Expansion induced microRNA changes in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells reveals interplay between immune regulation and cell cycle.
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are currently used in many cell based therapies. Prior to use in therapy, extensive expansion is required. We used microarray profiling to investigate expansion induced miRNA and mRNA expression changes of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) derived from old and young donors. The expression levels of 36 miRNAs were altered in cells derived from the old and respectively 39 miRNAs were altered in cells derived from young donors. Of these, only 12 were differentially expressed in both young and old donor BM-MSCs, and their predicted target mRNAs, were mainly linked to cell proliferation and senescence. Further qPCR verification showed that the expression of miR-1915-3p, miR-1207, miR-3665, and miR-762 correlated with the expansion time at passage 8. Previously described BM-MSC-specific miRNA fingerprints were also detected but these remained unchanged during expansion. Interestingly, members of well-studied miR-17/92 cluster, involved in cell cycle regulation, aging and also development of immune system, were down-regulated specifically in cells from old donors. The role of this cluster in MSC functionality is worth future studies since it links expansion, aging and immune system together.
Project description:The prevalence of renal fibrosis is higher in older than in younger individuals. Through paracrine activity, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles (BM-MSC-MVs) influence the process of renal fibrosis. Differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression of BM-MSC-MVs that correlate with the age of the subjects and the correlation between miRNA expression and the process of renal fibrosis have not been established. The present study aimed to analyze differences in miRNA expression of BM-MSC-MVs between young or older rats and its influence on tumor growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HK2 cells to explore the causes of renal fibrosis in aged tissues.miRCURY LNA Array (version 18.0) was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in BM-MSC-MVs of 3- and 24-month-old Fisher344 rats. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to verify miRNA levels in BM-MSC-MVs and in the serum of rats. A TGF-?1-mediated EMT model was used to study the effects of BM-MSC-MVs and differentially expressed miRNAs on EMT.BM-MSCs from older rats showed more severe aging phenotypes compared with those of young rats. In addition, the growth rate and cell migration of BM-MSCs derived from older rats were significantly reduced. In secreted BM-MSC-MVs, the expression of miR-344a, miR-133b-3p, miR-294, miR-423-3p, and miR-872-3p was significantly downregulated in older rats than in younger rats (P?<?0.05), and the serum level of these miRNAs exhibited the same patterns. Intervention using BM-MSC-MVs resulted in the weakening of TGF-?1-mediated EMT in the aged rats. MiR-344a, miR-133b-3p, and miR-294 affected TGF-?1-mediated EMT in HK2 cells. Among these, miR-133b-3p and miR-294 significantly inhibited TGF-?1-mediated EMT in HK2 cells (P?<?0.05).In older rats, the inhibitory effect of BM-MSC-MVs on TGF-?1-mediated HK2 cell EMT was weaker than that observed in younger rats. In addition, miR-133b-3p and miR-294, which were downregulated in BM-MSC-MVs of older rats, remarkably inhibited TGF-?1-mediated EMT in HK2 cells, suggesting that these may play a role in the fibrosis of aging renal tissues.
Project description:To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC). BM-MSCs from young and old donors were seeded on acellular bone cubes from young and old donors undergoing osteoarthritis related hip surgery. All combinations resulted in increased osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity, however BM-MSCs cultured on old donor bone displayed the largest increases. BM-MSCs cultured in old donor bone conditioned media also displayed higher osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity than those exposed to young donor bone conditioned media. ELISA and Luminex analysis of conditioned media demonstrated similar levels of bioactive factors between age groups; however, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) concentration was significantly higher in young donor samples. Additionally, structural analysis of old donor bone indicated an increased porosity compared to young donor bone. These results demonstrate the ability of a decellularized scaffold produced from young and old donors to support osteogenic differentiation of cells from young and old donors. Significantly, the older donor bone produced greater osteogenic differentiation which may be related to reduced IGFBP1 bioavailability and increased porosity, potentially explaining the excellent clinical results seen with the use of allograft from aged donors.
Project description:Uncultured mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used in therapies; however, the effects of donor age on their biological characteristics and gene expression remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in bone marrow (BM) MSCs following minimal or no culture manipulation. Iliac crest BM was aspirated from 67 healthy donors (19-89 years old) and directly used for the colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay or CD45<sup>low</sup>CD271<sup>+</sup> cell enumeration. The colonies were analysed for colony area and integrated density (ID) when grown in standard MSC media or media supplemented with human serum from young (YS) or old (OS) donors. There was a notable age-related decline in the number of MSCs per millilitre of BM aspirate revealed by the CFU-F assay (<i>r</i> = -0.527, <i>p</i> < 0.0001) or flow cytometry (<i>r</i> = -0.307, <i>p</i> = 0.0116). Compared to young donors (19-40 years old), colony IDs were significantly lower in older donors (61-89 years old), particularly for smaller-sized colonies (42% lower, <i>p</i> < 0.01). When cultured in media supplemented with OS, young and old donor MSCs formed colonies with lower IDs, by 21%, <i>p</i> < 0.0001, and 27%, <i>p</i> < 0.05, respectively, indicating the formation of smaller sparser colonies. No significant differences in the expression of selected adipogenic, osteogenic, stromal, and bone remodelling genes as well as CD295, CD146, CD106, and connexin 43 surface molecules were found in sorted CD45<sup>low</sup>CD271<sup>+</sup> MSCs from young and old donors (<i>n</i> = 8 donors each). Altogether, these results show similar trends for age-related decline in BM MSC numbers measured by the CFU-F assay and flow cytometry and reveal age-related effects of human serum on MSC colony formation. No significant differences in selected gene expression in uncultured CD45<sup>low</sup>CD271<sup>+</sup> MSCs suggest that old donor MSCs may not be inferior in regard to their multipotential functions. Due to large donor-to-donor variation in all donor groups, our data indicate that an individual's chronological age is not a reliable predictor of their MSC number or potency.
Project description:Decline in the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is often seen with older donors as compared to young. Although hypoxia is known as an approach to improve the therapeutic potential of MSC in term of cell proliferation and differentiation capacity, its effects on MSC from aged donors have not been well studied. To evaluate the influence of hypoxia on different age groups, MSC from young (<30 years) and aged (>60 years) donors were expanded under hypoxic (5% O2) and normal (20% O2) culture conditions. MSC from old donors exhibited a reduction in proliferation rate and differentiation potential together with the accumulation of senescence features compared to that of young donors. However, MSC cultured under hypoxic condition showed enhanced self-renewing and proliferation capacity in both age groups as compared to normal condition. Bioinformatic analysis of the gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway under hypoxic culture condition identified hypoxia-inducible miRNAs that were found to target transcriptional activity leading to enhanced cell proliferation, migration as well as decrease in growth arrest and apoptosis through the activation of multiple signaling pathways. Overall, differentially expressed miRNA provided additional information to describe the biological changes of young and aged MSCs expansion under hypoxic culture condition at the molecular level. Based on our findings, the therapeutic potential hierarchy of MSC according to donor's age group and culture conditions can be categorized in the following order: young (hypoxia) > young (normoxia) > old aged (hypoxia) > old aged (normoxia).
Project description:Intro: Donor age has been widely demonstrated to affect the characteristic of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs). The cellular features including decrease in cell proliferation, differentiation capacity and telomere length as well as increase of senescence may reduce the yield and clinical application for cell therapy. Methods: Expansion of BM-MSCs from young and aged donors under prolonged passage (P15) and hypoxic (5% O2) platforms was performed and the biological, cellular and miRNA profiles were assessed using Next Generation Sequencing. Results: miRNA sequencing revealed differential expression of hypoxia-inducible miRNAs when young donor MSC was cultured under hypoxia.Here, we demonstrate for the first time the link between age, hypoxia and microRNA expression and conclude that MSC isolated from both young and aged donors have a greater expansion potential when cultured under hypoxic condition. Overall design: miRNA profiles of bone marrow MSC from young and aged donors expanded under normal and hypoxic culture condition were generated in triplicate by deep sequencing using TruSeq small RNA illumina
Project description:Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that a therapeutic effect results from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) transplant. No systematic information is currently available regarding whether donor age modifies MSC regenerative potential on cutaneous wound healing. Here, we evaluate whether donor age influences this potential. Two different doses of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) from young, adult, or old mouse donors or two doses of their acellular derivatives mesenchymal stromal cells (acd-MSCs) were intradermally injected around wounds in the midline of C57BL/6 mice. Every two days, wound healing was macroscopically assessed (wound closure) and microscopically assessed (reepithelialization, dermal-epidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and density dermal collagen fibers) after 12 days from MSC transplant. Significant differences in the wound closure kinetic, quality, and healing of skin regenerated were observed in lesions which received BM-MSCs from different ages or their acd-MSCs compared to lesions which received vehicle. Nevertheless, our data shows that adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs were the most efficient for recovery of most parameters analyzed. Our data suggest that MSC efficacy was negatively affected by donor age, where the treatment with adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs in cutaneous wound promotes a better tissue repair/regeneration. This is due to their paracrine factors secretion.
Project description:Aging impairs the functions of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thereby severely reducing their beneficial effects on myocardial infarction (MI). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in regulating the senescence of MSCs; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the significance of miR-155-5p in regulating MSC senescence and whether inhibition of miR-155-5p could rejuvenate aged MSCs (AMSCs) to enhance their therapeutic efficacy for MI. Young MSCs (YMSCs) and AMSCs were isolated from young and aged donors, respectively. The cellular senescence of MSCs was evaluated by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) staining. Compared with YMSCs, AMSCs exhibited increased cellular senescence as evidenced by increased SA-?-gal activity and decreased proliferative capacity and paracrine effects. The expression of miR-155-5p was much higher in both serum and MSCs from aged donors than young donors. Upregulation of miR-155-5p in YMSCs led to increased cellular senescence, whereas downregulation of miR-155-5p decreased AMSC senescence. Mechanistically, miR-155-5p inhibited mitochondrial fission and increased mitochondrial fusion in MSCs via the AMPK signaling pathway, thereby resulting in cellular senescence by repressing the expression of Cab39. These effects were partially reversed by treatment with AMPK activator or mitofusin2-specific siRNA (Mfn2-siRNA). By enhancing angiogenesis and promoting cell survival, transplantation of anti-miR-155-5p-AMSCs led to improved cardiac function in an aged mouse model of MI compared with transplantation of AMSCs. In summary, our study shows that miR-155-5p mediates MSC senescence by regulating the Cab39/AMPK signaling pathway and miR-155-5p is a novel target to rejuvenate AMSCs and enhance their cardioprotective effects.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate, the existence of a signature of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) during osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs from OA and healthy donors and to describe their possible implication in joint regeneration through modulation of molecular mechanisms involved in homeostatic control in OA pathophysiology.Following phenotypic assessment of BM-MSCs obtained from OA diagnosed patients (n?=?10) and non-OA (n?=?10), total small RNA was isolated after osteogenic induction for 1, 10 and 21 days, miRNA profiles were generated using a commercial expression array of 754 well-characterized miRNAs. MiRNAs, with consistent differential expression were selected for further validation by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis.A total of 246 miRNAs were differentially expressed (fold change???± 2, P ?0.05) between OA and non-OA BM-MSC samples; these miRNAs showed variable interactions depending on the cell and differentiation status. Two miRNAs, hsa-miR-210 and hsa-miR-335-5p out of 21 used for validation showed a significant downregulated expression during induced osteogenesis. In particular hsa-miR-335-5p, a critical regulator in bone homeostasis, was further studied. hsa-miR-335-5p downregulation in OA-MSCs, as well as their host coding gene, MEST, were also assessed.To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive assessment to date of miRNA expression profiling in BM-MSCs from OA patients and their role during osteogenic differentiation. We describe the existence of a correlation between miR-335-5p expression and OA indicating the putative role of this miRNA in OA features. These findings, may contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MSCs mediated homeostatic control in OA pathophysiology that could be applicable in future therapeutic approaches.
Project description:TSC1 is a tumor suppressor that inhibits cell growth via negative regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1). TSC1 mutations are associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), characterized by multiple benign tumors of mesenchymal and epithelial origin. TSC1 modulates self-renewal and differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells; however, its effects on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are unknown. We investigated the impact of Tsc1 inactivation in murine bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, using tissue-specific, transgelin (Tagln)-mediated cre-recombination, targeting both BM-MSCs and smooth muscle cells. Tsc1 mutants were viable, but homozygous inactivation led to a dwarfed appearance with TSC-like pathologies in multiple organs and reduced survival. In young (28 day old) mice, Tsc1 deficiency-induced significant cell expansion of non-hematopoietic BM in vivo, and MSC colony-forming potential in vitro, that was normalized upon treatment with the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus. The hyperproliferative BM-MSC phenotype was lost in aged (1.5 yr) mice, and Tsc1 inactivation was also accompanied by elevated ROS and increased senescence. ShRNA-mediated knockdown of Tsc1 in BM-MSCs replicated the hyperproliferative BM-MSC phenotype and led to impaired adipogenic and myogenic differentiation. Our data show that Tsc1 is a negative regulator of BM-MSC proliferation and support a pivotal role for the Tsc1-mTOR axis in the maintenance of the mesenchymal progenitor pool.
Project description:Degenerative diseases are a major public health concern for the aging population and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great potential for treating many of these diseases. However, the quantity and quality of MSCs declines with aging, limiting the potential efficacy of autologous MSCs for treating the elderly population.Human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs from young and elderly donors were obtained and characterized using standard cell surface marker criteria (CD73, CD90, CD105) as recommended by the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT). The elderly MSC population was isolated into four subpopulations based on size and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) expression using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and subpopulations were compared to the unfractionated young and elderly MSCs using assays that evaluate MSC proliferation, quality, morphology, intracellular reactive oxygen species, ?-galactosidase expression, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content.The ISCT-recommended cell surface markers failed to detect any differences between young and elderly MSCs. Here, we report that elderly MSCs were larger in size and displayed substantially higher concentrations of intracellular reactive oxygen species and ?-galactosidase expression and lower amounts of ATP and SSEA-4 expression. Based on these findings, cell size and SSEA-4 expression were used to separate the elderly MSCs into four subpopulations by FACS. The original populations (young and elderly MSCs), as well as the four subpopulations, were then characterized before and after culture on tissue culture plastic and BM-derived extracellular matrix (BM-ECM). The small SSEA-4-positive subpopulation representing?~?8% of the original elderly MSC population exhibited a "youthful" phenotype that was similar to that of young MSCs. The biological activity of this elderly subpopulation was inhibited by senescence-associated factors produced by the unfractionated parent population. After these "youthful" cells were isolated and expanded (three passages) on a "young microenvironment" (i.e., BM-ECM produced by BM cells from young donors), the number of cells increased???17,000-fold to 3?×?109 cells and retained their "youthful" phenotype.These results suggest that it is feasible to obtain large numbers of high-quality autologous MSCs from the elderly population and establish personal stem cell banks that will allow serial infusions of "rejuvenated" MSCs for treating age-related diseases.