Randomized Trial of Video Laryngoscopy for Endotracheal Intubation of Critically Ill Adults.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of video laryngoscopy on the rate of endotracheal intubation on first laryngoscopy attempt among critically ill adults. DESIGN:A randomized, parallel-group, pragmatic trial of video compared with direct laryngoscopy for 150 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation by Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine fellows. SETTING:Medical ICU in a tertiary, academic medical center. PATIENTS:Critically ill patients 18 years old or older. INTERVENTIONS:Patients were randomized 1:1 to video or direct laryngoscopy for the first attempt at endotracheal intubation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Patients assigned to video (n = 74) and direct (n = 76) laryngoscopy were similar at baseline. Despite better glottic visualization with video laryngoscopy, there was no difference in the primary outcome of intubation on the first laryngoscopy attempt (video 68.9% vs direct 65.8%; p = 0.68) in unadjusted analyses or after adjustment for the operator's previous experience with the assigned device (odds ratio for video laryngoscopy on intubation on first attempt 2.02; 95% CI, 0.82-5.02, p = 0.12). Secondary outcomes of time to intubation, lowest arterial oxygen saturation, complications, and in-hospital mortality were not different between video and direct laryngoscopy. CONCLUSIONS:In critically ill adults undergoing endotracheal intubation, video laryngoscopy improves glottic visualization but does not appear to increase procedural success or decrease complications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypoxemia is the most common complication during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults. Intubation in the ramped position has been hypothesized to prevent hypoxemia by increasing functional residual capacity and decreasing the duration of intubation, but has never been studied outside of the operating room. METHODS:Multicenter, randomized trial comparing the ramped position (head of the bed elevated to 25°) with the sniffing position (torso supine, neck flexed, and head extended) among 260 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation by pulmonary and critical care medicine fellows in four ICUs between July 22, 2015, and July 19, 2016. The primary outcome was lowest arterial oxygen saturation between induction and 2 minutes after intubation. Secondary outcomes included Cormack-Lehane grade of glottic view, difficulty of intubation, and number of laryngoscopy attempts. RESULTS:The median lowest arterial oxygen saturation was 93% (interquartile range [IQR], 84%-99%) with the ramped position vs 92% (IQR, 79%-98%) with the sniffing position (P = .27). The ramped position appeared to increase the incidence of grade III or IV view (25.4% vs 11.5%, P = .01), increase the incidence of difficult intubation (12.3% vs 4.6%, P = .04), and decrease the rate of intubation on the first attempt (76.2% vs 85.4%, P = .02), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In this multicenter trial, the ramped position did not improve oxygenation during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults compared with the sniffing position. The ramped position may worsen glottic view and increase the number of laryngoscopy attempts required for successful intubation. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02497729; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:BACKGROUND:For critically ill patients, effective airway management with a high first-attempt success rate for endotracheal intubation is essential to prevent hypoxic complications during securing of the airway. Video guidance may improve first-attempt success rate over direct laryngoscopy (DL). METHODS:With ethics approval, this randomised controlled trial involved 54 critically ill patients who received endotracheal intubation using a tube with an integrated video camera (VivaSight™-SL tube, VST, ETView Ltd., Misgav, Israel) or using conventional intubation under DL. RESULTS:The two groups did not differ in terms of intubation conditions. The first-attempt success rate was VST 96% vs. DL 93% (not statistically significant (n. s.)). When intubation at first attempt failed, it was successful in the second attempt in all patients. There was no difference in the median average time to intubation (VST 34 s (interquartile range 28-39) vs. DL 35 s (28-40), n. s.). Neither vomiting nor aspiration or accidental oesophageal intubation were observed in either group. The lowest pulsoxymetric oxygen saturation for VST was 96 (82-99) % vs. 99 (95-100) % for DL (n. s.). Hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure?<?70 mmHg occurred in the VST group at 20% vs. the DL group at 15% (n. s.). CONCLUSION:In this pilot study, no advantage was shown for the VST. The VST should be examined further to identify patient groups that could benefit from intubation with the VST, that is, patients with difficult airway conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02837055 . Registered on 13 June 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypoxemia and hypotension are common complications during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults. Verbal performance of a written, preintubation checklist may prevent these complications. We compared a written, verbally performed, preintubation checklist with usual care regarding lowest arterial oxygen saturation or lowest systolic BP experienced by critically ill adults undergoing endotracheal intubation. METHODS:A multicenter trial in which 262 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation were randomized to a written, verbally performed, preintubation checklist (checklist) or no preintubation checklist (usual care). The coprimary outcomes were lowest arterial oxygen saturation and lowest systolic BP between the time of procedural medication administration and 2 min after endotracheal intubation. RESULTS:The median lowest arterial oxygen saturation was 92% (interquartile range [IQR], 79-98) in the checklist group vs 93% (IQR, 84-100) with usual care (P = .34). The median lowest systolic BP was 112 mm Hg (IQR, 94-133) in the checklist group vs 108 mm Hg (IQR, 90-132) in the usual care group (P = .61). There was no difference between the checklist and usual care in procedure duration (120 vs 118 s; P = .49), number of laryngoscopy attempts (one vs one attempt; P = .42), or severe life-threatening procedural complications (40.8% vs 32.6%; P = .20). CONCLUSIONS:The verbal performance of a written, preprocedure checklist does not increase the lowest arterial oxygen saturation or lowest systolic BP during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults compared with usual care. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02497729; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Sufficient ventilation and oxygenation through proper airway management is essential in patients undergoing cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although widely discussed, securing the airway using an endotracheal tube is considered the standard of care. Endotracheal intubation may be challenging and causes prolonged interruption of chest compressions. Videolaryngoscopes have been introduced to better visualize the vocal cords and accelerate intubation, which makes endotracheal intubation much safer and may contribute to intubation success. Therefore, we aimed to compare hands-off time and intubation success of direct laryngoscopy with videolaryngoscopy (C-MAC, Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) in a randomized, cross-over manikin study.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-six anesthesia residents and twelve anesthesia consultants of the University Hospital Zurich were recruited through a voluntary enrolment. All participants performed endotracheal intubation using direct laryngoscopy and C-MAC in a random order during ongoing chest compressions. Participants were strictly advised to stop chest compression only if necessary.<h4>Results</h4>The median hands-off time was 1.9 seconds in direct laryngoscopy, compared to 3 seconds in the C-MAC group. In direct laryngoscopy 39 intubation attempts were recorded, resulting in an overall first intubation attempt success rate of 97%, compared to 38 intubation attempts and 100% overall first intubation attempt success rate in the C-MAC group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>As a conclusion, the results of our manikin-study demonstrate that video laryngoscopes might not be beneficial compared to conventional, direct laryngoscopy in easily accessible airways under CPR conditions and in experienced hands. The benefits of video laryngoscopes are of course more distinct in overcoming difficult airways, as it converts a potential "blind intubation" into an intubation under visual control.
Project description:Hypoxemia is common during endotracheal intubation of critically ill patients and may predispose to cardiac arrest and death. Administration of supplemental oxygen during laryngoscopy (apneic oxygenation) may prevent hypoxemia.To determine if apneic oxygenation increases the lowest arterial oxygen saturation experienced by patients undergoing endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit.This was a randomized, open-label, pragmatic trial in which 150 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation in a medical intensive care unit were randomized to receive 15 L/min of 100% oxygen via high-flow nasal cannula during laryngoscopy (apneic oxygenation) or no supplemental oxygen during laryngoscopy (usual care). The primary outcome was lowest arterial oxygen saturation between induction and 2 minutes after completion of endotracheal intubation.Median lowest arterial oxygen saturation was 92% with apneic oxygenation versus 90% with usual care (95% confidence interval for the difference, -1.6 to 7.4%; P = 0.16). There was no difference between apneic oxygenation and usual care in incidence of oxygen saturation less than 90% (44.7 vs. 47.2%; P = 0.87), oxygen saturation less than 80% (15.8 vs. 25.0%; P = 0.22), or decrease in oxygen saturation greater than 3% (53.9 vs. 55.6%; P = 0.87). Duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit length of stay, and in-hospital mortality were similar between study groups.Apneic oxygenation does not seem to increase lowest arterial oxygen saturation during endotracheal intubation of critically ill patients compared with usual care. These findings do not support routine use of apneic oxygenation during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 02051816).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The direct laryngoscopy technique using a Macintosh blade is the first choice globally for most anaesthetists. In case of an unanticipated difficult airway, the complication rate increases with the number of intubation attempts. Recently, McGrath MAC (McGrath) video laryngoscopy has become a widely accepted method for securing an airway by tracheal intubation because it allows the visualisation of the glottis without a direct line of sight. Several studies and case reports have highlighted the benefit of the video laryngoscope in the visualisation of the glottis and found it to be superior in difficult intubation situations. The aim of this study was to compare the first-pass intubation success rate using the (McGrath) video laryngoscope compared with conventional direct laryngoscopy in surgical patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The EMMA trial is a multicentre, open-label, patient-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Consecutive patients requiring tracheal intubation are randomly allocated to either the McGrath video laryngoscope or direct laryngoscopy using the Macintosh laryngoscope. The expected rate of successful first-pass intubation is 95% in the McGrath group and 90% in the Macintosh group. Each group must include a total of 1000 patients to achieve 96% power for detecting a difference at the 5% significance level. Successful intubation with the first attempt is the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoints are the time to intubation, attempts for successful intubation, the necessity of alternatives, visualisation of the glottis using the Cormack & Lehane score and percentage of glottic opening score and definite complications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The project was approved by the local ethics committee of the Medical Association of the Rhineland Palatine state and Westphalia-Lippe. The results of this study will be made available in the form of manuscripts for publication and presentations at national and international meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02611986; pre-results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Video (indirect) laryngoscopy is used as a primary tracheal intubation device for difficult airways in emergency departments and in adult ICUs. The use and outcomes of video laryngoscopy compared with direct laryngoscopy has not been quantified in PICUs or cardiac ICUs. DESIGN:Retrospective review of prospectively collected observational data from a multicenter tracheal intubation database (National Emergency Airway Registry for Children) from July 2010 to June 2015. SETTING:Thirty-six PICUs/cardiac ICUs across the United States, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and Singapore. PATIENTS:Any patient admitted to a PICU or a pediatric cardiac ICU and undergoing tracheal intubation. INTERVENTIONS:Use of direct laryngoscopy versus video laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:There were 8,875 tracheal intubations reported in the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children database, including 7,947 (89.5%) tracheal intubations performed using direct laryngoscopy and 928 (10.5%) tracheal intubations performed using video laryngoscopy. Wide variability in video laryngoscopy use exists across PICUs (median, 2.6%; range, 0-55%). Video laryngoscopy was more often used in older children (p < 0.001), in children with history of a difficult airway (p = 0.01), in children intubated for ventilatory failure (p < 0.001), and to facilitate the completion of an elective procedure (p = 0.048). After adjusting for patient-level covariates, a secular trend, and site-level variance, the use of video laryngoscopy significantly increased over a 5-year period compared with fiscal year 2011 (odds ratio, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.7-26.8 for fiscal year 2014 and odds ratio, 11.2; 95% CI, 3.2-38.9 for fiscal year 2015). The use of video laryngoscopy was independently associated with a lower occurrence of tracheal intubation adverse events (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.42-0.77; p < 0.001) but not with a lower occurrence of severe tracheal intubation adverse events (adjusted odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.56-1.32; p = 0.49) or fewer multiple attempts at endotracheal intubation (adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.71-1.22; p = 0.59). CONCLUSIONS:Using National Emergency Airway Registry for Children data, we described patient-centered adverse outcomes associated with video laryngoscopy compared with direct laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation in the largest reported international cohort of children to date. Data from this study may be used to design sufficiently powered prospective studies comparing patient-centered outcomes for video laryngoscopy versus direct laryngoscopy during endotracheal intubation.
Project description:Recent trials showed that video laryngoscopy (VL) did not yield higher first-attempt tracheal intubation success rate than direct laryngoscopy (DL) and was associated with higher rates of complications. Tracheal intubation can be more challenging in the general ward than in the intensive care unit. This study aimed to investigate which laryngoscopy mode is associated with higher first-attempt intubation success in a general ward.This is a retrospective study of tracheal intubations conducted at a tertiary academic hospital. This analysis included all intubations performed by the medical emergency team in the general ward during a 48-month period.For the 958 included patients, the initial laryngoscopy mode was video laryngoscopy in 493 (52%) and direct laryngoscopy in 465 patients (48%). The overall first-attempt success rate was 69% (664 patients). The first-attempt success rate was higher with VL (79%; 391/493) than with DL (59%; 273/465, p?<?0.001). The first-attempt intubation success rate was higher among experienced operators (83%; 266/319) than among inexperienced operators (62%; 398/639, p?<?0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, VL, pre-intubation heart rate, pre-intubation SpO2?>?80%, a non-predicted difficult airway, experienced operator, and Cormack-Lehane grade were associated with first-attempt intubation success in the general ward. Over all intubation-related complications were not different between two groups (27% for VL vs. 25% for DL). However, incidence of a post-intubation SpO2?<?80% was higher with VL than with DL (4% vs. 1%, p?=?0.005), and in-hospital mortality was also higher (53.8% vs. 43%, p?=?0.001).In a general ward setting, the first-attempt intubation success rate was higher with video laryngoscopy than with direct laryngoscopy. However, video laryngoscopy did not reduce intubation-related complications. Furthers trials on best way to perform intubation in the emergency settings are required.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Endotracheal intubation (ETI) can be challenging, especially in life-threatening situations such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Videolaryngoscopes aim to ease ETI, but effort is still widely discussed. This study intended to investigate 2 different airway devices regarding the success rate of ETI during ongoing chest compressions.<h4>Methods</h4>This randomized, cross-over, multi-center manikin trial included 85 experienced paramedics actively working in the emergency medicine service. After a standardized training session, all paramedics underwent 3 airway scenarios using both, direct laryngoscopy using a Macintosh blade and videolaryngoscope (the UEScope): normal airway without chest compressions, normal airway with uninterrupted chest compressions, and difficult airway with uninterrupted chest compressions. The primary outcome was successful ETI, defined as successful placement of the endotracheal tube within the manikin's trachea. Secondary outcomes were number of intubation attempts, time to successful ETI, time to best glottis view, best percent of glottic opening, best glottic view score (Cormack and Lehane), occurrence of dental trauma, ease of use, and willing to reuse in real-life situations.<h4>Results</h4>The UEScope provided a better glottis visualization, and higher first pass intubation success rate compared to direct laryngoscopy in all 3 scenarios. The overall intubation success was higher, and the intubation time was shorter with the UEScope in scenario B and scenario C, but was comparable in scenario A. Dental compression occurred less often using the UEScope and paramedics rated intubation using the UEScope easier compared to direct laryngoscopy in all 3 airway scenarios.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In simulated CPR scenarios, intubation with the UEScope resulted in a better glottis visualization, a higher intubation success, and a shorter intubation time compared to Macintosh laryngoscope (MAC). Moreover, in situations where the airway is difficult for ETI especially by the paramedic, the UEScope would be a better choice than the MAC. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in real-life patients.
Project description:It is generally accepted that using a video laryngoscope is associated with an improved visualization of the glottis. However, correctly placing the endotracheal tube might be challenging. Channeled video laryngoscopic blades have an endotracheal tube already pre-loaded, allowing to advance the tube once the glottis is visualized. We hypothesized that use of a channel blade with pre-loaded endotracheal tube results in a faster intubation, compared to a curved Macintosh blade video laryngoscope.After ethical approval and informed consent, patients were randomized to receive endotracheal Intubation with either the King Vision® video laryngoscope with curved blade (control) or channeled blade (channeled). Success rate, evaluation of the glottis view (percentage of glottic opening (POGO), Cormack&Lehane (C&L)) and intubating time were evaluated.Over a two-month period, a total of 46 patients (control n = 23; channeled n = 23) were examined. The first attempt success rates were comparable between groups (control 100% (23/23) vs. channeled 96% (22/23); p = 0.31). Overall intubation time was significantly shorter with control (median 40 sec; IQR [24-58]), compared to channeled (59 sec [40-74]; p = 0.03). There were no differences in glottis visualization between groups.Compared with the King Vision channeled blade, time for tracheal intubation was shorter with the control group using a non-channeled blade. First attempt success and visualization of the glottis were comparable. These data do not support the hypothesis that a channeled blade is superior to a curved video laryngoscopic blade without tube guidance.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02344030.