Indacenodibenzothiophenes: synthesis, optoelectronic properties and materials applications of molecules with strong antiaromatic character.
ABSTRACT: Indeno[1,2-b]fluorenes (IFs), while containing 4n ?-electrons, are best described as two aromatic benzene rings fused to a weakly paratropic s-indacene core. In this study, we find that replacement of the outer benzene rings of an IF with benzothiophenes allows the antiaromaticity of the central s-indacene to strongly reassert itself. Herein we report a combined synthetic, computational, structural, and materials study of anti- and syn-indacenodibenzothiophenes (IDBTs). We have developed an efficient and scalable synthesis for preparation of a series of aryl- and ethynyl-substituted IDBTs. NICS-XY scans and ACID calculations reveal an increasingly antiaromatic core from [1,2-b]IF to anti-IDBT, with syn-IDBT being nearly as antiaromatic as the parent s-indacene. As an initial evaluation, the intermolecular electronic couplings and electronic band structure of a diethynyl anti-IDBT derivative reveal the potential for hole and / or electron transport. OFETs constructed using this molecule show the highest hole mobilities yet achieved for a fully conjugated IF derivative.
Project description:Antiaromatic and open-shell molecules are attractive because of their distinct electronic and magnetic behaviour. However, their increased reactivity creates a challenge for probing their properties. Here, we describe the on-surface and in-solution generation and characterisation of a highly reactive antiaromatic molecule: indeno[1,2-b]fluorene (IF). In solution, we generated IF by KI-induced dehalogenation of a dibromo-substituted precursor molecule and found that IF survives for minutes at ambient conditions. Using atom manipulation at low temperatures we generated IF on Cu(111) and on bilayer NaCl. On these surfaces, we characterised IF by bond-order analysis using non-contact atomic force microscopy with CO-functionalised tips and by orbital imaging using scanning tunnelling microscopy. We found that the closed-shell configuration and antiaromatic character predicted for gas-phase IF are preserved on the NaCl film. On Cu(111), we observed significant bond-order reorganisation within the s-indacene moiety because of chemisorption, highlighting the importance of molecule surface interactions on the ?-electron distribution.
Project description:The synthesis and characterization of four fully-conjugated indacenedithiophenes (IDTs) are disclosed. In contrast to anthradithiophenes, regioselective synthesis of both syn and anti isomers is readily achieved. Thiophene fusion imparts increased paratropic character on the central indacene core as predicted by DFT calculations and confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. IDTs exhibit red-shifted absorbance maxima with respect to their all-carbon analogues and undergo two-electron reduction and one-electron oxidation.
Project description:The three-fold HOMO-LUMO gap oscillation, typical of finite length armchair carbon nanotubes (CNT), has a major effect on the magnetic response of ultrashort, single-end-capped [5,5] carbon nanotubes to a perturbing magnetic field parallel to the main symmetry axis. For the CNT's containing 40, 70, and 100 carbon atoms, for which 100?% of the C=C double bonds can be grouped into aromatic-sextets, i.?e., fully or complete Clar networks, large paratropic (antiaromatic) global circulations around the cylindrical axis are predicted at the DFT level of calculation. Local and semi-global diatropic (aromatic) currents of strengths not larger than that of the benzene molecule are determined for a perpendicular perturbing magnetic field. CNTs of intermediate lengths do not display this enhanced antiaromatic response. The paratropic current flow clearly shows that these complete Clar networks can be viewed as stacked cycloparaphenylene belts, each providing a double 4n annulene circuit as a consequence of the quinoidal resonance structure that results from their closure. Paradoxically, the fully aromatic Clar structure itself is responsible for the enhanced global antiaromaticity.
Project description:Aromaticity is a key concept in organic chemistry. Even though this concept has already been theoretically extrapolated to three dimensions, it usually still remains restricted to planar molecules in organic chemistry textbooks. Stacking of antiaromatic ?-systems has been proposed to induce three-dimensional aromaticity as a result of strong frontier orbital interactions. However, experimental evidence to support this prediction still remains elusive so far. Here we report that close stacking of antiaromatic porphyrins diminishes their inherent antiaromaticity in the solid state as well as in solution. The antiaromatic stacking furthermore allows a delocalization of the ?-electrons, which enhances the two-photon absorption cross-section values of the antiaromatic porphyrins. This feature enables the dynamic switching of the non-linear optical properties by controlling the arrangement of antiaromatic ?-systems on the basis of intermolecular orbital interactions.
Project description:Fully ?-conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbons with antiaromatic character have attracted research attention because of their unique properties such as narrow energy gaps, and thus should find application as optical and electronic materials. Although antiaromatic 16?-electron frameworks can be constructed by the incorporation of multiple seven-membered rings in a fused fashion to install methylenecycloheptatriene (heptafulvene) segments, the development of corresponding benzo[1,2:4,5]diannulene (BDA)-containing ?-conjugated systems remains challenging due to the difficulty of their molecular design and synthesis. In this study, we develop an unprecedented chemical structure of cycloheptatriene-bis-annelated indenofluorene, which possesses both BDA and indenofluorene frameworks in a fused fashion. Physical measurements and X-ray analyses, along with theoretical calculations, indicated that antiaromaticity appeared in the BDA framework. By using the conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbon possessing both seven-membered and five-membered rings, this study provides fundamental insight into the strong antiaromatic nature of heptafulvene-based BDA framework.
Project description:Understanding of interactions among molecules is essential to elucidate the binding of pharmaceuticals on receptors, the mechanism of protein folding and self-assembling of organic molecules. While interactions between two aromatic molecules have been examined extensively, little is known about the interactions between two antiaromatic molecules. Theoretical investigations have predicted that antiaromatic molecules should be stabilized when they stack with each other by attractive intermolecular interactions. Here, we report the synthesis of a cyclophane, in which two antiaromatic porphyrin moieties adopt a stacked face-to-face geometry with a distance shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii of the atoms involved. The aromaticity in this cyclophane has been examined experimentally and theoretically. This cyclophane exhibits three-dimensional spatial current channels between the two subunits, which corroborates the existence of attractive interactions between two antiaromatic π-systems.
Project description:In all molecules, a current density is induced when the molecule is subjected to an external magnetic field. In turn, this current density creates a particular magnetic field. In this work, the bifurcation value of the induced magnetic field is analyzed in a representative set of aromatic, non-aromatic and antiaromatic monocycles, as well as a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons. The results show that the bifurcation value of the ring-shaped domain adequately classifies the studied molecules according to their aromatic character. For aromatic and nonaromatic molecules, it is possible to analyze two ring-shaped domains, one diatropic (inside the molecular ring) and one paratropic (outside the molecular ring). Meanwhile, for antiaromatic rings, only a diatropic ring-shaped domain (outside the molecular ring) is possible to analyze, since the paratropic domain (inside the molecular ring) is irreducible with the maximum value (attractor) at the center of the molecular ring. In some of the studied cases, i.?e., in heteroatomic species, bifurcation values do not follow aromaticity trends and present some inconsistencies in comparison to ring currents strengths, showing that this approximation provides only a qualitative estimation about (anti)aromaticity.
Project description:Nickel norcorrole provides an unusual example of a molecule that is strongly antiaromatic according to the magnetic criterion, but which exhibits, according to high-quality DFT calculations, a symmetric, delocalized structure with no difference in bond length between adjacent Cmeso-C? bonds. A fragment molecular orbital analysis suggests that these discordant observations are a manifestation of the high stability of the dipyrrin fragments, which retain their electronic and structural integrity even as part of the norcorrole ring system.
Project description:Nanographenes, namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with nanoscale dimensions (>1?nm), are atomically precise cutouts from graphene. They represent prime models to enhance the scope of chemical and physical properties of graphene through structural modulation and functionalization. Defined nitrogen doping in nanographenes is particularly attractive due to its potential for increasing the number of ?-electrons, with the possibility of introducing localized antiaromatic ring elements. Herein we present azomethine ylide homocoupling as a strategy to afford internally nitrogen-doped, non-planar PAH in solution and planar nanographene on surfaces, with central pyrazine rings. Localized antiaromaticity of the central ring is indicated by optical absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with theoretical calculations. Our strategy opens up methods for chemically tailoring graphene and nanographenes, modified by antiaromatic dopants.
Project description:The concepts of aromaticity and antiaromaticity have a long history, and countless demonstrations of these phenomena have been made with molecules based on elements from the p, d, and f blocks of the periodic table. In contrast, the limited oxidation-state flexibility of the s-block metals has long stood in the way of their participation in sophisticated ?-bonding arrangements, and truly antiaromatic systems containing s-block metals are altogether absent or remain poorly defined. Using spectroscopic, structural, and computational techniques, we present herein the synthesis and authentication of a heterocyclic compound containing the alkaline earth metal beryllium that exhibits significant antiaromaticity, and detail its chemical reduction and Lewis-base-coordination chemistry.