Mitochondrial-nuclear co-evolution leads to hybrid incompatibility through pentatricopeptide repeat proteins.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial-nuclear incompatibility has a major role in reproductive isolation between species. However, the underlying mechanism and driving force of mitochondrial-nuclear incompatibility remain elusive. Here, we report a pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (PPR) protein, Ccm1, and its interacting partner, 15S rRNA, to be involved in hybrid incompatibility between two yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus S. bayanus-Ccm1 has reduced binding affinity for S. cerevisiae-15S rRNA, leading to respiratory defects in hybrid cells. This incompatibility can be rescued by single mutations on several individual PPR motifs, demonstrating the highly evolvable nature of PPR proteins. When we examined other PPR proteins in the closely related Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts, about two-thirds of them showed detectable incompatibility. Our results suggest that fast co-evolution between flexible PPR proteins and their mitochondrial RNA substrates may be a common driving force in the development of mitochondrial-nuclear hybrid incompatibility.
Project description:Nuclear-mitochondrial conflict (cytonuclear incompatibility) is a specific form of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility previously shown to cause reproductive isolation in two yeast species. Here, we identified two new incompatible genes, MRS1 and AIM22, through a systematic study of F2 hybrid sterility caused by cytonuclear incompatibility in three closely related Saccharomyces species (S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, and S. bayanus). Mrs1 is a nuclear gene product required for splicing specific introns in the mitochondrial COX1, and Aim22 is a ligase encoded in the nucleus that is required for mitochondrial protein lipoylation. By comparing different species, our result suggests that the functional changes in MRS1 are a result of coevolution with changes in the COX1 introns. Further molecular analyses demonstrate that three nonsynonymous mutations are responsible for the functional differences of Mrs1 between these species. Functional complementation assays to determine when these incompatible genes altered their functions show a strong correlation between the sequence-based phylogeny and the evolution of cytonuclear incompatibility. Our results suggest that nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility may represent a general mechanism of reproductive isolation during yeast evolution.
Project description:Two yeast isolates, a wine-making yeast first identified as a Mel+ strain (ex. S. uvarum) and a cider-making yeast, were characterized for their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Electrophoretic karyotyping analyses, restriction fragment length polymorphism maps of PCR-amplified MET2 gene fragments, and the sequence analysis of a part of the two MET2 gene alleles found support the notion that these two strains constitute hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus. The two hybrid strains had completely different restriction patterns of mitochondrial DNA as well as different sequences of the OLI1 gene. The sequence of the OLI1 gene from the wine hybrid strain appeared to be the same as that of the S. cerevisiae gene, whereas the OLI1 gene of the cider hybrid strain is equally divergent from both putative parents, S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae. Some fermentative properties were also examined, and one phenotype was found to reflect the hybrid nature of these two strains. The origin and nature of such hybridization events are discussed.
Project description:This work presents the genome sequencing of the lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) Weihenstephan 34/70, a strain widely used in lager beer brewing. The 25 Mb genome comprises two nuclear sub-genomes originating from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and one circular mitochondrial genome originating from S. bayanus. Thirty-six different types of chromosomes were found including eight chromosomes with translocations between the two sub-genomes, whose breakpoints are within the orthologous open reading frames. Several gene loci responsible for typical lager brewing yeast characteristics such as maltotriose uptake and sulfite production have been increased in number by chromosomal rearrangements. Despite an overall high degree of conservation of the synteny with S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, the syntenies were not well conserved in the sub-telomeric regions that contain lager brewing yeast characteristic and specific genes. Deletion of larger chromosomal regions, a massive unilateral decrease of the ribosomal DNA cluster and bilateral truncations of over 60 genes reflect a post-hybridization evolution process. Truncations and deletions of less efficient maltose and maltotriose uptake genes may indicate the result of adaptation to brewing. The genome sequence of this interspecies hybrid yeast provides a new tool for better understanding of lager brewing yeast behavior in industrial beer production.
Project description:PPR proteins are a diverse family of RNA binding factors found in all Eukaryotic lineages. They perform multiple functions in the expression of organellar genes, mostly on the post-transcriptional level. PPR proteins are also significant determinants of evolutionary nucleo-organellar compatibility. Plant PPR proteins recognize their RNA substrates using a simple modular code. No target sequences recognized by animal or yeast PPR proteins were identified prior to the present study, making it impossible to assess whether this plant PPR code is conserved in other organisms. Dmr1p (Ccm1p, Ygr150cp) is a S. cerevisiae PPR protein essential for mitochondrial gene expression and involved in the stability of 15S ribosomal RNA. We demonstrate that in vitro Dmr1p specifically binds a motif composed of multiple AUA repeats occurring twice in the 15S rRNA sequence as the minimal 14 nt (AUA)4AU or longer (AUA)7 variant. Short RNA fragments containing this motif are protected by Dmr1p from exoribonucleolytic activity in vitro. Presence of the identified motif in mtDNA of different yeast species correlates with the compatibility between their Dmr1p orthologs and S. cerevisiae mtDNA. RNA recognition by Dmr1p is likely based on a rudimentary form of a PPR code specifying U at every third position, and depends on other factors, like RNA structure.
Project description:The yeast species Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces pastorianus are of industrial importance since they are involved in the production process of common beverages such as wine and lager beer; however, they contain strains whose variability has been neither fully investigated nor exploited in genetic improvement programs. We evaluated this variability by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 48 genes and partial sequences of 16. Within these two species, we identified "pure" strains containing a single type of genome and "hybrid" strains that contained portions of the genomes from the "pure" lines, as well as alleles termed "Lager" that represent a third genome commonly associated with lager brewing strains. The two pure lines represent S. uvarum and S. bayanus, the latter a novel group of strains that may be of use in strain improvement programs. Hybrid lines identified include (i) S. cerevisiae/S. bayanus/Lager, (ii) S. bayanus/S. uvarum/Lager, and (iii) S. cerevisiae/S. bayanus/S. uvarum/Lager. The genome of the lager strains may have resulted from chromosomal loss, replacement, or rearrangement within the hybrid genetic lines. This study identifies brewing strains that could be used as novel genetic sources in strain improvement programs and provides data that can be used to generate a model of how naturally occurring and industrial hybrid strains may have evolved.
Project description:Co-evolution of transcriptional regulatory proteins and their sites of action has been often hypothesized but rarely demonstrated. Here we provide experimental evidence of such co-evolution in yeast silent chromatin, a finding that emerged from studies of hybrids formed between two closely related Saccharomyces species. A unidirectional silencing incompatibility between S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus led to a key discovery: asymmetrical complementation of divergent orthologs of the silent chromatin component Sir4. In S. cerevisiae/S. bayanus interspecies hybrids, ChIP-Seq analysis revealed a restriction against S. cerevisiae Sir4 associating with most S. bayanus silenced regions; in contrast, S. bayanus Sir4 associated with S. cerevisiae silenced loci to an even greater degree than did S. cerevisiae's own Sir4. Functional changes in silencer sequences paralleled changes in Sir4 sequence and a reduction in Sir1 family members in S. cerevisiae. Critically, species-specific silencing of the S. bayanus HMR locus could be reconstituted in S. cerevisiae by co-transfer of the S. bayanus Sir4 and Kos3 (the ancestral relative of Sir1) proteins. As Sir1/Kos3 and Sir4 bind conserved silencer-binding proteins, but not specific DNA sequences, these rapidly evolving proteins served to interpret differences in the two species' silencers presumably involving emergent features created by the regulatory proteins that bind sequences within silencers. The results presented here, and in particular the high resolution ChIP-Seq localization of the Sir4 protein, provided unanticipated insights into the mechanism of silent chromatin assembly in yeast.
Project description:Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast species described as one of the two parents of the hybrid brewing yeast S. pastorianus. Strains CBS380(T) and NBRC1948 have been retained successively as pure-line representatives of S. bayanus. In the present study, sequence analyses confirmed and upgraded our previous finding: S. bayanus type strain CBS380(T) harbours a mosaic genome. The genome of strain NBRC1948 was also revealed to be mosaic. Both genomes were characterized by amplification and sequencing of different markers, including genes involved in maltotriose utilization or genes detected by array-CGH mapping. Sequence comparisons with public Saccharomyces spp. nucleotide sequences revealed that the CBS380(T) and NBRC1948 genomes are composed of: a predominant non-cerevisiae genetic background belonging to S. uvarum, a second unidentified species provisionally named S. lagerae, and several introgressed S. cerevisiae fragments. The largest cerevisiae-introgressed DNA common to both genomes totals 70kb in length and is distributed in three contigs, cA, cB and cC. These vary in terms of length and presence of MAL31 or MTY1 (maltotriose-transporter gene). In NBRC1948, two additional cerevisiae-contigs, cD and cE, totaling 12kb in length, as well as several smaller cerevisiae fragments were identified. All of these contigs were partially detected in the genomes of S. pastorianus lager strains CBS1503 (S. monacensis) and CBS1513 (S. carlsbergensis) explaining the noticeable common ability of S. bayanus and S. pastorianus to metabolize maltotriose. NBRC1948 was shown to be inter-fertile with S. uvarum CBS7001. The cross involving these two strains produced F1 segregants resembling the strains CBS380(T) or NRRLY-1551. This demonstrates that these S. bayanus strains were the offspring of a cross between S. uvarum and a strain similar to NBRC1948. Phylogenies established with selected cerevisiae and non-cerevisiae genes allowed us to decipher the complex hybridisation events linking S. lagerae/S. uvarum/S. cerevisiae with their hybrid species, S. bayanus/pastorianus.
Project description:Genetic variation within a species could cause negative epistasis leading to reduced hybrid fitness and post-zygotic reproductive isolation. Recent studies in yeasts revealed chromosomal rearrangements as a major mechanism dampening intraspecific hybrid fertility on rich media. Here, by analysing a large number of Saccharomyces cerevisiae crosses on different culture conditions, we show environment-specific genetic incompatibility segregates readily within yeast and contributes to reproductive isolation. Over 24% (117 out of 481) of cases tested show potential epistasis, among which 6.7% (32 out of 481) are severe, with at least 20% of progeny loss on tested conditions. Based on the segregation patterns, we further characterize a two-locus Dobzhansky-Müller incompatibility case leading to offspring respiratory deficiency caused by nonsense mutation in a nuclear-encoding mitochondrial gene and tRNA suppressor. We provide evidence that this precise configuration could be adaptive in fluctuating environments, highlighting the role of ecological selection in the onset of genetic incompatibility and reproductive isolation in yeast.
Project description:Although the genus Saccharomyces has been thoroughly studied, some species in the genus has not yet been accurately resolved; an example is S. bayanus, a taxon that includes genetically diverse lineages of pure and hybrid strains. This diversity makes the assignation and classification of strains belonging to this species unclear and controversial. They have been subdivided by some authors into two varieties (bayanus and uvarum), which have been raised to the species level by others. In this work, we evaluate the complexity of 46 different strains included in the S. bayanus taxon by means of PCR-RFLP analysis and by sequencing of 34 gene regions and one mitochondrial gene. Using the sequence data, and based on the S. bayanus var. bayanus reference strain NBRC 1948, a hypothetical pure S. bayanus was reconstructed for these genes that showed alleles with similarity values lower than 97% with the S. bayanus var. uvarum strain CBS 7001, and of 99-100% with the non S. cerevisiae portion in S. pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70 and with the new species S. eubayanus. Among the S. bayanus strains under study, different levels of homozygosity, hybridization and introgression were found; however, no pure S. bayanus var. bayanus strain was identified. These S. bayanus hybrids can be classified into two types: homozygous (type I) and heterozygous hybrids (type II), indicating that they have been originated by different hybridization processes. Therefore, a putative evolutionary scenario involving two different hybridization events between a S. bayanus var. uvarum and unknown European S. eubayanus-like strains can be postulated to explain the genomic diversity observed in our S. bayanus var. bayanus strains.
Project description:Glycerophospholipids (GP) are the building blocks of cellular membranes and play essential roles in cell compartmentation, membrane fluidity or apoptosis. In addition, GPs are sources for multifunctional second messengers. Whereas the genome and proteome of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organism, the baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), are well characterized, the analysis of its lipid composition is still at the beginning. Moreover, different yeast species can be distinguished on the DNA, RNA and protein level, but it is currently unknown if they can also be differentiated by determination of their GP pattern. Therefore, the GP compositions of five different yeast strains, grown under identical environmental conditions, were elucidated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to negative electrospray ionization-hybrid linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in single and multistage mode. Using this approach, relative quantification of more than 100 molecular species belonging to nine GP classes was achieved. The comparative lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Pichia angusta, and Yarrowia lipolytica revealed characteristic GP profiles for each strain. However, genetically related yeast strains show similarities in their GP compositions, e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus.