Parenting and the development of effortful control from early childhood to early adolescence: A transactional developmental model.
ABSTRACT: Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13-14 years, involving five time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11-12 to 13-14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. The findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages;
Project description:Parent-grandparent co-parenting has become a common mode in Chinese families; however, its correlation with children's development in the long run remains unclear. Herein, a 10-month follow-up survey was conducted among 253 preschool children and their parents from Chinese parent-grandparent co-parenting families. It aimed to examine the bidirectional longitudinal correlation of children's effortful control with mother-grandparent and father-grandparent co-parenting relationships, as well as the dissimilarity of the two co-parenting relationships. In addition, the moderating role of maternal parenting self-efficacy in these relationships was also investigated. A cross-lagged model showed that the (1) mother-grandparent co-parenting relationship (T1) positively predicted the father-grandparent co-parenting relationship (T2), (2) dissimilarity of the mother-grandparent and father-grandparent co-parenting relationships (T1) negatively predicted children's effortful control (T2), and (3) maternal parenting self-efficacy significantly moderated the predictive effect of children's effortful control on a father-grandparent co-parenting relationship. However, a further simple slope analysis showed that after controlling the father-grandparent co-parenting relationship (T1), the children's effortful control (T1) did not significantly predict the father-grandparent co-parenting relationship (T2) either in the high or low maternal parenting self-efficacy group. These results indicated that in Chinese parent-grandparent co-parenting families, the father-grandparent co-parenting relationship was influenced by the mother-grandparent co-parenting relationship, and similar mother-grandparent and father-grandparent co-parenting relationships were conducive to the development of the children's effortful control.
Project description:This study examined bidirectional associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's externalizing behavior and whether they were moderated by preschool-age effortful control and gender. Mothers and teachers reported on 224 primarily White, middle-class children at ages 3, 5, and 10. Effortful control was assessed via behavioral battery and mother ratings. Structural equation modeling indicated that maternal depressive symptoms at child age 3 predicted more externalizing behavior at age 10 among children with low effortful control and among boys. Externalizing behavior at age 3 predicted fewer depressive symptoms at the age 10 assessments among mothers of children with high effortful control. Boys with suboptimal self-regulation exposed to high levels of maternal depressive symptoms were at greatest risk for school-age behavioral problems.
Project description:Effortful control refers to the propensity to regulate one's impulses and behaviors, to focus and shift attention easily, and to motivate the self toward a goal when there are competing desires. Although it seems likely that these capacities are relevant to successful functioning in the school context, there has been surprisingly little longitudinal research examining whether youth with poor effortful control are more likely to act out in the classroom, get suspended, and skip school. Conversely, there is even less research on whether youth who exhibit these school behavioral problems are more likely to decline over time in effortful control. We used multimethod data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth (N = 674), assessed biennially from 5th to 11th grade, to examine the codevelopment of effortful control and school behavioral problems. Bivariate latent growth curve models revealed a negative association between the trajectories of effortful control and school behavioral problems, indicating that steeper decreases in effortful control were related to steeper increases in school behavioral problems. Furthermore, this codevelopmental pattern was bidirectional; cross-lagged regression analyses showed that low effortful control was associated with relative increases in school behavioral problems, and school behavioral problems were associated with relative decreases in effortful control. Gender, nativity status, Mexican cultural values, and school-level antisocial behavior had concurrent associations with effortful control and school behavioral problems, but they did not moderate the codevelopmental pathways. We discuss the theoretical implications for personality development, as well as the practical implications for reducing school behavioral problems during adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:This 4-year longitudinal multi-informant study examined between- and within-person associations between adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parenting (parental psychological control and autonomy support). A community sample of 819 adolescents (46.1% girls; Mage T1 = 13.4 years) reported annually on social anxiety symptoms and both adolescents and mothers reported on parenting. Between-person associations suggested that adolescent social anxiety symptoms were associated with higher adolescent- and mother-reported psychological control and lower mother-reported autonomy support. At the within-person level, however, mothers reported lower psychological control and higher autonomy support after periods with higher adolescent social anxiety symptoms. Our findings illustrate the importance of distinguishing among between-person and within-person associations and including perceptions of both dyad members in longitudinal research concerning parenting and adolescent mental health.
Project description:This study used data from 12 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and United States; N = 1,315) to investigate bidirectional associations between parental warmth and control, and child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. In addition, the extent to which these associations held across mothers and fathers and across cultures with differing normative levels of parent warmth and control were examined. Mothers, fathers, and children completed measures when children were ages 8 to 13. Multiple-group autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that evocative child-driven effects of externalizing and internalizing behavior on warmth and control are ubiquitous across development, cultures, mothers, and fathers. Results also reveal that parenting effects on child externalizing and internalizing behaviors, though rarer than child effects, extend into adolescence when examined separately in mothers and fathers. Father-based parent effects were more frequent than mother effects. Most parent- and child-driven effects appear to emerge consistently across cultures. The rare culture-specific parenting effects suggested that occasionally the effects of parenting behaviors that run counter to cultural norms may be delayed in rendering their protective effect against deleterious child outcomes.
Project description:This review (Prospero Registration Number: CRD42017057915) aimed to systematically identify and summarize existing research on the relationship between additional emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) in children with autism, and parenting stress (PS) and mental health problems (MHP) in their parents. Sixty-seven studies met criteria for inclusion in the review, 61 of which were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled correlation coefficients were in the low to moderate range ([Formula: see text]). Some evidence for moderation by measurement characteristics was found. Narrative review of concurrent adjusted associations showed some evidence for shared relationships with other factors, most notably ASD severity and parent perception of own parenting. Longitudinal studies showed mixed evidence for bidirectional predictive relationships between child EBP and parent psychological distress variables.
Project description:Coercive parent-child interaction models posit that an escalating cycle of negative, bidirectional interchanges influences the development of boys' externalizing problems and caregivers' maladaptive parenting over time. However, longitudinal studies examining this hypothesis have been unable to rule out the possibility that between-individual factors account for bidirectional associations between child externalizing problems and maladaptive parenting. Using a longitudinal sample of boys (N?=?503) repeatedly assessed eight times across 6-month intervals in childhood (in a range between 6 and 13 years), the current study is the first to use novel within-individual change (fixed effects) models to examine whether parents tend to increase their use of maladaptive parenting strategies following an increase in their son's externalizing problems, or vice versa. These bidirectional associations were examined using multiple facets of externalizing problems (i.e., interpersonal callousness, conduct and oppositional defiant problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity) and parenting behaviors (i.e., physical punishment, involvement, parent-child communication). Analyses failed to support the notion that when boys increase their typical level of problem behaviors, their parents show an increase in their typical level of maladaptive parenting across the subsequent 6 month period, and vice versa. Instead, across 6-month intervals, within parent-son dyads, changes in maladaptive parenting and child externalizing problems waxed and waned in concert. Fixed effects models to address the topic of bidirectional relations between parent and child behavior are severely underrepresented. We recommend that other researchers who have found significant bidirectional parent-child associations using rank-order change models reexamine their data to determine whether these findings hold when examining changes within parent-child dyads.
Project description:Maternal depression is an established risk factor for child conduct problems, but relatively few studies have tested whether children's behavioral problems exacerbate mothers' depression or whether other child behavioral characteristics (e.g., self-regulation) may mediate bidirectional effects between maternal depression and child disruptive behavior. This longitudinal study examined the parallel growth of maternal depressive symptoms and child oppositional behavior from ages 2 to 5; the magnitude and timing of their bidirectional effects; and whether child inhibitory control, a temperament-based self-regulatory mechanism, mediated effects between maternal depression and child oppositionality. A randomized control trial of 731 at-risk families assessed children annually from ages 2 to 5. Transactional models demonstrated positive and bidirectional associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's oppositional behavior from ages 2 to 3, with a less consistent pattern of reciprocal relations up to age 5. Mediation of indirect mother-child effects and child evocative effects depended on the rater of children's inhibitory control. Findings are discussed in regard to how child evocative effects and self-regulatory mechanisms may clarify the transmission of psychopathology within families.
Project description:The Tromsø Intervention Study on Preterms (TISP) randomized 146 preterm-born children either to the Mother-Infant Transaction Program (MITP) or to a preterm control group. Previously, significant reductions of child behavior problems and maternal stress have been reported in the intervention group. This follow-up study examines whether the MITP may have affected the longitudinal adaptation between mothers and their children from two until nine years, expressed as associations between different behavioral problems and parenting stress reported by mothers. Associations between internalizing, attentional, and social problems and different dimensions of parenting stress were analyzed in separate models that included effects of time and group status. The MITP did not influence the development of longitudinal associations as no significant three-way interaction (stress*group*time) was found. Significant stress by group interactions was only found in reports on children's attentional problems when analyzed with parent- or interaction-related stress. Mothers who had participated in the MITP reported weaker stress?behavior associations than control mothers. This effect was moderated by two independent variables, namely children's birthweight and years of maternal education for the parent?child difficult interaction stress.
Project description:Little is known about the role of stress reactivity in the emergence of psychopathology across early childhood. In this longitudinal study, we tested the hypothesis that child cortisol reactivity at age 3 moderates associations between early parenting and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms from age 3 to age 6. One hundred and sixty children were assessed at age 3, and 135 children were reassessed at age 6. At age 3, we exposed children to stress-inducing laboratory tasks, during which we obtained four salivary cortisol samples, and parental hostility was assessed using an observational parent-child interaction task. At ages 3 and 6, child psychiatric symptoms were assessed using a clinical interview with parents. The results indicated that the combination of high child cortisol reactivity and high observed parental hostility at age 3 was associated with greater concurrent externalizing symptoms at age 3 and predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms from age 3 to age 6. Findings highlight that increased stress reactivity, within the context of hostile parenting, plays a role in the emergence of psychopathology from preschool to school entry.