Comparison of the octadentate bifunctional chelator DFO*-pPhe-NCS and the clinically used hexadentate bifunctional chelator DFO-pPhe-NCS for 89Zr-immuno-PET.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:All clinical 89Zr-immuno-PET studies are currently performed with the chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). This chelator provides hexadentate coordination to zirconium, leaving two coordination sites available for coordination with, e.g., water molecules, which are relatively labile ligands. The unsaturated coordination of DFO to zirconium has been suggested to result in impaired stability of the complex in vivo and consequently in unwanted bone uptake of 89Zr. Aiming at clinical improvements, we report here on a bifunctional isothiocyanate variant of the octadentate chelator DFO* and the in vitro and in vivo comparison of its 89Zr-DFO*-mAb complex with 89Zr-DFO-mAb. METHODS:The bifunctional chelator DFO*-pPhe-NCS was prepared from previously reported DFO* and p-phenylenediisothiocyanate. Subsequently, trastuzumab was conjugated with either DFO*-pPhe-NCS or commercial DFO-pPhe-NCS and radiolabeled with Zr-89 according to published procedures. In vitro stability experiments were carried out in saline, a histidine/sucrose buffer, and blood serum. The in vivo performance of the chelators was compared in N87 tumor-bearing mice by biodistribution studies and PET imaging. RESULTS:In 0.9 % NaCl 89Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab was more stable than 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab; after 72 h incubation at 2-8 °C 95 % and 58 % intact tracer were left, respectively, while in a histidine-sucrose buffer no difference was observed, both products were???92 % intact. In vivo uptake at 144 h post injection (p.i.) in tumors, blood, and most normal organs was similar for both conjugates, except for skin, liver, spleen, ileum, and bone. Tumor uptake was 32.59?±?11.95 and 29.06?±?8.66 % ID/g for 89Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab and 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab, respectively. The bone uptake was significantly lower for 89Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab compared to 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. At 144 h p.i. for 89Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab and 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab, the uptake in sternum was 0.92?±?0.16 and 3.33?±?0.32 % ID/g, in femur 0.78?±?0.11 and 3.85,?±?0.80 and in knee 1.38?±?0.23 and 8.20?±?2.94 % ID/g, respectively. The uptake in bone decreased from 24 h to 144 h p.i. about two fold for the DFO* conjugate, while it increased about two fold for the DFO conjugate. CONCLUSIONS:Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab showed superior in vitro stability and in vivo performance when compared to 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. This makes the new octadentate DFO* chelator a candidate successor of DFO for future clinical 89Zr-immuno-PET.
Project description:The future of 89Zr-based immuno-PET is reliant upon the development of new chelators with improved stability compared to the currently used deferoxamine (DFO). Herein, we report the evaluation of the octadentate molecule DFO-HOPO (3) as a suitable chelator for 89Zr and a more stable alternative to DFO. The molecule showed good potential for the future development of a DFO-HOPO-based bifunctional chelator (BFC) for the radiolabelling of biomolecules with 89Zr. This work broadens the selection of available chelators for 89Zr in search of improved successors to DFO for clinical 89Zr-immuno-PET.
Project description:New bifunctional hexa- and octadentate analogues of the hydroxamate-containing siderophore desferrichrome (DFC) have been synthesized and evaluated as 89Zr-chelating agents for immunoPET applications. The in vitro and in vivo inertness of these new ligands, Orn3-hx (hexadentate) and Orn-4hx derivatives (octadentate), was compared to the gold standard hexadentate, hydroxamate-containing chelator for 89Zr desferrioxamine (DFO). Density functional theory was employed to model the geometries of the resulting Zr(IV) complexes and to predict their relative stabilities as follows: Zr(Orn4-hx) > Zr(DFC) > Zr(Orn3-hx). Transchelation challenge experiments of the corresponding radiochemical complexes with excess ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) indicated complex stability in accordance with DFT calculations. Radiolabeling of these ligands with 89Zr was quantitative (0.25 ?mol of ligand, pH 7.4, room temperature, 20 min). For antibody conjugation, the isothiocyanate (NCS) functional group was introduced to the N terminus of Orn3-hx and Orn-4hx. An additional trifunctional derivative that bears a silicon-rhodamine fluorophore on the C-terminus and NCS on the N terminus was also furnished. As proof of concept, all NCS derivatives were conjugated to the HER2-targeting antibody, trastuzumab. Radiolabeling of immunoconjugates with 89Zr was accomplished with radiochemical yields of 16 ± 2% to 95 ± 2%. These constructs were administered to naive mice (male, C57BL/6J, n = 4) to assess in vivo inertness, which is inversely correlated with uptake of 89Zr in bone, after 96 h circulation time. We found bone uptake to range from 7.0 ± 2.2 to 10.7 ± 1.3% ID/g, values that compare well to the corresponding DFO conjugate (7.1 ± 0.8% ID/g). In conclusion, we have rationally designed linear, bifunctional and trifunctional desferrichrome analogues suitable for the mild and inert radiolabeling of antibodies with the radionuclide 89Zr.
Project description:Antibody-based PET tracers are exceptionally well-suited for determination of the in vivo biodistribution and quantification of therapeutic antibodies. The continued expansion in antibody-based therapeutics has accordingly driven the development towards more robust conjugation strategies in order to reliably predict the performance of such agents. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effect of site-specific labeling by enzymatic remodeling on the stability, immuno-reactivity and tumor-targeting properties of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab and compare it to conventional, random labeling in a HER2-positive xenograft mouse model. Methods: Trastuzumab was conjugated with the p-SCN-Bn-Desferrioxamine (SCN-Bn-DFO) chelator randomly on lysine residues or site-specifically on enzymatically modified glycans using either ?-galactosidase or endoglycosidase S2 prior to 89Zr radiolabeling. 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab was injected into SK-OV-3 tumor-bearing NMRI nude mice. The antibody dose was titrated with either 100 µg or 500 µg of unlabeled trastuzumab. Mice underwent small animal PET/CT imaging 24, 70 and 120 hours post-injection for longitudinal assessment. Parallel experiments were conducted with an isotype control matched antibody. In vivo imaging was supported by conventional ex vivo biodistribution and HER2 immuno-histochemistry. Furthermore, site-specifically labeled 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab was evaluated in a panel of subcutaneous patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Additionally, the affinity, in vitro stability and immuno-reactivity were assessed for all tracers. Results: Site-specific labeling significantly increased PET tumor uptake (One-way ANOVA, p<0.0001) at all time-points when compared to random labeling. Mean tumor uptakes were 6.7 ± 1.7, 13.9 ± 3.3 and 15.3 ± 3.8 % injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g) at 70 hours post-injection, for random, ?-galactosidase or endoglycosidase S2 labeled probes, respectively. Co-injection with unlabeled trastuzumab increased the circulation time of tracers but did not alter tumor uptake notably. Site-specific probes presented with a superior in vitro stability and immuno-reactivity compared to the randomly labeled probe. Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed the data obtained by in vivo PET imaging, and site-specific 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab successfully detected HER2-positive tumors in PDX mouse models. Conclusion: 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab is well-matched for specific immuno-PET imaging of HER2-positive tumors and site-specific labeling of trastuzumab by the SiteClickTM technology minimizes the impact of the DFO chelator on immuno-reactivity, stability and biodistribution. These findings support further development of site-specifically radiolabeled mAbs for immuno-PET.
Project description:Herein we describe the development and application of a bioorthogonal fluorogenic chelate linker that can be used for facile creation of labeled imaging agents. The chelate linker is based on the trans-cyclooctene(TCO)-tetrazine(Tz) chemistry platform and incorporates deferoxamine (DFO) as a (89)Zr PET tracer and a BODIPY fluorophore for multimodal imaging. The rapid (<3 min) ligation between mAb-TCO and Tz-BODIPY-DFO chelator is monitored using fluorescence and allows for determination of labeling completion. Utilizing BODIPY as the linker between mAb and DFO facilitates in chelator quantification using spectrophotometry, allowing for an alternative to traditional methods (mass and isotope dilution assay). Radiolabeling with (89)Zr to form (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab was found to be quantitative after incubation at room temperature for 1 h (1.5 mCi/mg specific activity). The cell binding assay using HER2+ (BT474) and HER2- (BT20) cell lines showed significant binding to (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab (6.45 ± 1.87% in BT474 versus 1.47 ± 0.39% in BT20). In vivo PET imaging of mice bearing BT20 or BT474 xenografts with (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab showed high tumor conspicuity, and biodistribution confirmed excellent, specific probe uptake of 237.3 ± 14.5% ID/g in BT474 xenografts compared to low, nonspecific probe uptake in BT20 xenografts (16.4 ± 5.6% ID/g) 96 h p.i. . Ex vivo fluorescence (465ex/520em) of selected tissues confirmed superb target localization and persistence of the fluorescence of (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab. The described platform is universally adaptable for simple antibody labeling.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma B-cell hematologic cancer that causes significant skeletal morbidity. Despite improvements in survival, heterogeneity in response remains a major challenge in MM. Cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed in myeloma cells and is implicated in MM cell signaling. Daratumumab is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved high-affinity monoclonal antibody targeting CD38 that is clinically benefiting refractory MM patients. Here, we evaluated [89Zr]Zr-desferrioxamine (DFO)-daratumumab PET/CT imaging in MM tumor models. Methods: Daratumumab was conjugated to DFO-p-benzyl-isothiocyanate (DFO-Bz-NCS) for radiolabeling with 89Zr. Chelator conjugation was confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and radiolabeling was monitored by instant thin-layer chromatography. Daratumumab was conjugated to Cyanine5 (Cy5) dye for cell microscopy. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab was performed using CD38+ human myeloma MM1.S-luciferase (MM1.S) cells. Cellular studies determined the affinity, immunoreactivity, and specificity of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab. A 5TGM1-luciferase (5TGM1)/KaLwRij MM mouse model served as control for imaging background noise. [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab PET/CT small-animal imaging was performed in severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing solid and disseminated MM tumors. Tissue biodistribution (7 d after tracer administration, 1.11 MBq/animal, n = 4-6/group) was performed in wild-type and MM1.S tumor-bearing mice. Results: A specific activity of 55.5 MBq/nmol (0.37 MBq/?g) was reproducibly obtained with [89Zr]Zr-daratumumab-DFO. Flow cytometry confirmed CD38 expression (>99%) on the surface of MM1.S cells. Confocal microscopy with daratumumab-Cy5 demonstrated specific cell binding. Dissociation constant, 3.3 nM (±0.58), and receptor density, 10.1 fmol/mg (±0.64), was obtained with a saturation binding assay. [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab/PET demonstrated specificity and sensitivity for detecting CD38+ myeloma tumors of variable sizes (8.5-128 mm3) with standardized uptake values ranging from 2.1 to 9.3. Discrete medullar lesions, confirmed by bioluminescence images, were efficiently imaged with [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab/PET. Biodistribution at 7 d after administration of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab showed prominent tumor uptake (27.7 ± 7.6 percentage injected dose per gram). In vivo blocking was achieved with a 200-fold excess of unlabeled daratumumab. Conclusion: [89Zr]Zr-DFO- and Cy5-daratumumab demonstrated superb binding to CD38+ human MM cells and significantly low binding to CD38low cells. Daratumumab bioconjugates are being evaluated for image-guided delivery of therapeutic radionuclides.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Currently, the most commonly used chelator for labelling antibodies with <sup>89</sup>Zr for immunoPET is desferrioxamine B (DFO). However, preclinical studies have shown that the limited in vivo stability of the <sup>89</sup>Zr-DFO complex results in release of <sup>89</sup>Zr, which accumulates in mineral bone. Here we report a novel chelator DFOcyclo*, a preorganized extended DFO derivative that enables octacoordination of the <sup>89</sup>Zr radiometal. The aim was to compare the in vitro and in vivo stability of [<sup>89</sup>Zr]Zr-DFOcyclo*, [<sup>89</sup>Zr]Zr-DFO* and [<sup>89</sup>Zr]Zr-DFO.<h4>Methods</h4>The stability of <sup>89</sup>Zr-labelled chelators alone and after conjugation to trastuzumab was evaluated in human plasma and PBS, and in the presence of excess EDTA or DFO. The immunoreactive fraction, IC<sub>50</sub>, and internalization rate of the conjugates were evaluated using HER2-expressing SKOV-3 cells. The in vivo distribution was investigated in mice with subcutaneous HER2<sup>+</sup> SKOV-3 or HER2<sup>-</sup> MDA-MB-231 xenografts by PET/CT imaging and quantitative ex vivo tissue analyses 7 days after injection.<h4>Results</h4><sup>89</sup>Zr-labelled DFO, DFO* and DFOcyclo* were stable in human plasma for up to 7 days. In competition with EDTA, DFO* and DFOcyclo* showed higher stability than DFO. In competition with excess DFO, DFOcyclo*-trastuzumab was significantly more stable than the corresponding DFO and DFO* conjugates (p?<?0.001). Cell binding and internalization were similar for the three conjugates. In in vivo studies, HER2<sup>+</sup> SKOV-3 tumour-bearing mice showed significantly lower bone uptake (p?<?0.001) 168 h after injection with [<sup>89</sup>Zr]Zr-DFOcyclo*-trastuzumab (femur 1.5?±?0.3%ID/g, knee 2.1?±?0.4%ID/g) or [<sup>89</sup>Zr]Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab (femur 2.0?±?0.3%ID/g, knee 2.68?±?0.4%ID/g) than after injection with [<sup>89</sup>Zr]Zr-DFO-trastuzumab (femur 4.5?±?0.6%ID/g, knee 7.8?±?0.6%ID/g). Blood levels, tumour uptake and uptake in other organs were not significantly different at 168 h after injection. HER2<sup>-</sup> MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice showed significantly lower tumour uptake (p?<?0.001) after injection with [<sup>89</sup>Zr]Zr-DFOcyclo*-trastuzumab (16.2?±?10.1%ID/g) and [<sup>89</sup>Zr]Zr-DFO-trastuzumab (19.6?±?3.2%ID/g) than HER2<sup>+</sup> SKOV-3 tumour-bearing mice (72.1?±?14.6%ID/g and 93.1?±?20.9%ID/g, respectively), while bone uptake was similar.<h4>Conclusion</h4><sup>89</sup>Zr-labelled DFOcyclo* and DFOcyclo*-trastuzumab showed higher in vitro and in vivo stability than the current commonly used <sup>89</sup>Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. DFOcyclo* is a promising candidate to become the new clinically used standard chelator for <sup>89</sup>Zr immunoPET.
Project description:The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) binding antibody rilotumumab (AMG102) was modified for use as a 89Zr-based immuno-PET imaging agent to noninvasively determine the local levels of HGF protein in tumors. Because recent clinical trials of HGF-targeting therapies have been largely unsuccessful in several different cancers (e.g., gastric, brain, lung), we have synthesized and validated 89Zr-DFO-AMG102 as a companion diagnostic for improved identification and selection of patients having high local levels of HGF in tumors. To date, patient selection has not been performed using the local levels of HGF protein in tumors. Methods: The chelator p-SCN-Bn-DFO was conjugated to AMG102, radiolabeling with 89Zr was performed in high radiochemical yields and purity (>99%), and binding affinity of the modified antibody was confirmed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-type binding assay. PET imaging, biodistribution, autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, and ex vivo HGF ELISA experiments were performed on murine xenografts of U87MG (HGF-positive, MET-positive) and MKN45 (HGF-negative, MET-positive) and 4 patient-derived xenografts (MET-positive, HGF unknown). Results: Tumor uptake of 89Zr-DFO-AMG102 at 120 h after injection in U87MG xenografts (HGF-positive) was high (36.8 ± 7.8 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]), whereas uptake in MKN45 xenografts (HGF-negative) was 5.0 ± 1.3 %ID/g and a control of nonspecific human IgG 89Zr-DFO-IgG in U87MG tumors was 11.5 ± 3.3 %ID/g, demonstrating selective uptake in HGF-positive tumors. Similar experiments performed in 4 different gastric cancer patient-derived xenograft models showed low uptake of 89Zr-DFO-AMG102 (?4-7 %ID/g), which corresponded with low HGF levels in these tumors (ex vivo ELISA). Autoradiography, immunohistochemical staining, and HGF ELISA assays confirmed that elevated levels of HGF protein were present only in U87MG tumors and that 89Zr-DFO-AMG102 uptake was closely correlated with HGF protein levels in tumors. Conclusion: The new immuno-PET imaging agent 89Zr-DFO-AMG102 was successfully synthesized, radiolabeled, and validated in vitro and in vivo to selectively accumulate in tumors with high local levels of HGF protein. These results suggest that 89Zr-DFO-AMG102 would be a valuable companion diagnostic tool for the noninvasive selection of patients with elevated local concentrations of HGF in tumors for planning any HGF-targeted therapy, with the potential to improve clinical outcomes.
Project description:Proteins, as a major component of organisms, are considered the preferred biomaterials for drug delivery vehicles. Hemoglobin (Hb) has been recently rediscovered as a potential drug carrier, but its use for biomedical applications still lacks extensive investigation. To further explore the possibility of utilizing Hb as a potential tumor targeting drug carrier, we examined and compared the biodistribution of Hb in healthy and lung tumor-bearing mice, using for the first time 89Zr labelled Hb in a positron emission tomography (PET) measurement. Hb displays a very high conjugation yield in its fast and selective reaction with the maleimide-deferoxamine (DFO) bifunctional chelator. The high-resolution X-ray structure of the Hb-DFO complex demonstrated that cysteine ?93 is the sole attachment moiety to the ??-protomer of Hb. The Hb-DFO complex shows quantitative uptake of 89Zr in solution as determined by radiochromatography. Injection of 0.03 mg of Hb-DFO-89Zr complex in healthy mice indicates very high radioactivity in liver, followed by spleen and lungs, whereas a threefold increased dosage results in intensification of PET signal in kidneys and decreased signal in liver and spleen. No difference in biodistribution pattern is observed between naïve and tumor-bearing mice. Interestingly, the liver Hb uptake did not decrease upon clodronate-mediated macrophage depletion, indicating that other immune cells contribute to Hb clearance. This finding is of particular interest for rapidly developing clinical immunology and projects aiming to target, label or specifically deliver agents to immune cells.
Project description:The use of 89Zr-antibody PET imaging to measure antibody biodistribution and tissue pharmacokinetics is well established, but current PET systems lack the sensitivity needed to study 89Zr-labeled antibodies beyond 2-3 isotope half-lives (7-10 d), after which a poor signal-to-noise ratio is problematic. However, studies across many weeks are desirable to better match antibody circulation half-life in human and nonhuman primates. These studies investigated the technical feasibility of using the primate mini-EXPLORER PET scanner, making use of its high sensitivity and 45-cm axial field of view, for total-body imaging of 89Zr-labeled antibodies in rhesus monkeys up to 30 d after injection. Methods: A humanized monoclonal IgG antibody against the herpes simplex viral protein glycoprotein D (gD) was radiolabeled with 89Zr via 1 of 4 chelator-linker combinations (benzyl isothiocyanate-DFO [DFO-Bz-NCS], where DFO is desferrioxamine B; DFO-squaramide; DFO*-Bz-NCS, where DFO* is desferrioxamine*; and DFO*-squaramide). The pharmacokinetics associated with these 4 chelator-linker combinations were compared in 12 healthy young male rhesus monkeys (?1-2 y old, ?3 ± 1 kg). Each animal was initially injected intravenously with unlabeled antibody in a peripheral vessel in the right arm (10 mg/kg, providing therapeutic-level antibody concentrations), immediately followed by approximately 40 MBq of one of the 89Zr-labeled antibodies injected intravenously in a peripheral vessel in the left arm. All animals were imaged 6 times over a period of 30 d, with an initial 60-min dynamic scan on day 0 (day of injection) followed by static scans of 30-45 min on approximately days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 30, with all acquired using a single bed position and images reconstructed using time-of-flight list-mode ordered-subsets expectation maximization. Activity concentrations in various organs were extracted from the PET images using manually defined regions of interest. Results: Excellent image quality was obtained, capturing the initial distribution phase in the whole-body scan; later time points showed residual 89Zr mainly in the liver. Even at 30 d after injection, representing approximately 9 half-lives of 89Zr and with a total residual activity of only 20-40 kBq in the animal, the image quality was sufficient to readily identify activity in the liver, kidneys, and upper and lower limb joints. Significant differences were noted in late time point liver uptake, bone uptake, and whole-body clearance between chelator-linker types, whereas little variation (±10%) was observed within each type. Conclusion: These studies demonstrate the ability to image 89Zr-radiolabeled antibodies up to 30 d after injection while maintaining satisfactory image quality, as provided by the primate mini-EXPLORER with high sensitivity and long axial field of view. Quantification demonstrated potentially important differences in the behavior of the 4 chelators. This finding supports further investigation.
Project description:Four novel chelators (L1-L4) and their 89zirconium complexes were prepared and compared with the 89zirconium desferrioxamine B (DFO) complex. The new chelates are based on 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen) and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam) scaffolds and present either three or four hydroxamate arms for coordination with Zr4+ ions with coordination numbers between six and eight. The 89Zr-L4 complex showed similar stability to that of 89Zr-DFO when incubated in either rat blood plasma or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid challenge experiments. Positron imaging and biodistribution studies in mice showed that 89Zr-L4 had similar pharmacokinetic behavior to that of 89Zr-DFO, with rapid renal elimination and low residual activity in background tissues. A bifunctional version of L4 (L5) was synthesized and conjugated to trastuzumab; an anti-HER2/neu antibody. Immunopositron emission tomography imaging and biodistribution with 89Zr-L5-trastuzumab revealed high tumor to background ratios (tumor/blood ratio: 14.2 ± 2.25) and a high tumor specificity that was comparable to the performance of 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab.