) genes of a secretory form of IgT2 as well as the membrane and secretory forms of a third IgT subclass, termed IgT3. Conserved cysteine and tryptophan residues that are crucial for the folding of the immunoglobulin domain as well as hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues within CART motif were identified in all IgT subclasses. Through analysis of the rainbow trout genome assembly, Ig?3 gene was found localized upstream of Ig?1 gene, while Ig?2 gene situated on another scaffold. At the transcriptional level, Ig?1 was mainly expressed in both systemic and mucosal lymphoid tissues, while Ig?2 was largely expressed in systemic lymphoid organs. After LPS and poly (I:C) treatment, Ig?1 and Ig?2 genes exhibited different expression profiles. Interestingly the transcriptional level of Ig?3 was negligible, although its protein product could be identified in trout serum. Importantly, a previously reported monoclonal antibody directed against trout IgT1 was able to recognize IgT2 and IgT3. These data demonstrate that there exist three subclasses of IgT in rainbow trout, and that their heavy chain genes display different expression patterns during stimulation. Overall, our data reflect the diversity and complexity of immunoglobulin in trout, thus provide a better understanding of the IgT system in the immune response of teleost fish.