Immunogenicity of AS03-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in elderly adults: A Phase 3, randomized trial and post-hoc correlate of protection analysis.
ABSTRACT: In this study we describe the immunogenicity results from a subset of older people (N = 5187) who participated in a Phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded trial of AS03-TIV versus TIV (Fluarix™) (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00753272). Participants received one dose of AS03-TIV or TIV in each study year and antibody titers against the vaccine strains were assessed using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay at 21 d and 180 d post-vaccination in each vaccine group in the 2008/09 (Year 1) and 2009/10 (Year 2) influenza seasons. Manufacturing consistency of 3 lots of AS03-TIV for HI antibody responses in Year 1 was a co-primary objective. In a post-hoc analysis, a statistical regression model included 4830 subjects in whom immunogenicity and laboratory-confirmed attack rate data were available; the analysis was performed to assess HI antibody titers against A/H3N2 as a correlate of protection for laboratory-confirmed A/H3N2 influenza. AS03-TIV and TIV elicited strong HI antibody responses against each vaccine strain 21 d post-vaccination in both years. The manufacturing consistency of 3 lots of AS03-TIV was demonstrated. In both years and each vaccine group, HI antibody responses were lower for A/H1N1 than the other vaccine strains. Day 180 seroconversion rates (proportion with ?4-fold increase in titer compared with pre-vaccination titer) in Year 1 in the AS03-TIV and TIV groups, respectively, were 87.7% and 74.1% for A/H3N2, 69.7% and 59.6% for influenza B, and 58.3% and 47.4% for A/H1N1. The post-hoc statistical model based on A/H3N2 attack rates and HI antibody titers estimated that a 4-fold increase in post-vaccination titers against A/H3N2 was associated with a 2-fold decrease in the odds of A/H3N2 infection.
Project description: There is a need for better vaccines and vaccine strategies to reduce the burden of influenza in very young children. This phase 1, open-label study assessed the reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity of an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) containing low doses of hemagglutinin antigen (7.5 µg each strain), adjuvanted with a tocopherol-based oil-in-water emulsion Adjuvant System (AS03). Influenza vaccine-naïve children aged 6-35 months were sequentially enrolled to receive TIV-AS03D (1.48 mg tocopherol) or TIV-AS03C (2.97 mg tocopherol), then a 6-month booster of conventional TIV. The primary endpoint was the incidence of fever (axillary temperature >38 °C) for 7 days post-vaccination. Immune responses were assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. Forty children were sequentially enrolled into the TIV-AS03D or the TIV-AS03C group. Fever >38.0 °C was reported in 5/20 (25.0%) and 7/20 (35.0%) children after the first and second doses of TIV-AS03D, respectively, and in 7/20 (35.0%) children after 1 dose of TIV-AS03C; the latter fulfilled the holding rule for safety, and the second dose of TIV-AS03C was cancelled. HI immune responses exceeded adult European licensure criteria for the immunogenicity, and all children had HI antibody titers ? 1:40 after 1 dose of TIV booster against booster strains. One dose of primary vaccine containing a low dose of antigen and AS03 may be a possible influenza vaccination strategy for young children. The relatively high frequency of fever warrants further investigation, although the generalizability of the findings are uncertain given that many of the children had antibody evidence suggesting recent infection with A(H1N1)pdm09.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We investigated antibody persistence in children 1 year after 2 doses of either an AS03(B)-adjuvanted split-virion or nonadjuvanted whole-virion monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine and assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a subsequent dose of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). METHODS:Children previously immunized at age 6 months to 12 years in the original study were invited to participate. After a blood sample was obtained to assess persistence of antibody against swine influenza A/H1N1(2009) pandemic influenza, children received 1 dose of 2010/2011 TIV, reactogenicity data were collected for 7 days, and another blood sample was obtained 21 days after vaccination. RESULTS:Of 323 children recruited, 302 received TIV. Antibody persistence (defined as microneutralization [MN] titer ?1:40) 1 year after initial vaccination was significantly higher in the AS03(B)-adjuvanted compared with the whole-virion vaccine group, 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.1%-100%) vs 32.4% (95% CI, 21.5%-44.8%) in children immunized <3 years old and 96.9% (95% CI, 91.3%-99.4%) vs 65.9% (95% CI, 55.3%-75.5%) in those 3-12 years old at immunization, respectively (P < .001 for both groups). All children receiving TIV had post-vaccination MN titers ?1:40. Although TIV was well tolerated in all groups, reactogenicity in children <5 years old was slightly greater in those who originally received AS03(B)-adjuvanted vaccine. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides serological evidence that 2 doses of AS03(B)-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine may be sufficient to maintain protection across 2 influenza seasons. Administration of TIV to children who previously received 2 doses of either pandemic influenza vaccine is safe and is immunogenic for the H1N1 strain.
Project description:Improved influenza vaccines are needed to reduce influenza-associated complications in older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal formulation of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine for use in elderly people.This observer-blind, randomized study assessed the optimal formulation of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine based on immunogenicity and safety in participants aged ≥65 years. Participants were randomized (~200 per group) to receive one dose of non-adjuvanted vaccine or one of eight formulations of vaccine formulated with a squalene and tocopherol oil-in-water emulsion-based Adjuvant System (AS03(C), AS03(B) or AS03(A), with 2.97, 5.93 and 11.86 mg tocopherol, respectively) together with the immunostimulant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL, doses of 0, 25 or 50 mg). Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses and T-cell responses were assessed on Day 0 and 21 days post-vaccination. The ratio of HI-based geometric mean titers in adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted vaccine groups were calculated and the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval was transformed into a desirability index (a value between 0 and 1) in an experimental domain for each vaccine strain, and plotted in relation to the AS03 and MPL dose combination in the formulation. This model was used to assess the optimal formulation based on HI antibody titers. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed. The immunogenicity and safety analyses were used to evaluate the optimal formulation of adjuvanted vaccine.In the HI antibody-based model, an AS03 dose-response was evident; responses against the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains were higher for all adjuvanted formulations versus non-adjuvanted vaccine, and for the AS03(A)-MPL25, AS03(B)-MPL25 and AS03(B)-MPL50 formulations against the B strain. Modelling using more stringent criteria (post hoc) showed a clear dose-range effect for the AS03 component against all strains, whereas MPL showed a limited effect. Higher T-cell responses for adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted vaccine were observed for all except two formulations (AS03(C) and AS03(B)-MPL25). Reactogenicity increased with increasing AS03 dosage, and with MPL. No safety concerns were raised.Five formulations containing AS03(A) or AS03(B) were identified as potential candidates to improve immune responses to influenza vaccination; AS03(B) without MPL showed the best balance between improved immunogenicity and acceptable reactogenicity.This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00540592.
Project description:Background. ?To investigate the relationship between hemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) antibody levels to the risk of influenza disease, we conducted a correlate of protection analysis using pooled data from previously published randomized trials. Methods. ?Data on the occurrence of laboratory-confirmed influenza and HI levels pre- and postvaccination were analyzed from 4 datasets: 3 datasets included subjects aged <65 years who received inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or placebo, and 1 dataset included subjects aged ?65 years who received AS03-adjuvanted TIV (AS03-TIV) or TIV. A logistic model was used to evaluate the relationship between the postvaccination titer of A/H3N2 HI antibodies and occurrence of A/H3N2 disease. We then built a receiver-operating characteristic curve to identify a potential cutoff titer between protection and no protection. Results. ?The baseline odds ratio of A/H3N2 disease was higher for subjects aged ?65 years than <65 years and higher in seasons of strong epidemic intensity than moderate or low intensity. Including age and epidemic intensity as covariates, a 4-fold increase in titer was associated with a 2-fold decrease in the risk of A/H3N2 disease. Conclusions. ?The modeling exercise confirmed a relationship between A/H3N2 disease and HI responses, but it did not allow an evaluation of the predictive power of the HI response.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Influenza viruses gradually accumulate point mutations, reducing the effectiveness of prior immune protection. METHODS:Children aged 9-14 years received 2010-2011 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Vaccination history, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers, and cell-mediated immune responses were assessed to investigate the cross-reactivity with past and future influenza virus strains. RESULTS:2010-2011 TIV induced significant T-cell responses and HI titers of ?160, with a fold-rise of ?4 and titers of ?100 maintained for >7 months in the majority of children. Pre-existing memory B cells in these children differentiated quickly to antibody-secreting cells to the new vaccine antigens. Children vaccinated in the previous year maintained high HI titers well into 2010, demonstrating elevated HI titers against A/Perth/16/2009, the future (in 2010-2011) H3N2 component. Prior vaccination enhanced CD8+ T-cell responses to A/Perth/16/2009. Children vaccinated with the prior 2009-2010 seasonal vaccine also demonstrated higher preexisting levels of interferon ?-secreting CD4+CD69+ T cells to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1). Children previously vaccinated with 2009-2010 seasonal influenza vaccine also showed greater expansion of tumor necrosis factor ?-secreting CD8+CD69+ T cells to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) upon vaccination in the 2010-2011 season than those who were not previously vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS:Seasonal influenza viruses continuously drift, which allows them to circumvent protective immunity, but conserved epitopes provide immunological cross-reactivity in children through either vaccination directly or through prime/boost in the prior influenza season.
Project description:There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6-8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history.We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009-10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) particularly in children 9-17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6-8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6-8 y of age regardless of vaccination history.Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A.
Project description:Many Canadians received a novel AS03-adjuvanted vaccine during the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic. Longer term implications of adjuvant use were unclear: would anti-H1N1 immune responses persist at high levels and, if so, could that result in increased or unusual adverse effects upon re-exposure to H1N1pdm09 antigen in the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for 2010-11? To answer these questions, adults given AS03-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09 vaccine (Arepanrix®, GSK Canada) 9-10 mo earlier were enrolled in an evaluator-blinded, crossover trial to receive 2010-2011 non-adjuvanted TIV (Fluviral®, GSK Canada) and placebo 10 d apart, in random order. Adverse effects were monitored for 7 d after each injection. Vaccine-attributable adverse event (VAAE) rates were calculated by subtracting rates after placebo from those after vaccine. Blood was obtained pre-vaccination and 21-30 d afterward to measure hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers. In total, 326 participants were enrolled and 321 completed the study. VAAE rates were low except for myalgia (18.6%) and injection site pain (63.2%). At baseline, H1N1pdm09 titers ≥ 40 were present in 176/325 subjects (54.2%, 95% confidence interval 48.6, 59.7), with a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 37.4 (95% CI 32.8, 42.6). Post-immunization, 96.0% (95% CI 92.3, 97.8) had H1N1pdm09 titers ≥ 40, with GMT of 167.4 (95% CI 148.7, 188.5). Responses to both influenza A strains in TIV were similar, implying no lasting effect of adjuvant exposure. In summary, titers ≥ 40 persisted in only half the participants 9-10 mo after adjuvanted pandemic vaccine but were restored in nearly all after TIV vaccination, with minimal increase in adverse effects.
Project description:The influence of AS03(A), a tocopherol oil-in-water emulsion-based adjuvant system, on humoral and cell-mediated responses to A/California/7/2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine was investigated. In two observer-blind studies, a total of 261 healthy adults aged 18 to 60 years were randomized to receive either AS03(A)-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine containing 3.75 ?g hemagglutinin (HA) or nonadjuvanted H1N1 vaccine containing 15 or 3.75 ?g HA on days 0 and 21. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody and T-cell responses were analyzed up to day 42. A first dose of AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine (3.75 ?g HA) or nonadjuvanted vaccine (15 ?g HA) induced HI responses of similar magnitudes that exceeded licensure criteria (e.g., 94 to 100% with titers of ? 40). A lower response following 3.75 ?g HA without adjuvant was observed (73% with titers of ? 40). Following a second dose, geometric mean HI titers at day 42 were higher for AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine (636 and 637) relative to nonadjuvanted vaccine (341 for 15 ?g HA and 150 for 3.75 ?g HA). Over the 42-day period, the increase in frequency of A/H1N1/2009-specific CD4? T cells was significantly higher in the adjuvanted group than in the nonadjuvanted group. There was no evidence of correlation between baseline CD4? T-cell frequencies and day 21 HI antibody titers, while there was some correlation (R = 0.35) between day 21 CD4? T-cell frequencies and day 42 HI titers. AS03(A) adjuvant enhanced the humoral and CD4? T-cell-mediated responses to A/H1N1/2009 vaccine. Baseline A/H1N1/2009-specific CD4? T-cell frequencies did not predict post-dose 1 antibody responses, but there was some correlation between post-dose 1 CD4? T-cell frequencies and post-dose 2 antibody responses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) are effective for prevention of influenza virus infection in children, but the mechanisms associated with protection are not well defined.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed the differences in B-cell responses and transcriptional profiles in children aged 6 months to 14 years immunized with these 2 vaccines.<h4>Results</h4>LAIV elicited a significant increase in naive, memory, and transitional B cells on day 30 after vaccination, whereas TIV elicited an increased number of plasmablasts on day 7. Antibody titers against the 3 vaccine strains (H1N1, H3N2, and B) were significantly higher in the TIV group and correlated with number of antibody-secreting cells. Both vaccines induced overexpression of interferon (IFN)-signaling genes but with different kinetics. TIV induced expression of IFN genes on day 1 after vaccination in all age groups, and LAIV induced expression of IFN genes on day 7 after vaccination but only in children <5 years old. IFN-related genes overexpressed in both vaccinated groups correlated with H3N2 antibody titers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggest that LAIV and TIV induced significantly different B-cell responses in vaccinated children. Early induction of IFN appears to be important for development of antibody responses.
Project description:Influenza vaccines are usually non-adjuvanted but addition of adjuvant may improve immunogenicity and permit dose-sparing, critical for vaccine supply in the event of an influenza pandemic. The aim of this first-in-man study was to determine the effect of delta inulin adjuvant on the safety and immunogenicity of a reduced dose seasonal influenza vaccine. Healthy male and female adults aged 18-65years were recruited to participate in a randomized controlled study to compare the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a reduced-dose 2007 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (LTIV+Adj) when compared to a full-dose of the standard TIV vaccine which does not contain an adjuvant. LTIV+Adj provided equivalent immunogenicity to standard TIV vaccine as assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays against each vaccine strain as well as against a number of heterosubtypic strains. HI responses were sustained at 3months post-immunisation in both groups. Antibody landscapes against a large panel of H3N2 influenza viruses showed distinct age effects whereby subjects over 40years old had a bimodal baseline HI distribution pattern, with the highest HI titers against the very oldest H3N2 isolates and with a second HI peak against influenza isolates from the last 5-10years. By contrast, subjects >40years had a unimodal baseline HI distribution with peak recognition of H3N2 isolates from approximately 20years ago. The reduced dose TIV vaccine containing Advax adjuvant was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Hence, delta inulin may be a useful adjuvant for use in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12607000599471.