Newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidoses: a pilot study of measurement of glycosaminoglycans by tandem mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism that are progressive and usually result in irreversible skeletal, visceral, and/or brain damage, highlighting a need for early diagnosis. METHODS:This pilot study analyzed 2862 dried blood spots (DBS) from newborns and 14 DBS from newborn patients with MPS (MPS I, n?=?7; MPS II, n?=?2; MPS III, n?=?5). Disaccharides were produced from polymer GAGs by digestion with chondroitinase B, heparitinase, and keratanase II. Heparan sulfate (0S, NS), dermatan sulfate (DS) and mono- and di-sulfated KS were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Median absolute deviation (MAD) was used to determine cutoffs to distinguish patients from controls. Cutoffs were defined as median?+?7× MAD from general newborns. RESULTS:The cutoffs were as follows: HS-0S?>?90 ng/mL; HS-NS?>?23 ng/mL, DS?>?88 ng/mL; mono-sulfated KS?>?445 ng/mL; di-sulfated KS?>?89 ng/mL and ratio di-KS in total KS?>?32 %. All MPS I and II samples were above the cutoffs for HS-0S, HS-NS, and DS, and all MPS III samples were above cutoffs for HS-0S and HS-NS. The rate of false positives for MPS I and II was 0.03 % based on a combination of HS-0S, HS-NS, and DS, and for MPS III was 0.9 % based upon a combination of HS-0S and HS-NS. CONCLUSIONS:Combination of levels of two or more different GAGs improves separation of MPS patients from unaffected controls, indicating that GAG measurements are potentially valuable biomarkers for newborn screening for MPS.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is caused by the deficiency of a specific hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the step-wise degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study, we propose an empirical method to calculate levels of GAG-derived disaccharides based on the quantity (peak areas) of chondroitin sulfate (CS) with the aim of making a diagnosis of MPS more accurate and reducing the occurrence of false positive and false negative results. In this study, levels of urinary GAG-derived disaccharides were measured in 67 patients with different types of MPS and 165 controls without MPS using a tandem mass spectrometry assay. Two different methods of reporting GAG-derived disaccharides were assessed; normalization to urinary CS (in ?g/mL), and normalization to ?g/mg creatinine. CS-normalization yielded more consistent values than creatinine-normalization. In particular, levels of urinary dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS) significantly varied because of changes in urine creatinine levels, which were proportional to age but inversely proportional to DS, HS, and KS measurements. Using CS-normalization revealed the actual status of DS, HS, and KS without the influence of factors such as age, urine creatinine, and other physiological conditions. It could discriminate between the patients with MPS and controls without MPS, and also to evaluate changes in GAG levels pre- and post-enzyme replacement therapy.
Project description:Diagnosis of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) generally relies on an initial analysis of total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion in urine. Often the dimethylmethylene blue dye-binding (DMB) assay is used, although false-negative results have been reported. We report a multiplexed diagnostic test with a high sensitivity for all MPSs and with the potential to identify patients with I-cell disease (ML II) and mucolipidosis III (ML III).Urine samples of 100 treatment naive MPS patients were collected and analyzed by the conventional DMB assay and a multiplex assay based on enzymatic digestion of heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS) and keratan sulfate (KS) followed by quantification by LC-MS/MS. Specificity was calculated by analyzing urine samples from a cohort of 39 patients suspected for an inborn error of metabolism, including MPSs.The MPS cohort consisted of 18 MPS I, 16 MPS II, 34 MPS III, 10 MPS IVA, 3 MPS IVB, 17 MPS VI and 2 MPS VII patients. All 100 patients were identified by the LC-MS/MS assay with typical patterns of elevation of HS, DS and KS, respectively (sensitivity 100%). DMB analysis of the urine was found to be in the normal range in 10 of the 100 patients (sensitivity 90%). Three out of the 39 patients were identified as false-positive, resulting in a specificity of the LS-MS/MS assay of 92%. For the DMB this was 97%. All three patients with MLII/MLIII had elevated GAGs in the LC-MS/MS assay while the DMB test was normal in 2 of them.The multiplex LC-MS/MS assay provides a robust and very sensitive assay for the diagnosis of the complete spectrum of MPSs and has the potential to identify MPS related disorders such as MLII/MLIII. Its performance is superior to that of the conventional DMB assay.
Project description:Heparan sulfate (HS) serves as a cell-surface co-receptor for growth factors, morphogens, and chemokines. These HS and protein binding events depend on the fine structure and distribution of domains along an HS chain. A given domain can vary in terms of uronic acid epimer, N- and O-sulfate, and N-acetate content. The most highly sulfated regions of HS chains, N-sulfated (NS) domains, play prominent roles in HS and protein binding. We have analyzed HS oligosaccharides from various mammalian sources and provide evidence that NS domains residing at the nonreducing end (NRE) are, on average, longer than those residing in the internal regions of the chain. Additionally, they are more highly sulfated than their internal counterparts. These features are independent of the sulfation pattern of the bulk HS chains. From disaccharide analysis, it is clear that NS domains do not always occupy HS NREs. However, when they do, they tend to terminate in a subset of N-sulfated disaccharides. Our observations are consistent with a significant role of NRE NS domains in HS-growth factor interactions.
Project description:Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play important roles on the regulation of extracellular signaling, neuronal development, and cartilage maintenance. The extracellular concentration of total GAGs has been used as an established measure for the diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). Heparan sulfate (HS), Dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate are known to be elevated in the GAGs under pathological conditions associated with MPS. Furthermore, the selective accumulation of disease-specific one of, or a combination of, them has also been used for the estimation of subtypes of MPS. A previously developed method [Auray-Blais C et al. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 102 (2011) 49-56.] measures the concentration of GAGs using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with higher precision. To ask whether the selective accumulation of HS and DS in the urine of MPS II patients discriminate the attenuated and severe type of MPS II, we examined the concentrations of HS and DS by this methodology. Compared to the healthy controls, we found a marked elevation of HS and DS in all of the MPS II-affected patients. Among patients who received ERT with confirmed elevation of antibody titer, the concentrations of HS in the urine of patients with attenuated type were lower than those with severe type of MPS II. In these patients, the concentrations of DS by LC-MS/MS and of total GAG by DMB failed to depend on the accumulation of antibody. These results suggest that the LC-MS/MS method employed in this study might discriminate the subtypes of MPS II in different clinical background.
Project description:Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans consist of unbranched sulfated polysaccharide chains of repeating GalNAc-GlcA/IdoA disaccharide units, attached to serine residues on specific proteins. The CS/DS proteoglycans are abundant in the extracellular matrix where they have essential functions in tissue development and homeostasis. In this report a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate genes coding for the enzymes that modify CS/DS is presented. We identify single orthologous genes in the zebrafish genome for the sulfotransferases chst7, chst11, chst13, chst14, chst15 and ust and the epimerase dse. In contrast, two copies were found for mammalian sulfotransferases CHST3 and CHST12 and the epimerase DSEL, named chst3a and chst3b, chst12a and chst12b, dsela and dselb, respectively. Expression of CS/DS modification enzymes is spatially and temporally regulated with a large variation between different genes. We found that CS/DS 4-O-sulfotransferases and 6-O-sulfotransferases as well as CS/DS epimerases show a strong and partly overlapping expression, whereas the expression is restricted for enzymes with ability to synthesize di-sulfated disaccharides. A structural analysis further showed that CS/DS sulfation increases during embryonic development mainly due to synthesis of 4-O-sulfated GalNAc while the proportion of 6-O-sulfated GalNAc increases in later developmental stages. Di-sulfated GalNAc synthesized by Chst15 and 2-O-sulfated GlcA/IdoA synthesized by Ust are rare, in accordance with the restricted expression of these enzymes. We also compared CS/DS composition with that of heparan sulfate (HS). Notably, CS/DS biosynthesis in early zebrafish development is more dynamic than HS biosynthesis. Furthermore, HS contains disaccharides with more than one sulfate group, which are virtually absent in CS/DS.
Project description:Enzyme-based newborn screening for Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) has a high false-positive rate due to the prevalence of pseudodeficiency alleles, often resulting in unnecessary and costly follow up. The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparan sulfate (HS) are both substrates for ?-l-iduronidase (IDUA). These GAGs are elevated in patients with MPS I and have been shown to be promising biomarkers for both primary and second-tier testing. Since February 2016, we have measured DS and HS in 1213 specimens submitted on infants at risk for MPS I based on newborn screening. Molecular correlation was available for 157 of the tested cases. Samples from infants with MPS I confirmed by IDUA molecular analysis all had significantly elevated levels of DS and HS compared to those with confirmed pseudodeficiency and/or heterozygosity. Analysis of our testing population and correlation with molecular results identified few discrepant outcomes and uncovered no evidence of false-negative cases. We have demonstrated that blood spot GAGs analysis accurately discriminates between patients with confirmed MPS I and false-positive cases due to pseudodeficiency or heterozygosity and increases the specificity of newborn screening for MPS I.
Project description:Keratan sulfate (KS) is commonly elevated in urine samples from patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) and is considered pathognomonic for the condition. Recently, a new method has been described by Martell et al. to detect and measure urinary KS utilizing LC-MS/MS. As a part of the validation of this method in our laboratory, we studied the sensitivity and specificity of elevated urine KS levels using 25 samples from 15 MPS IVA patients, and 138 samples from 102 patients with other lysosomal storage disorders, including MPS I (n?=?9), MPS II (n?=?13), MPS III (n?=?23), MPS VI (n?=?7), beta-galactosidase deficiency (n?=?7), mucolipidosis (ML) type II, II/III and III (n?=?51), alpha-mannosidosis (n?=?11), fucosidosis (n?=?4), sialidosis (n?=?5), Pompe disease (n?=?3), aspartylglucosaminuria (n?=?4), and galactosialidosis (n?=?1). As expected, urine KS values were significantly higher (fivefold average increase) than age-matched controls in all MPS IVA patients. Urine KS levels were also significantly elevated (threefold to fourfold increase) in patients with GM-1 gangliosidosis, MPS IVB, ML II and ML II/III, and fucosidosis. Urine KS was also elevated to a smaller degree (1.1-fold to 1.7-fold average increase) in patients with MPS I, MPS II, and ML III. These findings suggest that while the UPLC-MS/MS urine KS method is 100% sensitive for the detection of patients with MPS IVA, elevated urine KS is not specific for this condition. Therefore, caution is advised when interpreting urinary keratan sulfate results.
Project description:Heparan sulfate (HS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan located on the surface and extracellular matrix of mammalian cells. HS is constituted of highly N-sulfated domains (NS domains) interrupted by lower sulfation domains. The arrangement of these domains dictates the function of HS which is mainly involved in binding proteins and regulating their biological activities. Heparin, a heparan sulfate analogue present in mast cells, resembles the NS domains of HS but lacks the alternating high and low sulfation architecture. Because the NS domains that range up to hexadecasaccharide in size are the main protein binders, heparin has been used as a model for HS in protein binding studies. Heparan sulfate, however, is the more physiologically relevant modulator of growth factor-receptor interactions. In this work, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to compare the compositions of affinity-purified heparin and HS octasaccharides with anticoagulant activities versus library octasaccharides. The fine structures of the biologically active HS compositions were then compared against those of library octasaccharides using low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. This approach confirmed isomeric enrichment of these compositions and, most importantly, produces ions diagnostic of their biological activity.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Conventional enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is approved for MPS IVA. However, the fact that the infused enzyme cannot penetrate avascular lesions in cartilage leads to minimal impact on the bone lesion. Moreover, short half-life, high cost, instability, and narrow optimal pH range remain unmet challenges in ERT. Thermostable keratanase, endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase, has a unique character of a wide optimal pH range of pH 5.0-7.0. We hypothesized that this endoglycosidase degrades keratan sulfate (KS) polymer in circulating blood and, therefore, ameliorates the accumulation of KS in multiple tissues. We propose a novel approach, Substrate Degradation Enzyme Therapy (SDET), to treat bone lesion of MPS IVA. We assessed the effect of thermostable keratanase on blood KS level and bone pathology using Galns knock-out MPS IVA mice. After a single administration of 2 U/kg (= 0.2 mg/kg) of the enzyme at 8 weeks of age via intravenous injection, the level of serum KS was significantly decreased to normal range level, and this suppression was maintained for at least 4 weeks. We administered 2 U/kg of the enzyme to MPS IVA mice every fourth week for 12 weeks (total of 3 times) at newborns or 8 weeks of age. After a third injection, serum mono-sulfated KS levels were kept low for 4 weeks, similar to that in control mice, and at 12 weeks, bone pathology was markedly improved when SDET started at newborns, compared with untreated MPS IVA mice. Overall, thermostable keratanase reduces the level of KS in blood and provides a positive impact on cartilage lesions, demonstrating that SDET is a novel therapeutic approach to MPS IVA.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by diminished degradation of the glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate (HS) and dermatan sulfate (DS). Patients present with a variety of symptoms, including severe skeletal disease. Current therapeutic strategies have only limited effects on bone disease. The isoflavone genistein has been studied as a potential therapy for the mucopolysaccharidoses because of its putative ability to inhibit GAG synthesis and subsequent accumulation. Cell, animal, and clinical studies, however, showed variable outcomes. To determine the effects of genistein on MPS I-related bone disease, wild-type (WT) and MPS I mice were fed a genistein-supplemented diet (corresponding to a dose of approximately 160 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. HS and DS levels in bone and plasma remained unchanged after genistein supplementation, while liver HS levels were decreased in genistein-fed MPS I mice as compared to untreated MPS I mice. Unexpectedly, genistein-fed mice exhibited significantly decreased body length and femur length. In addition, 60% of genistein-fed MPS I mice developed a scrotal hernia and/or scrotal hydrocele, manifestations, which were absent in WT or untreated MPS I mice. In contrast to studies in MPS III mice, our study in MPS I mice demonstraes no beneficial but even potential adverse effects of genistein supplementation. Our results urge for a cautious approach on the use of genistein, at least in patients with MPS I.