Cyclophilin D over-expression increases mitochondrial complex III activity and accelerates supercomplex formation.
ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin D (CyPD), a mitochondrial matrix protein, has been widely studied for its role in mitochondrial-mediated cell death. Unexpectedly, we previously discovered that overexpression of CyPD in a stable cell line, increased mitochondrial membrane potentials and enhanced cell survival under conditions of oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for these findings. Spectrophotometric measurements in isolated mitochondria revealed that overexpression of CyPD in HEK293 cells increased respiratory chain activity, but only for Complex III (CIII). Acute treatment of mitochondria with the immumosupressant cyclosporine A did not affect CIII activity. Expression levels of the CIII subunits cytochrome b and Rieske-FeS were elevated in HEK293 cells overexpressing CyPD. However, CIII activity was still significantly higher compared to control mitochondria, even when normalized by protein expression. Blue native gel electrophoresis and Western blot assays revealed a molecular interaction of CyPD with CIII and increased levels of supercomplexes in mitochondrial protein extracts. Radiolabeled protein synthesis in mitochondria showed that CIII assembly and formation of supercomplexes containing CIII were significantly faster when CyPD was overexpressed. Taken together, these data indicate that CyPD regulates mitochondrial metabolism, and likely cell survival, by promoting more efficient electrons flow through the respiratory chain via increased supercomplex formation.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension is associated with pronounced exercise intolerance (decreased V???O2 max) that can significantly impact quality of life. The cause of exercise intolerance in pulmonary hypertension remains unclear. Mitochondrial supercomplexes are large respiratory assemblies of individual electron transport chain complexes which can promote more efficient respiration. In this study, we examined pulmonary hypertension and exercise-induced changes in skeletal muscle electron transport chain protein expression and supercomplex assembly. Pulmonary arterial hypertension was induced in rats with the Sugen/Hypoxia model (10% FiO2, three weeks). Pulmonary arterial hypertension and control rats were assigned to an exercise training protocol group or kept sedentary for one month. Cardiac function and V???O2 max were assessed at the beginning and end of exercise training. Red (Type 1-oxidative muscle) and white (Type 2-glycolytic muscle) gastrocnemius were assessed for changes in electron transport chain complex protein expression and supercomplex assembly via SDS- and Blue Native-PAGE. Results showed that pulmonary arterial hypertension caused a significant decrease in V???O2 max via treadmill testing that was improved with exercise (P?<?0.01). Decreases in cardiac output and pulmonary acceleration time due to pulmonary arterial hypertension were not improved with exercise. Pulmonary arterial hypertension reduced expression in individual electron transport chain complex protein expression (NDUFB8 (CI), SDHB (CII), Cox IV (CIV), but not UQCRC2 (CIII), or ATP5a (CV)) in red gastrocnemius muscle. Both red gastrocnemius and white gastrocnemius electron transport chain expression was unaffected by exercise. However, non-denaturing Blue Native-PAGE analysis of mitochondrial supercomplexes demonstrated increases with exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension in the red gastrocnemius but not white gastrocnemius muscle. Pulmonary arterial hypertension-induced exercise intolerance is improved with exercise and is associated with muscle type specific alteration in mitochondrial supercomplex assembly and expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins.
Project description:The complexes of the electron transport chain associate into large macromolecular assemblies, which are believed to facilitate efficient electron flow. We have identified a conserved mitochondrial protein, named respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf1-Yml030w), that is required for the normal assembly of respiratory supercomplexes. We demonstrate that Rcf1 stably and independently associates with both Complex III and Complex IV of the electron transport chain. Deletion of the RCF1 gene caused impaired respiration, probably as a result of destabilization of respiratory supercomplexes. Consistent with the hypothetical function of these respiratory assemblies, loss of RCF1 caused elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. Finally, we show that knockdown of HIG2A, a mammalian homolog of RCF1, causes impaired supercomplex formation. We suggest that Rcf1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved protein family that acts to promote respiratory supercomplex assembly and activity.
Project description:Functional oxidative phosphorylation requires appropriately assembled mitochondrial respiratory complexes and their supercomplexes formed mainly of complexes I, III and IV. BCS1L is the chaperone needed to incorporate the catalytic subunit, Rieske iron-sulfur protein, into complex III at the final stage of its assembly. In cell culture studies, this subunit has been considered necessary for supercomplex formation and for maintaining the stability of complex I. Our aim was to assess the importance of fully assembled complex III for supercomplex formation in intact liver tissue. We used our transgenic mouse model with a homozygous c.232A>G mutation in Bcs1l leading to decreased expression of BCS1L and progressive decrease of Rieske iron-sulfur protein in complex III, resulting in hepatopathy. We studied supercomplex formation at different ages using blue native gel electrophoresis and complex activity using high-resolution respirometry. In isolated liver mitochondria of young and healthy homozygous mutant mice, we found similar supercomplexes as in wild type. In homozygotes aged 27-29 days with liver disorder, complex III was predominantly a pre-complex lacking Rieske iron-sulfur protein. However, the main supercomplex was clearly detected and contained complex III mainly in the pre-complex form. Oxygen consumption of complex IV was similar and that of complex I was twofold compared with controls. These complexes in free form were more abundant in homozygotes than in controls, and the mRNA of complex I subunits were upregulated. In conclusion, when complex III assembly is deficient, the pre-complex without Rieske iron-sulfur protein can participate with available fully assembled complex III in supercomplex formation, complex I function is preserved, and respiratory chain stability is maintained.
Project description:The COX7A2L (Supercomplex Assembly Factor I, SCAFI) protein has been proposed to be a mitochondrial supercomplex assembly factor required for respirasome (supercomplex containing complexes I, III, and IV) formation. In the C57BL/6 mouse strain a homozygous in-frame 6-base-pair deletion in the COX7a2l/SCAF1 gene resulting in unstable protein and suggesting loss of function was previously identified. The loss of SCAFI was shown to impede respirasome formation, a major concern for the use of C57BL mouse strains in mitochondrial research. In contradiction, another recent study suggested that supercomplex formation is independent of SCAFI isoforms. We investigated whether SCAFI isoform status affected the disease severity and supercomplex formation in the liver of Bcs1lc.232A>G knock-in mice with incomplete complex III assembly. In homozygotes (Bcs1lG/G) of mixed (C57BL/6:129/Sv) genetic background, the lifespan was similar in mice with wild-type SCAFI allele and in those homozygous (SCAFIshort/short) for the deleted SCAF1 variant (34±3 days; n = 6 vs. 32±2 days; n = 7, respectively). SCAFI heterozygosity (SCAFIlong/short) resulted in decreased SCAFI protein but respirasome assembly was unaffected. Congenic (C57BL/6) mice were of the genotype SCAFIshort/short and had no detectable SCAFI protein. In their liver mitochondria, respirasome composition was altered as compared to mixed background mice. Complex IV was mainly present as monomers and dimers, and only low amounts were found in combination with complex I and complex III or with precomplex III. The main supercomplex in the liver mitochondria of C57BL/6 mice comprised only complexes I and III. In conclusion, in liver mitochondria of C57BL/6 mice, supercomplexes had markedly reduced amount of, but were not completely depleted of, complex IV, supporting a role for COX7A2L/SCAFI in supercomplex assembly. However, the disease progression of the Bcs1l mutant mice was unrelated to SCAFI isoforms and supercomplex composition, suggesting that other genetic factors contribute to the different survival in the different genetic backgrounds.
Project description:Mitochondrial complex III (CIII<sub>2</sub>) and complex IV (CIV), which can associate into a higher-order supercomplex (SC III<sub>2</sub>+IV), play key roles in respiration. However, structures of these plant complexes remain unknown. We present atomic models of CIII<sub>2</sub>, CIV, and SC III<sub>2</sub>+IV from <i>Vigna radiata</i> determined by single-particle cryoEM. The structures reveal plant-specific differences in the MPP domain of CIII<sub>2</sub> and define the subunit composition of CIV. Conformational heterogeneity analysis of CIII<sub>2</sub> revealed long-range, coordinated movements across the complex, as well as the motion of CIII<sub>2</sub>'s iron-sulfur head domain. The CIV structure suggests that, in plants, proton translocation does not occur via the H channel. The supercomplex interface differs significantly from that in yeast and bacteria in its interacting subunits, angle of approach and limited interactions in the mitochondrial matrix. These structures challenge long-standing assumptions about the plant complexes and generate new mechanistic hypotheses.
Project description:Here we identified a hydrophobic 6.4kDa protein, Cox26, as a novel component of yeast mitochondrial supercomplex comprising respiratory complexes III and IV. Multi-dimensional native and denaturing electrophoretic techniques were used to identify proteins interacting with Cox26. The majority of the Cox26 protein was found non-covalently bound to the complex IV moiety of the III-IV supercomplexes. A population of Cox26 was observed to exist in a disulfide bond partnership with the Cox2 subunit of complex IV. No pronounced growth phenotype for Cox26 deficiency was observed, indicating that Cox26 may not play a critical role in the COX enzymology, and we speculate that Cox26 may serve to regulate or support the Cox2 protein. Respiratory supercomplexes are assembled in the absence of the Cox26 protein, however their pattern slightly differs to the wild type III-IV supercomplex appearance. The catalytic activities of complexes III and IV were observed to be normal and respiration was comparable to wild type as long as cells were cultivated under normal growth conditions. Stress conditions, such as elevated temperatures resulted in mild decrease of respiration in non-fermentative media when the Cox26 protein was absent.
Project description:Mitochondria are involved in key cellular functions including energy production, metabolic homeostasis, and apoptosis. Normal mitochondrial function is preserved by several interrelated mechanisms. One mechanism - intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) - is represented by conserved proteases distributed across mitochondrial compartments. Many aspects and physiological roles of IMQC components remain unclear. Here, we show that the IMQC protease Oma1 is required for the stability of the respiratory supercomplexes and thus balanced and tunable bioenergetic function. Loss of Oma1 activity leads to a specific destabilization of respiratory supercomplexes and consequently to unbalanced respiration and progressive respiratory decline in yeast. Similarly, experiments in cultured Oma1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts link together impeded supercomplex stability and inability to maintain proper respiration under conditions that require maximal bioenergetic output. Finally, transient knockdown of OMA1 in zebrafish leads to impeded bioenergetics and morphological defects of the heart and eyes. Together, our biochemical and genetic studies in yeast, zebrafish and mammalian cells identify a novel and conserved physiological role for Oma1 protease in fine-tuning of respiratory function. We suggest that this unexpected physiological role is important for cellular bioenergetic plasticity and may contribute to Oma1-associated disease phenotypes in humans.
Project description:Mammalian mitochondria may contain up to 1,500 different proteins, and many of them have neither been confidently identified nor characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that C11orf83, which was lacking experimental characterization, is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein facing the intermembrane space. This protein is specifically associated with the bc1 complex of the electron transport chain and involved in the early stages of its assembly by stabilizing the bc1 core complex. C11orf83 displays some overlapping functions with Cbp4p, a yeast bc1 complex assembly factor. Therefore, we suggest that C11orf83, now called UQCC3, is the functional human equivalent of Cbp4p. In addition, C11orf83 depletion in HeLa cells caused abnormal crista morphology, higher sensitivity to apoptosis, a decreased ATP level due to impaired respiration and subtle, but significant, changes in cardiolipin composition. We showed that C11orf83 binds to cardiolipin by its ?-helices 2 and 3 and is involved in the stabilization of bc1 complex-containing supercomplexes, especially the III2/IV supercomplex. We also demonstrated that the OMA1 metalloprotease cleaves C11orf83 in response to mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting a role in the selection of cells with damaged mitochondria for their subsequent elimination by apoptosis, as previously described for OPA1.
Project description:Respiratory chain complexes are organized into large supercomplexes among which supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn is the only one that can directly transfer electrons from NADH to oxygen. Recently, it was reported that the formation of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn in mice largely depends on their genetic background. However, in this study, we showed that the composition of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn is well conserved in various mouse and human cell lines. Strikingly, we found that a minimal supercomplex In + IIIn, termed "lowest supercomplex" (LSC) in this study because of its migration at the lowest position close to complex V dimers in blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was associated with complex IV to form a supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn in some, but not all of the human and mouse cells. In addition, we observed that the 3697G>A mutation in mitochondrial-encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) in one patient with Leigh's disease specifically affected the assembly of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn containing LSC, leading to decreased cellular respiration and ATP generation. In conclusion, we showed the existence of LSC In + IIIn + IVn and impairment of this supercomplex causes disease.
Project description:The assembly of respiratory complexes into macromolecular supercomplexes is currently a hot topic, especially in the context of newly available structural details. However, most work to date has been done with purified detergent-solubilized material and in situ confirmation is absent. We here set out to enable the recording of respiratory supercomplex formation in living cells. Fluorescent sensor proteins were placed at specific positions at cytochrome c oxidase suspected to either be at the surface of a CI1CIII2CIV1 supercomplex or buried within this supercomplex. In contrast to other loci, sensors at subunits CoxVIIIa and CoxVIIc reported a dense protein environment, as detected by significantly shortened fluorescence lifetimes. According to 3D modelling CoxVIIIa and CoxVIIc are buried in the CI1CIII2CIV1 supercomplex. Suppression of supercomplex scaffold proteins HIGD2A and CoxVIIa2l was accompanied by an increase in the lifetime of the CoxVIIIa-sensor in line with release of CIV from supercomplexes. Strikingly, our data provide strong evidence for defined stable supercomplex configuration in situ.