Efficacy of tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis stratified by background methotrexate dose group.
ABSTRACT: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This post hoc analysis investigated the effect of methotrexate (MTX) dose on the efficacy of tofacitinib in patients with RA. ORAL Scan (NCT00847613) was a 2-year, randomized, Phase 3 trial evaluating tofacitinib in MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients with RA. Patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID), or placebo, with low (?12.5 mg/week), moderate (>12.5 to <17.5 mg/week), or high (?17.5 mg/week) stable background MTX. Efficacy endpoints (at months 3 and 6) included American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates, and mean change from baseline in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)-4(erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and modified Total Sharp score. 797 patients were treated with tofacitinib 5 mg BID (N = 321), tofacitinib 10 mg BID (N = 316), or placebo (N = 160); 242, 333, and 222 patients received low, moderate, and high MTX doses, respectively. At months 3 and 6, ACR20/50/70 response rates were greater for both tofacitinib doses vs placebo across all MTX doses. At month 3, mean changes from baseline in CDAI and HAQ-DI were significantly greater for both tofacitinib doses vs placebo, irrespective of MTX category; improvements were maintained at month 6. Both tofacitinib doses demonstrated improvements in DAS28-4(ESR), and less structural progression vs placebo, across MTX doses at month 6. Tofacitinib plus MTX showed greater clinical and radiographic efficacy than placebo in MTX-IR patients with RA, regardless of MTX dose.
Project description:Background:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in Chinese patients with RA enrolled in Phase 3 and long-term extension (LTE) studies. Methods:ORAL Sync was a 1-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trial. Patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo advanced to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID at 3 or 6 months. All patients remained on ?1 background conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. ORAL Sequel is an open-label LTE study (data-cut: March 2015; data collection and analyses were ongoing, and study database was not locked at the time of analysis; study was closed in 2017). Efficacy outcomes: American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4 [ESR]). Patient- and physician-reported outcomes: Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Patient and Physician Global Assessment of Arthritis, and pain (visual analog scale). Safety was assessed throughout. Results:ORAL Sync included 218 patients; 192 were subsequently enrolled into ORAL Sequel. In ORAL Sync, more patients achieved ACR20 (tofacitinib 5 mg BID, 67.4%; 10 mg BID, 70.6%; placebo, 34.1%) and DAS28-4 (ESR) <2.6 (tofacitinib 5 mg BID, 7.1%; 10 mg BID, 13.1%; placebo, 2.3%) with tofacitinib versus placebo at Month 6. Mean changes from baseline in HAQ-DI were greater with tofacitinib versus placebo at Month 6. In ORAL Sequel, efficacy was consistent to Month 48. Incidence rates for adverse events of special interest in tofacitinib-treated patients were similar to the global population. Conclusions:Tofacitinib significantly reduced signs/symptoms and improved physical function and quality of life in Chinese patients with moderate-to-severely active RA up to Month 48. The safety profile was consistent with the global population. Clinical Trial Identifier:NCT00856544 and NCT00413699.
Project description:To compare the relationship between clinical measures and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with tofacitinib or methotrexate (MTX).In a phase 3 randomised controlled trial, patients (N=956) who were MTX-naïve or had received ≤3 doses were randomised and received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily or MTX titrated to 20 mg/week. Outcomes included: per cent of patients achieving American College of Rheumatology 70% responses (ACR70), ACR50, low disease activity (LDA) by Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI ≤11) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI ≤10), remission by SDAI (≤3.3) and CDAI (≤2.8), patient-reported Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI scores <0.5), pain and global assessment of disease activity.At month 6, most patients who achieved LDA/remission by one definition achieved LDA/remission with others; however, discordance between measures was greater with MTX than with tofacitinib. As expected, concordance between CDAI and SDAI responses was high. Overall, patients achieving LDA or ACR50 responses reported less improvement in PROs (HAQ-DI, pain and patient global assessment) compared with clinical measures (tender and swollen joint counts).Variability in levels of responses between clinical outcomes and PROs should be considered when setting treat-to-target goals in patients with RA.NCT01039688; Post-results.
Project description:AIM:We report tofacitinib efficacy and safety in Asia-Pacific patients who participated in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinical development program. METHOD:This post-hoc analysis included pooled data from patients with RA in the Asia-Pacific region treated with tofacitinib with/without conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in Phase (P)1, 2, 3, and long-term extension (LTE) studies (one LTE ongoing; January 2016 data-cut). Efficacy was assessed over 24 months in patients who received tofacitinib 5 (N = 397) or 10 (N = 382) mg twice daily or placebo (N = 243) in three P2 and five P3 studies. Endpoints included American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20/50/70 responses, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4[ESR]) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) remission rates, and change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (?HAQ-DI). Safety data pooled over 92 months from one P1, four P2, six P3, and two LTE studies for all tofacitinib doses (N = 1464) included incidence rates (IRs) (patients with events/100 patient-years) for adverse events (AEs) of special interest. RESULTS:At month 3, patients receiving tofacitinib 5/10 mg twice daily improved vs placebo in ACR20 (69.2%/77.9% vs 27.5%), ACR50 (36.9%/44.4% vs 9.5%), and ACR70 (15.1%/22.4% vs 2.7%) responses, remission rates for DAS28-4(ESR) (8.5%/18.5% vs 2.6%) and CDAI (6.1%/12.3% vs 0.5%), and ?HAQ-DI (-0.5/-0.6 vs -0.1); improvements were sustained through 24 months. IRs (95% CI) were 9.4 (8.5, 10.3) for serious AEs, 9.1 (8.3, 10.1) for discontinuations due to AEs, 3.7 (3.2, 4.3) for serious infections, 5.9 (5.2, 6.7) for herpes zoster, and 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) for malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer). CONCLUSION:In Asia-Pacific patients, tofacitinib improved signs/symptoms over 24 months. Safety over 92 months was generally consistent with global tofacitinib studies; however, infection IRs were higher in Asia-Pacific patients.
Project description:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We evaluated the relationship between disease activity, according to Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) after 6-month treatment with tofacitinib, and long-term outcomes at 24 months. This was a post hoc analysis of two 24-month, phase 3, randomized controlled trials in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve (ORAL Start [NCT01039688]) or MTX-inadequate responder patients (ORAL Scan [NCT00847613]) receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) as monotherapy or with background MTX. RAPID3 scores were calculated at baseline, month (M)6, and M24, and defined as remission (??3), low (LDA; >?3-??6), moderate (MDA; >?6-??12), or high disease activity (HDA; >?12). Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) scores, and radiographic non-progression (modified Total Sharp Scores ??0) at M24 were evaluated by M6 RAPID3 response. Among patients receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID, respectively, 42.2 and 51.5% (ORAL Start) and 29.8 and 39.0% (ORAL Scan) achieved RAPID3 remission/LDA at M6. Most patients maintained/improved RAPID3 responses at M24. A higher proportion of patients in RAPID3 remission/LDA versus MDA/HDA at M6 achieved CDAI remission, reported normative HAQ-DI scores (<?0.5), and achieved both normative HAQ-DI scores and radiographic non-progression at M24. Patients achieving RAPID3 remission/LDA after 6-month treatment with tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID have improved long-term outcomes versus patients with MDA/HDA. These findings support the use of RAPID3 to monitor longer-term disease activity in conjunction with physician-assessed measures.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Optimal targeted treatment in rheumatoid arthritis requires early identification of failure to respond. This post hoc analysis explored the relationship between early disease activity changes and the achievement of low disease activity (LDA) and remission targets with tofacitinib. METHODS:Data were from 2 randomized, double-blind, phase III studies. In the ORAL Start trial, methotrexate (MTX)-naive patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily, or MTX, for 24 months. In the placebo-controlled ORAL Standard trial, MTX inadequate responder patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily or adalimumab 40 mg every 2 weeks, with MTX, for 12 months. Probabilities of achieving LDA (using a Clinical Disease Activity Index [CDAI] score ?10 or the 4-component Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate [DAS28-ESR] ?3.2) at months 6 and 12 were calculated, given failure to achieve threshold improvement from baseline (change in CDAI ?6 or DAS28-ESR ?1.2) at month 1 or 3. RESULTS:In ORAL Start, 7.2% and 5.4% of patients receiving tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily, respectively, failed to show improvement in the CDAI ?6 at month 3; of those who failed, 3.8% and 28.6%, respectively, achieved month 6 CDAI-defined LDA. In ORAL Standard, 18.8% and 17.5% of patients receiving tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily, respectively, failed to improve CDAI ?6 at month 3; of those who failed, 0% and 2.9%, respectively, achieved month 6 CDAI-defined LDA. Findings were similar when considering improvements at month 1 or DAS28-ESR thresholds. CONCLUSION:In patients with an inadequate response to MTX, lack of response to tofacitinib after 1 or 3 months predicted a low probability of achieving LDA at month 6. Lack of an early response may be considered when deciding whether to continue treatment with tofacitinib.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In Australia, there is an unmet need for improved treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of RA. To provide an overview of key study outcomes for tofacitinib in Australian patients, we analyzed the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in the Australian subpopulation of global RA phase III and long-term extension (LTE) studies. METHODS:Data were pooled from the Australian subpopulation of four phase III studies and one LTE study (database not locked at cut-off date: January 2016). Patients in the phase III studies received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID), placebo (advancing to tofacitinib at months 3 or 6), or adalimumab, with background methotrexate or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Patients in the LTE study received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID. Efficacy endpoints were American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates, and change from baseline in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [DAS28-4(ESR)] and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) scores. Safety endpoints included incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and discontinuations due to AEs. AEs of special interest and laboratory parameters were analyzed in the LTE study. RESULTS:Across phase III studies (N?=?100), ACR response rates and improvements in DAS28-4(ESR) and HAQ-DI scores were numerically greater with tofacitinib vs. placebo at month 3, and increased until month 12. The results were sustained in the LTE study (N?=?99) after 60 months' observation. In general, the efficacy and safety profiles of tofacitinib were similar to those of the global RA population. CONCLUSIONS:In Australian patients with RA, tofacitinib therapy demonstrated sustained efficacy and consistent safety over???60 months' treatment. FUNDING:Pfizer Inc. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS (ALL CLINICALTRIALS.GOV): NCT00960440; NCT00847613; NCT00856544; NCT00853385; NCT00413699.
Project description:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We compared patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with RA treated with tofacitinib or placebo in combination with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).In a 12-month, phase III randomized controlled trial (ORAL Sync), patients (n?=?795) with active RA and previous inadequate response to therapy with ?1 conventional or biologic DMARD were randomized 4:4:1:1 to tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID), tofacitinib 10 mg BID, placebo advanced to 5 mg BID, or placebo to 10 mg BID, in combination with stable background DMARD therapy. PROs included patient global assessment of arthritis (PtGA), patient assessment of arthritis pain (Pain), physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]), health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 health survey [SF-36]), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue [FACIT-F]), and sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep [MOS Sleep]).At month 3, statistically significant improvements from baseline versus placebo were reported in PtGA, Pain, HAQ DI, all 8 SF-36 domains, FACIT-F, and MOS Sleep with tofacitinib 10 mg BID, and in PtGA, Pain, HAQ DI, 7 SF-36 domains, FACIT-F, and MOS Sleep with tofacitinib 5 mg BID. Improvements were sustained to month 12. Significantly more tofacitinib-treated patients reported improvements of greater than or equal to the minimum clinically important differences at month 3 versus placebo in all PROs, except the SF-36 role-emotional domain (significant for tofacitinib 10 mg BID).Patients with active RA treated with tofacitinib combined with background conventional DMARD therapy reported sustained, significant, and clinically meaningful improvements in PROs versus placebo.
Project description:Objective:Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for treatment of RA. We compared tofacitinib modified-release (MR) 11 mg once daily (QD) with tofacitinib immediate-release (IR) 5 mg twice daily (BID) in Japanese patients with RA and inadequate response to MTX. Methods:Phase III, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week study. Patients were randomized to tofacitinib MR 11 mg QD (n = 104) or IR 5 mg BID (n = 105), with stable MTX. Compliance was based on returned pill counts. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of MR 11 mg QD to IR 5 mg BID. Non-inferiority was declared if the upper bound of the two-sided 95% CI for the difference in change from baseline in DAS28-4(CRP) at week 12 was <0.6. Results:At week 12, with tofacitinib MR 11 mg QD and IR 5 mg BID, respectively, the change from baseline in least squares mean DAS28-4(CRP) was -2.43 and -2.85; the mean difference was 0.43 (95% CI 0.17, 0.69). Non-inferiority of MR 11 mg QD to IR 5 mg BID was not met. Improvement of DAS28-4(CRP) ?1.2 was observed in 89 and 85% of patients, respectively, corresponding to a clinically important, significant change in both groups. The frequency of adverse events (52.9 and 51.4%, respectively) and serious adverse events (4.8 and 3.8%, respectively) was generally similar between treatments. No deaths were reported. Conclusion:Non-inferiority of MR 11 mg QD to IR 5 mg BID was not met in this study. However, clinically meaningful improvements in RA were observed with both tofacitinib formulations in Japanese patients. The safety profile was similar with both formulations. Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02281552.
Project description:Objectives:Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined response to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg two times a day in patients with seropositive vs seronegative RA. Methods:Data were pooled from five Phase III studies of conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARD)- or biological DMARD-inadequate responders (ORAL Step [NCT00960440]; ORAL Scan [NCT00847613]; ORAL Solo [NCT00814307]; ORAL Sync [NCT00856544]; ORAL Standard [NCT00853385]). 'Serotype' subgroups were: anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) positive (anti-CCP+/RF+); anti-CCP+/RF negative (-); anti-CCP-/RF+; anti-CCP-/RF-. At month 3, ACR20/50/70 response rates, Disease Activity Score (DAS28-4[ESR])-defined remission (DAS28-4[ESR]<2.6) and low disease activity (LDA; DAS28-4[ESR]≤3.2), changes from baseline (CFB) in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) physical functioning and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) were evaluated. Safety endpoints were compared. Results:Baseline demographics/characteristics were similar across subgroups. Tofacitinib significantly improved ACR20/50/70 response rates, DAS28-4(ESR) LDA rates and CFB in HAQ-DI and FACIT-F vs placebo across subgroups. More anti-CCP+/RF+ than anti-CCP-/RF- patients had ACR20/50/70 responses (ACR20/50: both tofacitinib doses; ACR70: 10 mg two times a day). SF-36 physical functioning improved in anti-CCP+/RF+, anti-CCP+/RF- and anti-CCP-/RF+ patients (both tofacitinib doses) and anti-CCP-/RF- patients (10 mg two times a day) vs placebo. More anti-CCP+/RF+ and anti-CCP+/RF- than anti-CCP-/RF- patients achieved DAS28-4(ESR) remission and LDA with tofacitinib 10 mg two times a day. Frequency of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs and discontinuations due to AEs were similar across subgroups. Conclusion:Generally, tofacitinib efficacy (ACR20/50/70 responses) and safety were similar across subgroups. DAS28-4(ESR) remission rates and SF-36 physical functioning appeared lower in anti-CCP- patients.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Here we examine the relationship between achieving different levels of disease activity with tofacitinib (an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis), long-term structural progression, and patient-reported physical function. METHODS:This was a post hoc analysis of two 24-month, phase III randomized controlled trials in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve (ORAL Start [NCT01039688]) or MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients (ORAL Scan [NCT00847613]) receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily as either monotherapy or with background MTX. The modified total Sharp score (mTSS) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) were analyzed at month 24 according to disease activity at month 6 defined by the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) or the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, C-reactive protein (DAS28CRP). RESULTS:Mean changes from baseline in mTSS at month 24 were less in patients with CDAI remission at month 6 than in those with CDAI moderate/high disease activity (MDA/HDA) at month 6. A DAS28CRP of < 1.9 most closely approximated CDAI remission (≤ 2.8). Tofacitinib appeared to inhibit joint damage in the presence of persistent inflammation compared with MTX. More patients receiving tofacitinib or MTX with CDAI remission or low disease activity (LDA) at month 6 reported normative HAQ-DI scores (< 0.5) at month 24 than did those with CDAI MDA/HDA. CONCLUSION:Regardless of treatment, in both MTX-naïve and MTX-IR patients, remission or LDA at month 6 was associated with successful long-term outcomes: inhibition of structural progression and normative HAQ-DI scores. Long-term outcomes were similar when patients achieved CDAI remission or a DAS28CRP of < 1.9, confirming that this is an appropriate cut-off for remission with DAS28CRP. Tofacitinib potentially inhibits joint damage even with persistent inflammation. FUNDING:Pfizer Inc. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: NCT01039688 and NCT00847613.