Project description:Our previous study indicated that multiprojection chest radiography could significantly improve radiologists' performance for lung nodule detection in clinical practice. In this study, the authors further verify that multiprojection chest radiography can greatly improve the performance of a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme.Our database consisted of 59 subjects, including 43 subjects with 45 nodules and 16 subjects without nodules. The 45 nodules included 7 real and 38 simulated ones. The authors developed a conventional CAD scheme and a new fusion CAD scheme to detect lung nodules. The conventional CAD scheme consisted of four steps for (1) identification of initial nodule candidates inside lungs, (2) nodule candidate segmentation based on dynamic programming, (3) extraction of 33 features from nodule candidates, and (4) false positive reduction using a piecewise linear classifier. The conventional CAD scheme processed each of the three projection images of a subject independently and discarded the correlation information between the three images. The fusion CAD scheme included the four steps in the conventional CAD scheme and two additional steps for (5) registration of all candidates in the three images of a subject, and (6) integration of correlation information between the registered candidates in the three images. The integration step retained all candidates detected at least twice in the three images of a subject and removed those detected only once in the three images as false positives. A leave-one-subject-out testing method was used for evaluation of the performance levels of the two CAD schemes.At the sensitivities of 70%, 65%, and 60%, our conventional CAD scheme reported 14.7, 11.3, and 8.6 false positives per image, respectively, whereas our fusion CAD scheme reported 3.9, 1.9, and 1.2 false positives per image, and 5.5, 2.8, and 1.7 false positives per patient, respectively. The low performance of the conventional CAD scheme may be attributed to the high noise level in chest radiography, and the small size and low contrast of most nodules.This study indicated that the fusion of correlation information in multiprojection chest radiography can markedly improve the performance of CAD scheme for lung nodule detection.
Project description:Given the radiation concerns inherent to the x-ray modalities, accurately estimating the radiation doses that patients receive during different imaging modalities is crucial. This study estimated organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices for the three clinical chest x-ray imaging techniques (chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT) using 59 anatomically variable voxelized phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation methods.A total of 59 computational anthropomorphic male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) adult phantoms were used in this study. Organ doses and effective doses were estimated for a clinical radiography system with the capability of conducting chest radiography and tomosynthesis (Definium 8000, VolumeRAD, GE Healthcare) and a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). A Monte Carlo dose simulation program (PENELOPE, version 2006, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) was used to mimic these two clinical systems. The Duke University (Durham, NC) technique charts were used to determine the clinical techniques for the radiographic modalities. An exponential relationship between CTDIvol and patient diameter was used to determine the absolute dose values for CT. The simulations of the two clinical systems compute organ and tissue doses, which were then used to calculate effective dose and risk index. The calculation of the two dose metrics used the tissue weighting factors from ICRP Publication 103 and BEIR VII report.The average effective dose of the chest posteroanterior examination was found to be 0.04 mSv, which was 1.3% that of the chest CT examination. The average effective dose of the chest tomosynthesis examination was found to be about ten times that of the chest posteroanterior examination and about 12% that of the chest CT examination. With increasing patient average chest diameter, both the effective dose and risk index for CT increased considerably in an exponential fashion, while these two dose metrics only increased slightly for radiographic modalities and for chest tomosynthesis. Effective and organ doses normalized to mAs all illustrated an exponential decrease with increasing patient size. As a surface organ, breast doses had less correlation with body size than that of lungs or liver.Patient body size has a much greater impact on radiation dose of chest CT examinations than chest radiography and tomosynthesis. The size of a patient should be considered when choosing the best thoracic imaging modality.
Project description:Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory and knowledge of the imaging geometry to remove tomographic blur that is present in conventional backprojection tomosynthesis reconstructions, leaving in-plane detail rendered clearly. The use of partial-pixel interpolation during the backprojection process introduces imprecision in the MITS modeling of tomographic blur, and creates low-contrast artifacts in some MITS planes. This paper examines the use of MITS slabs, created by averaging several adjacent MITS planes, as a method for suppressing partial-pixel artifacts.Human chest tomosynthesis projection data, acquired as part of an IRB-approved pilot study, were used to generate MITS planes, three-plane MITS slabs (MITSa3), five-plane MITS slabs (MITSa5), and seven-plane MITS slabs (MITSa7). These were qualitatively examined for partial-pixel artifacts and the visibility of normal and abnormal anatomy. Additionally, small (5 mm) subtle pulmonary nodules were simulated and digitally superimposed upon human chest tomosynthesis projection images, and their visibility was qualitatively assessed in the different reconstruction techniques. Simulated images of a thin wire were used to generate modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice-sensitivity profile curves for the different MITS and MITS slab techniques, and these were examined for indications of partial-pixel artifacts and frequency response uniformity. Finally, mean-subtracted, exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) estimates were computed and compared for MITS and MITS slab reconstructions, generated from 10 sets of tomosynthesis projection data of an acrylic slab. The simulated in-plane MTF response of each technique was also combined with the square root of the ENNPS estimate to yield stochastic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information about the different reconstruction techniques.For scan angles of 20° and 5 mm plane separation, seven MITS planes must be averaged to sufficiently remove partial-pixel artifacts. MITSa7 does appear to subtly reduce the contrast of high-frequency "edge" information, but the removal of partial-pixel artifacts makes the appearance of low-contrast, fine-detail anatomy even more conspicuous in MITSa7 slices. MITSa7 also appears to render simulated subtle 5 mm pulmonary nodules with greater visibility than MITS alone, in both the open lung and regions overlying the mediastinum. Finally, the MITSa7 technique reduces stochastic image variance, though the in-plane stochastic SNR (for very thin objects which do not span multiple MITS planes) is only improved at spatial frequencies between 0.05 and 0.20 cycles∕mm.The MITSa7 method is an improvement over traditional single-plane MITS for thoracic imaging and the pulmonary nodule detection task, and thus the authors plan to use the MITSa7 approach for all future MITS research at the authors' institution.
Project description:The appropriate management of the large number of lung nodules detected during the course of routine medical care presents a challenge. We aimed to evaluate the usual clinical practice in solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) management and associated radiation exposure.We examined 893 radiology reports of consecutive patients undergoing chest computed tomography (CT) and radiography at two public hospitals in Spain. Information on diagnostic procedures from SPN detection and lung cancer diagnosis was collected prospectively for 18 months.More than 20% of patients with SPN detected on either chest radiograph (19.8%) or CT (26.1%) underwent no additional interventions and none developed lung cancer (100% negative predictive value). 346 (72.0%) patients with SPN detected on chest radiograph and 254 (61.5%) patients with SPN detected on CT had additional diagnostic tests and were not diagnosed with lung cancer. In patients undergoing follow-up imaging for SPNs detected on CT median number of additional imaging tests was 3.5 and the mean cumulative effective dose was 24.4 mSv; for those detected on chest radiograph the median number of additional imaging tests was 2.8 and the mean cumulative effective dose was 10.3 mSv.Patients who did not have additional interventions were not diagnosed of lung cancer. There was an excessive amount of interventions in a high percentage of patients presenting SPN, which was associated with an excess of radiation exposure.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The imaging evaluation of cystic fibrosis currently relies on chest radiography or computed tomography. Recently, digital chest tomosynthesis has been proposed as an alternative. We have developed a stationary digital chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) system based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) linear x-ray source array. This system enables tomographic imaging without movement of the x-ray tube and allows for physiological gating. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of clinical CF imaging with the s-DCT system. MATERIALS AND METHODS:CF patients undergoing clinically indicated chest radiography were recruited for the study and imaged on the s-DCT system. Three board-certified radiologists reviewed both the CXR and s-DCT images for image quality relevant to CF. CF disease severity was assessed by Brasfield score on CXR and chest tomosynthesis score on s-DCT. Disease severity measures were also evaluated against subject pulmonary function tests. RESULTS:Fourteen patients underwent s-DCT imaging within 72 h of their chest radiograph imaging. Readers scored the visualization of proximal bronchi, small airways and vascular pattern higher on s-DCT than CXR. Correlation between the averaged Brasfield score and averaged tomosynthesis disease severity score for CF was -0.73, p = 0.0033. The CF disease severity score system for tomosynthesis had high correlation with FEV1 (r = -0.685) and FEF 25-75% (r = -0.719) as well as good correlation with FVC (r = -0.582). CONCLUSION:We demonstrate the potential of CNT x-ray-based s-DCT for use in the evaluation of cystic fibrosis disease status in the first clinical study of s-DCT. KEY POINTS:• Carbon nanotube-based linear array x-ray tomosynthesis systems have the potential to provide diagnostically relevant information for patients with cystic fibrosis without the need for a moving gantry. • Despite the short angular span in this prototype system, lung features such as the proximal bronchi, small airways and pulmonary vasculature have improved visualization on s-DCT compared with CXR. Further improvements are anticipated with longer linear x-ray array tubes. • Evaluation of disease severity in CF patients is possible with s-DCT, yielding improved visualization of important lung features and high correlation with pulmonary function tests at a relatively low dose.
Project description:The sensitivity of CT based lung cancer screening for the detection of early lung cancer is balanced by the high number of benign lung nodules identified, the unknown consequences of radiation from the test, and the potential costs of a CT based screening program. CAD chest radiography may improve the sensitivity of standard chest radiography while minimizing the risks of CT based screening.Study subjects were age 40-75 years with 10+ pack-years of smoking and/or an additional risk for developing lung cancer. Subjects were randomized to receive a PA view chest radiograph or placebo control (went through the process of being imaged but were not imaged). Images were reviewed first without then with the assistance of CAD. Actionable nodules were reported and additional evaluation was tracked. The primary outcome was the rate of developing symptomatic advanced stage lung cancer.1,424 subjects were enrolled. 710 received a CAD chest radiograph, 29 of whom were found to have an actionable lung nodule on prevalence screening. Of the 15 subjects who had a chest CT performed for additional evaluation, a lung nodule was confirmed in 4, 2 of which represented lung cancer. Both of the cancers were seen by the radiologist unaided and were identified by the CAD chest radiograph. The cumulative incidence of symptomatic advanced lung cancer was 0.42 cases per 100 person-years in the control arm; there were no events in the screening arm.Further evaluation is necessary to determine if CAD chest radiography has a role as a lung cancer screening tool. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01663155.
Project description:<b>Aim:</b> This prospective clinical study aimed to evaluate whether it would be possible to reduce the rate of re-excisions using CMOS technology, a specimen radiography system (SRS) or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared to a conventional full field digital mammography (FFDM) system. <b>Material and Method:</b> Between 12/2012 and 2/2013 50 patients were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (BI-RADS™ 5). After histological verification, all patients underwent breast-conserving therapy with intraoperative imaging using 4 different systems and differing magnifications: 1. Inspiration™ (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), amorphous selenium, tungsten source, focus 0.1?mm, resolution 85?µm pixel pitch, 8?lp/mm; 2. BioVision™ (Bioptics, Tucson, AZ, USA), CMOS technology, photodiode array, flat panel, tungsten source, focus 0.05, resolution 50?µm pixel pitch, 12?lp/mm; 3. the Trident™ specimen radiography system (SRS) (Hologic, Bedford, MA, USA), amorphous selenium, tungsten source, focus 0.05, resolution 70?µm pixel pitch, 7.1?lp/mm; 4. tomosynthesis (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), amorphous selenium, tungsten source, focus 0.1?mm, resolution 85?µm pixel pitch, 8?lp/mm, angular range 50 degrees, 25 projections, scan time >?20?s, geometry: uniform scanning, reconstruction: filtered back projection. The 600 radiographs were prospectively shown to 3 radiologists. <b>Results:</b> Of the 50 patients with histologically proven breast cancer (BI-RADS™ 6), 39 patients required no further surgical therapy (re-excision) after breast-conserving surgery. A retrospective analysis (n?=?11) showed a significant (p?<?0.05) increase of sensitivity with the BioVision™, the Trident™ and tomosynthesis compared to the Inspiration™ at a magnification of 1.0?:?2.0 or 1.0?:?1.0 (tomosynthesis) (2.6, 3.3 or 3.6?%), i.e. re-excision would not have been necessary in 2, 3 or 4 patients, respectively, compared to findings obtained with a standard magnification of 1.0?:?1.0. <b>Conclusion:</b> The sensitivity of the BioVision™, the Trident™ and tomosynthesis was significantly (p?<?0.05) higher and the rate of re-excisions was reduced compared to FFDM using a conventional detector at a magnification of 2.0 but without zooming.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Current management of lung nodules is complicated by nontherapeutic resections and missed chances for cure. We hypothesized that a serum proteomic signature may add diagnostic information beyond that provided by combined clinical and radiographic data. METHODS:Cohort A included 265 and cohort B 114 patients. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and quantified the added value of a previously described serum proteomic signature beyond clinical and radiographic risk factors for predicting lung cancer using the integration discrimination improvement (IDI) index. RESULTS:The average computed tomography (CT) measured nodule size in cohorts A and B was 37.83 versus 23.15 mm among patients with lung cancer and 15.82 versus 17.18 mm among those without, respectively. In cohort A, the AUC increased from 0.68 to 0.86 after adding chest CT imaging variables to the clinical results, but the proteomic signature did not provide meaningful added value. In contrast, in cohort B, the AUC improved from 0.46 with clinical data alone to 0.61 when combined with chest CT imaging data and to 0.69 after adding the proteomic signature (IDI of 20% P = 0.0003). In addition, in a subgroup of 100 nodules between 5 and 20 mm in diameter, the proteomic signature added value with an IDI of 15% (P ? 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:The results show that this serum proteomic biomarker signature may add value to the clinical and chest CT evaluation of indeterminate lung nodules. IMPACT:This study suggests a possible role of a blood biomarker in the evaluation of indeterminate lung nodules.
Project description:PurposeIn this methodology paper we describe the development of a lung nodule management algorithm specifically for patients undergoing cardiac CT.MethodsWe modified the Lung-RADS algorithm specifically to manage lung nodules incidentally detected on cardiac CT (Lung-RADS for cardiac CT). We will evaluate the modified algorithm as part of the DISCHARGE trial (www.dischargetrial.eu) in which patients with suspected coronary artery disease are randomly assigned to cardiac CT or invasive coronary angiography across Europe at 16 sites involving 3546 patients. Patients will be followed for up to four years.ResultsThe major adjustments to Lung-RADS specifically for cardiac CT relate to 1) incomplete coverage of the lungs by cardiac CT compared with chest CT, and when to order a completion chest CT versus a follow up chest CT, 2) cardiac CT findings will not trigger annual lung-cancer screening, and 3) a lower threshold of at least 10?mm for classifying new ground glass nodules as probably benign (category 3).ConclusionsThe DISCHARGE trial will assess a lung nodule management algorithm designed specifically for cardiac CT in patients with stable chest pain across Europe.
Project description:Aim: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to assess whether it would be possible to reduce the rate of re-excisions and improve the quality using CMOS technology or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared to a conventional FFDM system. Material and Methods: An invasive breast cancer (BI-RADS 5) was diagnosed in 200 patients in the period from 5/2011 to 1/2012. After histological verification, a breast-conserving therapy was performed with intraoperative imaging. Three different imaging systems were used: 1) Inspiration™ (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), amorphous selenium, tungsten source, focus 0.1?mm, resolution 85?µm pixel pitch, 8?l/mm as the standard; 2) BioVision™ (Bioptics, Tucson, USA), flat panel photodiode array, tungsten source, focus 0.05, resolution 50?µm pixel pitch, 12?l/mm; 3) Tomosynthesis (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), amorphous selenium, tungsten source, focus 0.1?mm, resolution 85?µm pixel pitch, 8?l/mm, range: 50°, 25 projections, scan time >?20?s, geometry: uniform scanning, reconstruction: filtered back projection. The 600 radiograms were prospectively shown to 3 radiologists. Results: Out of a total of 200 patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer (BI-RADS 6) 156 patients required no further operative therapy (re-excision) after breast-conserving therapy. A retrospective analysis (n?=?44) showed an increase in sensitivity with tomosynthesis compared to the BioVision™ (CMOS technology) and the Inspiration™ at a magnification of 1.0?:?1.0 of 8?% (p?<?0.05), i.e. re-excision would not have been necessary in 16 patients with tomosynthesis. Conclusions: The sensitivity of tomosynthesis for intraoperative radiography is significantly (p?<?0.05) higher compared to both CMOS technology and an FFDM system with a conventional detector. Additional studies using higher magnification, e.g. 2.0?:?1.0, but no zooming will be necessary to evaluate the method further.