Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10-3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain.
Project description:For Veterans managing PTSD symptoms, returning to vocational functioning is often challenging; identifying modifiable variables that can contribute to positive vocational adjustment is critical to improved vocational rehabilitation services. Workplace social support has proven to be important in vocational adjustment in both general population and vocational rehabilitation samples, but this area of inquiry has received little attention among Veterans with PTSD symptoms. In this small correlational study, employed Veterans (N = 63) presenting for outpatient PTSD treatment at a VA Health Care System completed surveys assessing demographic variables, PTSD symptoms, workplace social support, and job satisfaction. Workplace social support contributed to the prediction of job satisfaction. It is of note that workplace social support predicted a larger proportion of the variance in employment satisfaction than PTSD symptoms. Further research on workplace social support as a vocational rehabilitation resource for Veterans with PTSD is indicated.
Project description:Genes encoding the receptors involved in the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are potential candidates in the mechanisms of nicotine addiction.To identify genetic variants in the promoter regions and exons of the DRD4 and HTR2A genes associated with tobacco smoking and the degree of nicotine addiction in Mexican mestizos.The study included 438 non-smokers (NS) and 1,157 current smokers, ranked based on their consumption of cigarettes per day (cpd): 574 heavy smokers (HS, >20 cpd) and 583 light smokers (LS, 1-10 cpd). Genotyping was performed for 4 and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DRD4 and HTR2A genes, respectively.The C allele of rs1800955 in DRD4 was found to be associated with cigarette smoking in the HS vs. NS and LS vs. NS comparisons (p = 2.34E-03 and p = 1.13E-03, respectively); the association was maintained in the homozygous CC genotype (p = 5.00E-04 and p = 2.00E-04, respectively). The T allele of rs6313 in HTR2A was significantly associated with cigarette smoking and a greater degree of nicotine addiction (p = 4.77E-03, OR = 1.55); the association was maintained in the homozygous genotype (TT) (p = 4.90E-03, OR = 1.96). The A allele of rs6313 was associated with cigarette smoking in the HS vs. NS comparison (p = 1.53E-02, OR = 1.36); the risk was nearly doubled in the homozygous AA genotype (p = 1.30E-03, OR = 1.83) compared with the heterozygous GA genotype (OR = 1.38).Among Mexican mestizos, the C allele of rs1800955 in the DRD4 gene and the A allele of rs6311 in the HTR2A gene are associated with cigarette smoking, whereas the T allele of rs6313 in HTR2A is associated with cigarette smoking and the degree of nicotine addiction.
Project description:Serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) is an important signalling factor implicated in cognitive functions and known to be associated with schizophrenia. The biological significance of HTR2A in schizophrenia remains unclear as molecular analyses including genetic association, mRNA expression and methylation studies have reported inconsistent results. In this study, we examine HTR2A expression and methylation and the interaction with HTR2A polymorphisms to identify their biological significance in schizophrenia. Subjects included 25 schizophrenia and 25 control post-mortem brain samples. Genotype and mRNA data was generated by transcriptome sequencing. DNA methylation profiles were generated for CpG sites within promoter-exon I region. Expression, genotype and methylation data were examined for association with schizophrenia. HTR2A mRNA levels were reduced by 14% (p = 0.006) in schizophrenia compared to controls. Three CpG sites were hypermethylated in schizophrenia (cg5 p = 0.028, cg7 p = 0.021, cg10 p = 0.017) and HTR2A polymorphisms rs6314 (p = 0.008) and rs6313 (p = 0.026) showed genetic association with schizophrenia. Differential DNA methylation was associated with rs6314 and rs6313. There was a strong correlation between HTR2A DNA methylation and mRNA expression. The results were nominally significant but did not survive the rigorous Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing. Differential HTR2A expression in schizophrenia in our study may be the result of the combined effect of multiple differentially methylated CpG sites. Epigenetic HTR2A regulation may alter brain function, which contributes to the development of schizophrenia.
Project description:We investigated a relationship between selected polymorphisms: rs6313 in HTR2A, rs6295 in HTR1A and rs1386494 in TPH2, and suicidal behaviour in 150 alcohol-dependent patients. There was a significant association between more frequent C102C genotype in HTR2A and suicide attempts in alcoholic females. No differences in genotype distribution in HTR1A and TPH2 SNPs were found between patients with and without suicide attempts.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The 5-HTR2A gene has been implicated as candidate gene for eating disorders. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphisms of 5-HTR2A gene with eating disorders in Mexican population, and to evaluate if the polymorphisms of 5-HTR2A gene were associated with comorbidities in eating behavior. METHODS:We conducted a case-control analysis with 460 subjects. We included 168 patients with eating disorders and 292 controls; two polymorphisms of 5-HTR2A gene were genotyped. We assessed the association by allele, genotype, and inheritance models. Psychiatric comorbidities were analyzed by genotype in patients with eating disorders. RESULTS:We found an association between rs6311 and eating disorders in a Mexican population by allele (OR = 8.09; 95% CI = 5.99-11.03; p = 2.2e-16) and genotype (OR = 76.14; 95% CI = 35.61-177.18; p = 2.2e-16). Individuals who carried GG genotype showed increased risk for suicide attempted (OR = 2.14; CI = 1.10-4.26; p = 0.035) as comorbidity associated with eating disorders. No positive associations were observed for rs6313 polymorphism. CONCLUSION:Our results showed an association of rs6311 (A1438G) polymorphism of 5-HTR2A gene with eating disorders, and these polymorphic variants could increase the risk of psychiatric comorbidities. However, more studies are required to replicate the results and to reach to a conclusive association between eating disorders and rs6311.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate associations of work-related stressors and their changes over time with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Japanese manufacturing workers. METHODS:Participants were 1,040 employees aged 19 to 68 years who were free from MetS at baseline and completed the three year-interval follow-up survey. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement. Work-related stressors (job strain, job demands, job control, and worksite social support) were assessed based on the Job Content Questionnaire and were split into two categories (low and high) by the median value at each survey. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate the associations of baseline work-related stressors and their changes over time with the incidence of MetS. RESULTS:Three years later, 61 workers developed MetS. Higher job demands at baseline were significantly associated with a lower risk of MetS (adjusted odds ratio 0.46, 95% confidential interval: 0.24, 0.89). In the analyses of the changes in stressors over time, those whose job demands changed from low to high showed significantly higher risk of MetS (adjusted odds ratio 3.27, 95% confidential interval: 1.46, 7.34), compared with those who reported low job demands in both surveys. CONCLUSIONS:Results suggest that an increase in job demands over time, but not higher job demands at baseline, is associated with increased risk of MetS.
Project description:Work stress-related productivity losses represent a substantial economic burden. In this study, we estimate the effects of social and task-related stressors and resources at work on health-related productivity losses caused by absenteeism and presenteeism. We also explore the interaction effects between job stressors, job resources and personal resources and estimate the costs of work stress. Work stress is defined as exposure to an unfavorable combination of high job stressors and low job resources. The study is based on a repeated survey assessing work productivity and workplace characteristics among Swiss employees. We use a representative cross-sectional data set and a longitudinal data set and apply both OLS and fixed effects models. We find that an increase in task-related and social job stressors increases health-related productivity losses, whereas an increase in social job resources and personal resources (measured by occupational self-efficacy) reduces these losses. Moreover, we find that job stressors have a stronger effect on health-related productivity losses for employees lacking personal and job resources, and that employees with high levels of job stressors and low personal resources will profit the most from an increase in job resources. Productivity losses due to absenteeism and presenteeism attributable to work stress are estimated at 195 Swiss francs per person and month. Our study has implications for interventions aiming to reduce health absenteeism and presenteeism.
Project description:Nursing is known to be a stressful profession that can lead to physical and psychological health issues and behavioural problems. In oncology, workload among nurses is believed to be increasing in conjunction with rapidly increasing numbers of patients with cancer and staff shortages worldwide, therefore it is essential to sustain a quality oncology nurse workforce. Numerous studies have presented evidence on job strain, effects of coping strategies, and nurses' work performance within healthcare settings, but few have focused on oncology settings and none of these on nurses working in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this review was to summarize empirical and theoretical evidence concerning job-related stressors in nurses, particularly oncology nurses, and the interrelationships among job strain, coping strategies, and work performance in this population. Search strategies identified studies published on studies in peer-reviewed journals from 2004 to 2016. Twenty-five nursing studies were found examining the relationships among the concepts of interest. Common job-related stressors among oncology nurses were high job demands, dealing with death/dying, lack of job control, and interpersonal conflicts at work. Job strain was found to be significantly linked to coping strategies, and negatively associated with work performance among nurses in general. There is no existing empirical evidence to support the relationship between coping strategies and work performance among oncology nurses. The present evidence is limited, and a considerable amount of research is required in the future to expand the oncology nursing literature. Research is needed to investigate job-related stressors and their effects on oncology nurses.
Project description:Work motivation is critical for successful school-to-work transitions, but little is known about its determinants among labor market entrants. Applying a social identity framework, we examined whether work motivation and job searching are social-contextually determined. We expected that some job seekers are more sensitive to contextual influence, depending on their personality. Mediation analyses on 591 Dutch vocational training students indicate that the perception of more positive work norms in someone's social context was related to higher levels of intrinsic motivation, which in turn predicted higher preparatory job search behavior and job search intentions. Multi-group analysis shows that perceived work norms more strongly predict work motivation among overcontrollers compared to resilients and undercontrollers. In conclusion, work motivation and job searching appear contextually determined: especially among those sensitive to contextual influence, people seem to work when they believe that is what people like them do.
Project description:High levels of impulsivity can increase the vulnerability for development of alcohol dependence. Moreover, impulsivity is considered to be a predictor of poor treatment outcomes. Few studies, however, have directly examined the genetics of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. We analyzed the relationships between a well-recognized genetic marker of serotonin activity and levels of impulsivity as measured by both the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the stop-signal task among 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used as an independent, objective method of estimating the level of behavioral impulsivity, and the BIS-11 as a self-report measure of global impulsivity. Blood was collected and analyzed for the T102C (rs6313) polymorphism in the serotonin type 2A receptor gene (HTR2A). Our results indicate a significant association between high levels of behavioral impulsivity and the C/C genotype of rs6313 in alcohol-dependent patients. The CC genotype has been previously found to be associated with a reduction in 5HT2A receptors in the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that genetic factors are important determinants of behavioral impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients, and that the serotonin system plays an important role in establishing its level.