Characterization of the Microenvironment of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is characterized by a low percentage of neoplastic lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells in a background of lymphocytes. The goal of this study is to characterize the microenvironment in NLPHL. Ten NLPHL cases and seven reactive lymph nodes (RLN) were analyzed by flow cytometry for the main immune cells and multiple specific subpopulations. To discriminate between cells in or outside the tumor cell area, we used CD26. We observed significantly lower levels of CD20+ B-cells and CD56+ NK cells and higher levels of CD4+ T-cells in NLPHL in comparison to RLN. In the subpopulations, we observed increased numbers of PD-1+CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH), CD69+CD4+ and CD69+CD8+ T-cells and CCR7-CD45RA-CD4+ effector memory T-cells, while FoxP3+CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) and CCR7-CD45RA+ terminally differentiated CD4+ T-cells were decreased in NLPHL compared to RLN. CD69+ cells were increased in the tumor cell area in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while FoxP3+CD25+CD4+ Tregs and CD25+CD8+ T-cells were significantly increased outside the tumor area. Thus, we show a markedly altered microenvironment in NLPHL, with lower numbers of NK cells and Tregs. PD-1+CD4+ and CD69+ T-cells were located inside, and Tregs and CD25+CD8+ cells outside the tumor cell area.
Project description:CD8 T cells stimulated with a suboptimal dose of anti-CD3 Abs (100 pg/ml) in the presence of IL-15 retain a naive phenotype with expression of CD45RA, CD28, CD27, and CCR7 but acquire new functions and differentiate into immunosuppressive T cells. CD8+CCR7+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) express FOXP3 and prevent CD4 T cells from responding to TCR stimulation and entering the cell cycle. Naive CD4 T cells are more susceptible to inhibition than memory cells. The suppressive activity of CD8+CCR7+ Tregs is not mediated by IL-10, TGF-?, CTLA-4, CCL4, or adenosine and relies on interference with very early steps of the TCR signaling cascade. Specifically, CD8+CCR7+ Tregs prevent TCR-induced phosphorylation of ZAP70 and dampen the rise of intracellular calcium in CD4 T cells. The inducibility of CD8+CCR7+ Tregs is correlated with the age of the individual with PBLs of donors older than 60 y yielding low numbers of FOXP3(low) CD8 Tregs. Loss of CD8+CCR7+ Tregs in the elderly host may be of relevance in the aging immune system as immunosenescence is associated with a state of chronic smoldering inflammation.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIM:Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate dominant peripheral tolerance and treat experimental colitis. Tregs can be expanded from patient blood and were safely used in recent phase 1 studies in graft versus host disease and type 1 diabetes. Treg cell therapy is also conceptually attractive for Crohn's disease (CD). However, barriers exist to this approach. The stability of Tregs expanded from Crohn's blood is unknown. The potential for adoptively transferred Tregs to express interleukin-17 and exacerbate Crohn's lesions is of concern. Mucosal T cells are resistant to Treg-mediated suppression in active CD. The capacity for expanded Tregs to home to gut and lymphoid tissue is unknown. METHODS:To define the optimum population for Treg cell therapy in CD, CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(-) Treg subsets were isolated from patients' blood and expanded in vitro using a workflow that can be readily transferred to a good manufacturing practice background. RESULTS:Tregs can be expanded from the blood of patients with CD to potential target dose within 22-24?days. Expanded CD45RA(+) Tregs have an epigenetically stable FOXP3 locus and do not convert to a Th17 phenotype in vitro, in contrast to CD45RA(-) Tregs. CD45RA(+) Tregs highly express ?4?7 integrin, CD62L and CC motif receptor 7 (CCR7). CD45RA(+) Tregs also home to human small bowel in a C.B-17 severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) xenotransplant model. Importantly, in vitro expansion enhances the suppressive ability of CD45RA(+) Tregs. These cells also suppress activation of lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes isolated from inflamed Crohn's mucosa. CONCLUSIONS:CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(+) Tregs may be the most appropriate population from which to expand Tregs for autologous Treg therapy for CD, paving the way for future clinical trials.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are major components of tumor-infiltrating immune cells with potent immunosuppressive properties in gastric cancer (GC) microenvironment. However, different subsets of the Tregs and their relevance to GC are unknown. Here, we found that patients with GC showed a significantly higher Tregs infiltration in tumors, and CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset constituted most tumor-infiltrating Tregs. Tumor-infiltrating CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset with an effector/memory phenotype accumulated in tumors and expressed low level of HLA-DR. Gastric tumor-derived TNF-? induced CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset with similar phenotype to their status in tumors and inhibited their HLA-DR expression via activating STAT3 phosphorylation. These tumor-associated CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset exerted superior immunosuppressive properties to effectively suppress CD8+ T cells' anti-tumor function including CD8+ T-cell IFN-? and granzyme B (GrB) production as well as CD8+ T-cell proliferation in vitro, and also contributed to the growth and progression of human gastric tumors in vivo, via IL-10 secretion and cell-cell contact mechanisms. Moreover, increased tumor-infiltrating CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset as well as higher intratumoral CD45RA-CCR7- Treg/CD8+ T-cell ratio was associated with advanced disease progression and reduced GC patient survival. This study therefore identifies a novel immunosuppressive pathway involving CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset development within the GC microenvironment. Efforts to inhibit this pathway may therefore prove a valuable strategy to prevent, and to treat this immune suppressive of GC.
Project description:CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in allograft and self-tolerance and thus have potential therapeutic application in transplantation, autoimmunity, and allergy. Although nonhuman primate (NHP) provide the most accepted preclinical models for translational studies in allograft tolerance and infectious diseases, CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs have been rarely studied in NHP. The low frequencies of Tregs in peripheral blood will likely necessitate ex vivo expansion to enable Tregs adaptive immune therapy in NHP and humans. Tregs were isolated by magnetic and flow sorting and then stimulated weekly with antirhesus CD3 clone FN18 and antihuman CD28-coated Dynal beads plus 100 U/ml rhIL-2. Under these conditions, the Tregs were expanded 300- to 2000-fold in 4 weeks. Expanded CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs expressed high to moderate levels of FOXP3 as well as CD95, CD62L, CD69, and CCR7 surface antigens. Expanded rhesus Tregs were anergic and suppressed the proliferation of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in a dose-dependent fashion, and the suppression was partially reversed by anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 neutralizing antibody (Ab). These results demonstrate that rhesus macaque suppressive regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs can be efficiently expanded in vitro under rhesus-specific stimulation, which enables preclinical testing of Treg therapy in the NHP model.
Project description:BACKGROUND: T regulatory cells (Tregs) contribute to the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by suppressing antitumor immunity. However, little is known regarding the functional heterogeneity of Tregs in HNSCC patients. METHODS: Using multicolor flow cytometry, the frequency of three Treg subsets, separated on the basis of CD45RA and Foxp3, from the peripheral circulation of newly-presenting HNSCC patients (19 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, 20 hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 18 nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 19 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and 36 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma) were assessed with regard to 31 healthy donors and clinicopathological features. Moreover, the functional capacity of each Treg subsets was evaluated based on CD45RA and CD25 expression. RESULTS: The frequency of Tregs in the peripheral circulation of HNSCC patients as a whole cohort was higher than in healthy donors (P <?0.0001). However, the frequency of Tregs was similar between patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and healthy donors (P =?0.269). Further dividing Tregs into three subsets based on Foxp3 and CD45RA expression revealed that the frequency of CD45RA-Foxp3high Tregs and CD45RA-Foxp3lowCD4+ T cells in patients with HNSCC developing from different subsites was higher than in healthy donors (P <?0.0001, P <?0.0001), whereas the frequency of CD45RA+Foxp3low Tregs was lower than in healthy donors (P <?0.0001). Functionally study revealed that CD45RA-CD25+++ Tregs significantly inhibit the proliferation of CD4+CD25- T cells (P <?0.001) and secrete lower levels of cytokines (P <?0.01) compared with CD45RA-CD25++CD4+ T cells. Importantly, the frequency of CD45RA-Foxp3high Tregs positively correlate with tumor stage (P <?0.0001) and nodal status (P <?0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: CD45RA-Foxp3high Tregs increase in the peripheral circulation of HNSCC patients, and correlate with tumor stage and nodal status; suggesting a role in tumor progression which may be manipulated by future immunotherapy.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in controlling alloreactivity after solid organ transplantation, but they may also impair antiviral immunity. We hypothesized that the Treg frequency and the Treg phenotype are altered in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected recipients of liver transplantation (LT) with possible prognostic implications. Tregs from 141 individuals, including healthy individuals, LT recipients with or without persistent HCV infections, and nontransplant patients with chronic HCV, were studied. A comprehensive phenotypic analysis was performed with multicolor flow cytometry, which included standard Treg markers [CD4(+), CD25(hi), CD127(-), and FoxP3(+) in addition to HLA DR, CCR7, CD45RA, CD62L, CD49d, CD39, ICOS and LAP-TGFβ stainings. Healthy individuals and LT patients displayed similar Treg frequencies and largely comparable Treg phenotypes, which were stable over time after transplantation. In contrast, Tregs with a CD45RA(-) CCR7(-) effector phenotype were enriched in LT recipients with chronic HCV versus HCV-negative transplant patients. HCV infection, rather than LT, altered the expression of functional markers on Tregs. A principal component analysis revealed distinct Treg phenotypes in HCV-infected LT recipients with rejection and patients with recurrent graft HCV. In conclusion, Treg phenotypes are altered in HCV-infected LT patients. An investigation of Tregs may possibly help to distinguish recurrent HCV from graft rejection. Further functional studies are needed to define the role of Tregs in determining the balance between antiviral and allogenic immunity.
Project description:Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising and effective treatment for cancer, yet the clinical benefit is still variable, in part due to insufficient accumulation of immune effector cells in the tumour microenvironment. Better understanding of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from nonhuman primate tumours could provide insights into improving effector cell accumulation in tumour tissues during immunotherapy. Here, we characterize TILs in a cynomolgus macaque tumour model in which the tumours were infiltrated with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and were eventually rejected. The majority of CD4+ and CD8+ TILs exhibited a CD45RA-CCR7- effector memory phenotype, but unlike circulating T cells, they expressed CD69, a marker for tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells. CD69-expressing CD8+ TILs expressed high levels of the cytotoxic molecule granzyme B and the co-inhibitory receptor PD-1. Consistent with the TRM cell phenotype, CD8+ TILs minimally expressed CX3CR1 but expressed CXCR3 at higher levels than circulating CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, chemokine ligands for CXCR3, were expressed at high levels in the tumours, thus attracting CXCR3+CD8+ T cells. These results indicate that tumour-transplanted macaques can be a useful preclinical model for studying and optimizing T cell accumulation in tumours for the development of new immunotherapies.
Project description:CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) prevent autoimmune disease, yet little is known about precisely where they exert their influence naturally in a spontaneous autoimmune disorder. Here, we report that Tregs and T effector cells (Teffs) coexist within the pancreatic lesion before type 1 diabetes onset. We find that BDC2.5 T cell receptor transgenic animals contain a small subset of FoxP3 positive CD4+CD25+CD69- cells in the pancreas, actively turning over, expressing the clonotypic receptor, and containing functional regulatory activity. Gene expression profiling confirms that the CD4+CD25+CD69- cells in pancreatic tissue express transcripts diagnostic of regulatory cells, but with significantly higher levels of interleukin 10 and inducible costimulator (ICOS) than their lymph node counterparts. Blockade of ICOS rapidly converts early insulitis to diabetes, which disrupts the balance of Teffs and Tregs and promotes a very broad shift in the expression of the T regulatory-specific profile. Thus, CD4+CD25+69- Tregs operate directly in the autoimmune lesion and are dependent on ICOS to keep it in a nondestructive state.
Project description:CD8(+) T cells play important roles in anti-tumor immunity but distribution profile or functional characteristics of effector memory subsets during tumor progression are unclear. We found that, in oral squamous carcinoma patients, circulating CD8(+) T cell pools skewed toward effector memory subsets with the distribution frequency of CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-) CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells negatively correlated with each other. A significantly higher frequency of CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells among total CD8(+) T cells was found in peripheral blood or tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, but not in regional lymph nodes. The CD127(hi) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells maintained significantly higher IFN-?, IL-2 productivity and ex vivo proliferative capacity, while the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells exhibited higher granzyme B productivity and susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A higher ratio of CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells to CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells was associated with advanced cancer staging and poor differentiation of tumor cells. Therefore, the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells are functionally similar CD8(+) T cell subsets which exhibit late differentiated effector phenotypes and the shift of peripheral CD8(+) effector memory balance toward CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells is associated with OSCC progression.
Project description:Asymptomatic Plasmodium infections are characterized by the absence of clinical disease and the ability to restrict parasite replication. Increasing levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in Plasmodium falciparum infections have been associated with the risk of developing clinical disease, suggesting that individuals with asymptomatic infections may have reduced Treg frequency. However, the relationship between Tregs, cellular activation and parasite control in asymptomatic malaria remains unclear.In a cross-sectional study, the levels of Tregs and other T cell activation phenotypes were compared using flow cytometry in symptomatic, asymptomatic and uninfected children before and after stimulation with infected red blood cell lysates (iRBCs). In addition, the association between these T cell phenotypes and parasitaemia were investigated.In children with asymptomatic infections, levels of Tregs and activated T cells were comparable to those in healthy controls but significantly lower than those in symptomatic children. After iRBC stimulation, levels of Tregs remained lower for asymptomatic versus symptomatic children. In contrast, levels of activated T cells were higher for asymptomatic children. Strikingly, the pre-stimulation levels of two T cell activation phenotypes (CD8+CD69+ and CD8+CD25+CD69+) and the post-stimulation levels of two regulatory phenotypes (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and CD8+CD25+Foxp3+) were significantly positively correlated with and explained 68% of the individual variation in parasitaemia. A machine-learning model based on levels of these four phenotypes accurately distinguished between asymptomatic and symptomatic children (sensitivity?=?86%, specificity?=?94%), suggesting that these phenotypes govern the observed variation in disease status.Compared to symptomatic P. falciparum infections, in children asymptomatic infections are characterized by lower levels of Tregs and activated T cells, which are associated with lower parasitaemia. The results indicate that T cell regulatory and activation phenotypes govern both parasitaemia and disease status in paediatric malaria in the studied sub-Saharan African population.