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Evaluation of SCD and FASN Gene Expression in Baluchi, Iran-Black, and Arman Sheep.
ABSTRACT: With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in the diet is important because they are associated with major diseases including cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase) (SCD) genes affect fatty acid composition (1). The expression of SCD and FASN genes is related to an increase in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products, which benefits human health.The aim of current study was to investigate expression changes of SCD and FASN genes that resulted from crossbreeding the local Baluchi sheep with alien breeds.We collected tissue samples from the mammary glands of 24 single-born ewes from local Baluchi and synthetic Iran-Black and Arman sheep breeds in the Abbas Abad breeding center. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR was performed with all samples in triplicate.The maximum and minimum expression of SCD and FASN genes was in the local Baluchi sheep and the crossbred Arman sheep, respectively.With the highest SCD and FASN gene expression in local Baluchi sheep and relatively less expression of these genes in synthetic Iran-Black and Arman Sheep breeds, it may be necessary to consider the consequences of crossbreeding local sheep and the fatty acid composition of their dairy products.
Project description:Meat eating quality with a healthy composition hinges on intramuscular fat (IMF), fat melting point (FMP), tenderness, juiciness, flavour and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) content. These health-beneficial n-3 LC-PUFA play significant roles in optimal cardiovascular, retinal, maternal and childhood brain functions, and include alpha linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic (DHA) and docosapentaenoic (DPA) acids. The primary objective of this review was to access, retrieve, synthesise and critically appraise the published literature on the synthesis, metabolism and genetics of n-3 LC-PUFA and meat eating quality. Studies on IMF content, FMP and fatty acid composition were reviewed to identify knowledge gaps that can inform future research with Tattykeel Australian White (TAW) lambs. The TAW is a new sheep breed exclusive to MARGRA brand of lamb with an outstanding low fat melting point (28-39°C), high n-3 LC-PUFA EPA+DHA content (33-69mg/100g), marbling (3.4-8.2%), tenderness (20.0-38.5N) and overall consumer liking (7.9-8.5). However, correlations between n-3 LC-PUFA profile, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FASN), other lipogenic genes and meat quality traits present major knowledge gaps. The review also identified research opportunities in nutrition-genetics interactions aimed at a greater understanding of the genetics of n-3 LC-PUFA, feedlot finishing performance, carcass traits and eating quality in the TAW sheep. It was concluded that studies on IMF, FMP and n-3 LC-PUFA profiles in parental and progeny generations of TAW sheep will be foundational for the genetic selection of healthy lamb eating qualities and provide useful insights into their correlations with SCD, FASN and FABP4 genes.
Project description:Russia has a diverse variety of native and locally developed sheep breeds with coarse, fine, and semi-fine wool, which inhabit different climate zones and landscapes that range from hot deserts to harsh northern areas. To date, no genome-wide information has been used to investigate the history and genetic characteristics of the extant local Russian sheep populations. To infer the population structure and genome-wide diversity of Russian sheep, 25 local breeds were genotyped with the OvineSNP50 BeadChip. Furthermore, to evaluate admixture contributions from foreign breeds in Russian sheep, a set of 58 worldwide breeds from publicly available genotypes was added to our data.We recorded similar observed heterozygosity (0.354-0.395) and allelic richness (1.890-1.955) levels across the analyzed breeds and they are comparable with those observed in the worldwide breeds. Recent effective population sizes estimated from linkage disequilibrium five generations ago ranged from 65 to 543. Multi-dimensional scaling, admixture, and neighbor-net analyses consistently identified a two-step subdivision of the Russian local sheep breeds. A first split clustered the Russian sheep populations according to their wool type (fine wool, semi-fine wool and coarse wool). The Dagestan Mountain and Baikal fine-fleeced breeds differ from the other Merino-derived local breeds. The semi-fine wool cluster combined a breed of Romanian origin, Tsigai, with its derivative Altai Mountain, the two Romney-introgressed breeds Kuibyshev and North Caucasian, and the Lincoln-introgressed Russian longhaired breed. The coarse-wool group comprised the Nordic short-tailed Romanov, the long-fat-tailed outlier Kuchugur and two clusters of fat-tailed sheep: the Caucasian Mountain breeds and the Buubei, Karakul, Edilbai, Kalmyk and Tuva breeds. The Russian fat-tailed breeds shared co-ancestry with sheep from China and Southwestern Asia (Iran).In this study, we derived the genetic characteristics of the major Russian local sheep breeds, which are moderately diverse and have a strong population structure. Pooling our data with a worldwide genotyping set gave deeper insight into the history and origin of the Russian sheep populations.
Project description:The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5.5 MJ/kg), medium-energy (ME: 6.2 MJ/kg) and high-energy (HE: 6.9 MJ/kg) diets, respectively. All animals were fed ad libitum twice daily at 08:00-09:00 am and 17:00-18:00 pm and with free access to water for 74 days, including a 14-d period to adapt to the diets and the environment. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content, fatty acid profile and mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were determined. The energy levels of the diets significantly (P<0.05) affected the content of IMF, total SFA, total MUFA and total PUFA. C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9c account for a large proportion of total fatty acids. Relative expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) was greater in HE than in LE yaks (P<0.05). Moreover, ME yaks had higher (P<0.05) mRNA expression levels of PPAR?, ACACA, FASN, SCD and FABP4 than did the LE yaks. The results demonstrate that the higher energy level of the diets increased IMF deposition and fatty acid content as well as increased intramuscular lipogenic gene expression during the experimental period.
Project description:Genetic basis of fat deposition in sheep tail have not been completely elucidated yet. Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling fat-tail size can improve breeding strategies to modulate fat deposition. RNA sequencing has made it possible to discover genetic variants that may underlie various phenotypic differences. Hence, to identify genetic variants that are important for describing different fat-tail phenotypes in sheep, RNA sequencing was used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling in two Iranian sheep breeds (Lori-Bakhtiari, fat-tailed; n?=?4, vs Zel, thin-tailed; n?=?4). Using a stringent pipeline, a total of 112,344 known SNPs were genotyped, of which 30,550 and 42,906 SNPs were shared by at least two Lori-Bakhtiari and Zel, respectively. Comparing these SNPs showed 2,774 (including 209 missense and 25 deleterious SNPs) and 10,470 (including 1,054 missense and 116 deleterious SNPs) breed-specific SNPs in Lori-Bakhtiari and Zel sheep, respectively. Potential breed-specific SNPs were detected by considering those located in QTL regions associated with fatness or reported as important candidates in previous similar studies. Of the breed-specific SNPs, 724 and 2,905 were located in the QTL regions. Functional enrichment analysis of the affected genes revealed several enriched gene ontologies and KEGG pathways related to fat metabolism. Based on the results, several affected genes were proposed to be strongly linked with fat deposition such as DGAT2, ACSL1, ACACA, ADIPOQ, ACLY, FASN, CPT2, SCD, ADCY6, PER3, CSF1R, SLC22A4, GFPT1, CDS2, BMP6, ACSS2, ELOVL6, HOXA10 and FABP4. Moreover, several SNPs were found in the candidate genes related to fatty acid oxidation introducing them as promising candidates responsible for lower fat content in tail of Zel. Our findings provided new insights into the genetic mechanisms of fat deposition in sheep, which can serve to designing appropriate breeding programs.
Project description:Few information of the function of stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase (SCD) in apicomplaxan parasite has been obtained. In this study, we retrieved a putative fatty acyl-CoA desaturase (TGGT1_238950) by a protein alignment with Plasmodium falciparum SCD in ToxoDB. A typical ?9-desaturase domain was revealed in this protein. The putative desaturase was tagged with HA endogenously in Toxoplasma gondii, and the endoplasmic reticulum localization of the putative desaturase was revealed, which was consistent with the fatty acid desaturases in other organisms. Therefore, the TGGT1_238950 was designated T. gondii SCD. Based on CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, SCD conditional knockout mutants in the T. gondii TATi strain were obtained. The growth in vitro and pathogenicity in mice of the mutants suggested that SCD might be dispensable for tachyzoite growth and proliferation. The SCD-overexpressing line was constructed to further explore SCD function. The portion of palmitoleic acid and oleic acid were increased in SCD-overexpressing parasites, compared with the RH parental strain, indicating that T. gondii indeed is competent for unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. The SCD-overexpressing tachyzoites propagated slower than the parental strain, with a decreased invasion capability and weaker pathogenicity in mice. The TgIF2? phosphorylation and the expression changes of several genes demonstrated that ER stress was triggered in the SCD-overexpressing parasites, which were more apt toward autophagy and apoptosis. The function of unsaturated fatty acid synthesis of TgSCD was consistent with our hypothesis. On the other hand, SCD might also be involved in tachyzoite autophagy and apoptosis.
Project description:When compared to modern lean-type breeds, Portuguese local Alentejano (AL) and Bísaro (BI) pig breeds present a high potential for subcutaneous and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition which contributes for better meat quality. The aim of this work was to explore the genome function to better understand the underlying physiological mechanisms associated with body fat accretion. Dorsal subcutaneous fat samples were collected at slaughter from adult animals (n = 4 for each breed) with ~150 kg body weight. Total RNA was obtained and sequenced for transcriptome analysis using DESeq2. A total of 458 differentially expressed (DE) genes (q-value < 0.05) were identified, with 263 overexpressed in AL and 195 in BI. Key genes involved in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation and desaturation were upregulated in AL such as ACLY, FASN, ME1, ELOVL6 and SCD. A functional enrichment analysis of the DE genes was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Cholesterol synthesis is suggested to be higher in AL via SREBF2, SCAP and PPARG, while lipolytic activity may be more active in BI through GH and AMPK signalling. Increased signalling of CD40 together with the predicted activation of INSIG1 and INSIG2 in BI suggests that this breed is more sensitive to insulin whereas the AL is less sensitive like the Iberian breed.
Project description:Sheep are a main livestock species of Kyrgyzstan, a Central Asian country with predominating mountain terrain. The current gene pool of local sheep resources has been forming under diverse climate conditions from the era of the trading caravans of the Great Silk Road, through the Soviet period of large-scale livestock improvements, which was followed by the deep crisis at the end of the 20th century, up to now. However, not much is known about the genetic background and variability of the local sheep populations. Therefore, our aims were to provide a characterization of the population structure and genetic relations within the Kyrgyz sheep breeds and to study their genetic connections with the global sheep breeds using SNP analysis. Samples of the Alai (n = 31), Gissar (n = 30), Kyrgyz coarse wool (n = 13), Aykol (n = 31), and Tien-Shan (n = 24) breeds were genotyped with the OvineSNP50 BeadChip or the Ovine Infinium HD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., USA). The measure of inbreeding based on runs of homozygosity showed a minimum value in the Aykol breed (FROH = 0.034), while the maximum was found in the Alai breed (FROH = 0.071). Short ROH segments (ROH ? 4 Mb) were predominant in all breeds. Long ROH segments (ROH > 16 Mb) were absent in the Gissar breed. The Gissar and Aykol breeds had the highest values of the effective population sizes estimated for five generations ago (Ne5 = 660 and 563), whereas the Alai and Kyrgyz coarse wool displayed lower values (Ne5 = 176 and 128, respectively). The synthetic origin of the Aykol breed was clearly evidenced by all analyses applied. Based on the network and admixture analyses of the Kyrgyz and global sheep breeds, the Tien-Shan and the Russian semi-fine wool breeds demonstrated a common ancestry that most likely is due to a contribution of the Lincoln breed. The Gissar, Aykol, and Kyrgyz coarse wool breeds showed a genetic background predominating in sheep populations from Iran and China whereas the Alai demonstrated the different ancestry type. The revealed admixture patterns probably resulted from the exchange and trade during the era of the Great Silk Road, which partly overlapped with historical and archeological findings.
Project description:The mode of inheritance of horn status in sheep is far more complex than a superficial analysis might suggest. Observations, which were mostly based on crossbreeding experiments, indicated that the allele that results in horns is dominant in males and recessive in females, and some authors even speculated about the involvement of more than two alleles. However, all recent genome-wide association analyses point towards a very strong effect of a single autosomal locus on ovine chromosome 10, which was narrowed down to a putatively causal insertion polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 gene (RXFP2). The main objective of this study was to test this insertion polymorphism as the causal mutation in diverse sheep breeds, including breeds with a variable and/or sex-dependent horn status.After re-sequencing a region of about 246 kb that covered the RFXP2 gene and its flanking regions for 24 sheep from six completely horned and six completely polled breeds, we identified the same insertion polymorphism that was previously published as segregating with horn status in these breeds. Multiplex PCR genotyping of 489 sheep from 34 breeds and some crosses between sheep breeds showed a nearly perfect segregation of the insertion polymorphism with horn status in sheep breeds of Central and Western European origin. In these breeds and their crossings, heterozygous males were horned and heterozygous females were polled. However, this segregation pattern was not, or at least not completely, reproducible in breeds with sex-dependent and/or variable horn status, especially in sheep that originated from even more southern European regions and from Africa. In such breeds, we observed almost all possible combinations of genotype, sex and horn status phenotype.The 1.78-kb insertion polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of RXFP2 and SNPs in the 3'-UTR, exon 14 and intron 11 of this gene that we analyzed in this study cannot be considered as the only cause of polledness in sheep and are not useful as a universal marker to define the genetic horn status in sheep.
Project description:The population of Zulu sheep is reported to have declined by 7.4% between 2007 and 2011 due to crossbreeding. There is insufficient information on the genetic diversity of the Zulu sheep populations in the different area of KwaZulu Natal where they are reared. The study investigated genetic variation and genetic structure within and among eight Zulu sheep populations using 26 microsatellite markers. In addition, Damara, Dorper and South African Merino breeds were included to assess the genetic relationship between these breeds and the Zulu sheep. The results showed that there is considerable genetic diversity among the Zulu sheep populations (expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.57 to 0.69) and the level of inbreeding was not remarkable. The structure analysis results revealed that Makhathini Research Station and UNIZULU research station share common genetic structure, while three populations (Nongoma, Ulundi and Nquthu) had some admixture with the exotic Dorper breed. Thus, there is a need for sustainable breeding and conservation programmes to control the gene flow, in order to stop possible genetic dilution of the Zulu sheep.
Project description:Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of mono-unsaturated fatty acids. We have recently cloned and characterized the human Scd cDNA and SCD (the stearoyl-CoA desaturase structural gene) on chromosome 10, as well as the non-transcribed pseudogene on chromosome 17. In order to further define SCD regulation and function, we have isolated and characterized the promoter of the structural gene. Screening of chromosome-10-specific libraries resulted in the isolation of 4.1 kb of SCD sequence upstream of the translation start site. Binding sites for transcription factors critical for mouse Scd1 and Scd2 promoter activity, such as sterol-regulated-element-binding protein and nuclear factor Y, were present in the human SCD promoter (Scd is the mouse stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene). Deletion analysis in HaCaT keratinocytes identified a critical region for promoter activity between nts 496-609 upstream of the translation start site. Site-directed mutagenesis of binding sites in this region identified the CCAAT box as the critical cis-element for SCD promoter activity. An electrophoretic mobility-shift assay confirmed that this element binds nuclear proteins from HaCaT keratinocytes. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acid (PUFA) response element, previously identified in the promoters of mouse Scd1 and Scd2, was found to be conserved in the human SCD promoter, and contained the critical CCAAT cis-element. A minimal promoter construct including this region was responsive to fatty acids, with oleate and linoleate decreasing transcription and stearate increasing it. These studies indicate that CCAAT-box-binding proteins activate SCD transcription in cultured keratinocytes and that fatty acids modulate transcription, most likely through the conserved PUFA response element.