MicroRNA expression patterns in post-natal mouse skeletal muscle development.
ABSTRACT: MiRNAs are essential regulators of skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. To date, the role and regulation of miRNAs in myogenesis have been mostly studied in tissue culture and during embryogenesis. However, little information relating to miRNA regulation during early post-natal skeletal muscle growth in mammals is available. Using a high-throughput miRNA qPCR-based array, followed by stringent statistical and bioinformatics analysis, we describe the expression pattern and putative role of 768 miRNAs in the quadriceps muscle of mice aged 2 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks.Forty-six percent of all measured miRNAs were expressed in mouse quadriceps muscle during the first 12 weeks of life. We report unprecedented changes in miRNA expression levels over time. The expression of a majority of miRNAs significantly decreased with post-natal muscle maturation in vivo. MiRNA clustering identified 2 subsets of miRNAs that are potentially involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, mainly via the regulation of non-muscle specific targets.Collective miRNA expression in mouse quadriceps muscle is subjected to substantial levels of regulation during the first 12 weeks of age. This study identified a new suite of highly conserved miRNAs that are predicted to influence early muscle development. As such it provides novel knowledge pertaining to post-natal myogenesis and muscle regeneration in mammals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal-dominant disorder and is one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy. We have recently shown that some hallmarks of FSHD are already expressed in fetal FSHD biopsies, thus opening a new field of investigation for mechanisms leading to FSHD. As microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in myogenesis and muscle disorders, in this study we compared miRNAs expression levels during normal and FSHD muscle development. METHODS:Muscle biopsies were obtained from quadriceps of both healthy control and FSHD1 fetuses with ages ranging from 14 to 33 weeks of development. miRNA expression profiles were analyzed using TaqMan Human MicroRNA Arrays. RESULTS:During human skeletal muscle development, in control muscle biopsies we observed changes for 4 miRNAs potentially involved in secondary muscle fiber formation and 5 miRNAs potentially involved in fiber maturation. When we compared the miRNA profiles obtained from control and FSHD biopsies, we did not observe any differences in the muscle specific miRNAs. However, we identified 8 miRNAs exclusively expressed in FSHD1 samples (miR-330, miR-331-5p, miR-34a, miR-380-3p, miR-516b, miR-582-5p, miR-517* and miR-625) which could represent new biomarkers for this disease. Their putative targets are mainly involved in muscle development and morphogenesis. Interestingly, these FSHD1 specific miRNAs do not target the genes previously described to be involved in FSHD. CONCLUSIONS:This work provides new candidate mechanisms potentially involved in the onset of FSHD pathology. Whether these FSHD specific miRNAs cause deregulations during fetal development, or protect against the appearance of the FSHD phenotype until the second decade of life still needs to be investigated.
Project description:Emerging evidence has demonstrated that miRNA sequences can regulate skeletal myogenesis by controlling the process of myoblast proliferation and differentiation. However, at present a deep analysis of miRNA expression in control and FSHD myoblasts during differentiation has not yet been derived. To close this gap, we used a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach applied to in vitro myogenesis. Furthermore, to minimize sample genetic heterogeneity and muscle-type specific patterns of gene expression, miRNA profiling from NGS data was filtered with FC ? 4 (log(2)FC ? 2) and p-value<0.05, and its validation was derived by qRT-PCR on myoblasts from seven muscle districts. In particular, control myogenesis showed the modulation of 38 miRNAs, the majority of which (34 out 38) were up-regulated, including myomiRs (miR-1, -133a, -133b and -206). Approximately one third of the modulated miRNAs were not previously reported to be involved in muscle differentiation, and interestingly some of these (i.e. miR-874, -1290, -95 and -146a) were previously shown to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. FSHD myogenesis evidenced a reduced number of modulated miRNAs than healthy muscle cells. The two processes shared nine miRNAs, including myomiRs, although with FC values lower in FSHD than in control cells. In addition, FSHD cells showed the modulation of six miRNAs (miR-1268, -1268b, -1908, 4258, -4508- and -4516) not evidenced in control cells and that therefore could be considered FSHD-specific, likewise three novel miRNAs that seem to be specifically expressed in FSHD myotubes. These data further clarify the impact of miRNA regulation during control myogenesis and strongly suggest that a complex dysregulation of miRNA expression characterizes FSHD, impairing two important features of myogenesis: cell cycle and muscle development. The derived miRNA profiling could represent a novel molecular signature for FSHD that includes diagnostic biomarkers and possibly therapeutic targets.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) undergo high levels of regulation in skeletal muscle development and control skeletal muscle mass, function and metabolism over the lifespan. More recently, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in skeletal muscle regulation has started to emerge. Following up on our recent study describing the expression pattern and putative roles of 768 miRNAs in the quadriceps muscle of mice at early life stages, we used a high-throughput miRNA qPCR-based array to assess the expression of the same miRNAs in 28-month old male mouse quadriceps muscle. In addition, we report the expression patterns of lncRNAs playing a putative role in muscle development and adaptation from growth to old age. Twelve miRNAs were significantly downregulated in 28-month old muscle when compared with 12-week old muscle. Ten of them clustered at the Dlk1-Dio3 locus, known as 'Callipyge,' which is associated with muscle development and hypertrophy. This collective downregulation was paralleled by decreases in the expression levels of the maternally expressed imprinted LncRNA coding genes Meg3 and Rian stemming from the same chromosomal region. In contrast, the paternally expressed imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 locus members Rtl1, Dio3, and Dlk1 and the muscle related lncRNAs lncMyoD1, Neat_v1, Neat_v2, and Malat1 underwent significant changes during growth, but their expression levels were not altered past the age of 12 weeks, suggesting roles limited to hyperplasia and early hypertrophy. In conclusion, collective muscle miRNA expression gradually decreases over the lifespan and a cluster of miRNAs and maternally expressed lncRNAs stemming from the Callipyge locus is significantly dysregulated in aging muscle. The Dlk1-Dio3 locus therefore represents a potential new mechanism for age-related muscle decline.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by targeting mRNAs for degradation or by inhibiting translation. Dicer is an RNase III endonuclease which processes miRNA precursors into functional 21-23 nucleotide RNAs that are subsequently incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex. miRNA-mediated gene regulation is important for organogenesis of a variety of tissues including limb, lung and skin. To gain insight into the roles of Dicer and miRNAs in mammalian skeletal muscle development, we eliminated Dicer activity specifically in the myogenic compartment during embryogenesis. Dicer activity is essential for normal muscle development during embryogenesis and Dicer muscle mutants have reduced muscle miRNAs, die perinatally and display decreased skeletal muscle mass accompanied by abnormal myofiber morphology. Dicer mutant muscles also show increased apoptosis and Cre-mediated loss of Dicer in Myod-converted myoblasts results in enhanced cell death. These observations demonstrate key roles for Dicer in skeletal muscle and implicate miRNAs as critical components required for embryonic myogenesis.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in muscle development by binding to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Based on prenatal skeletal muscle at 33, 65 and 90 days post-coitus (dpc) from Landrace, Tongcheng and Wuzhishan pigs, we carried out integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling. We identified 33, 18 and 67 differentially expressed miRNAs and 290, 91 and 502 mRNA targets in Landrace, Tongcheng and Wuzhishan pigs, respectively. Subsequently, 12 mRNAs and 3 miRNAs differentially expressed were validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and 5 predicted miRNA targets were confirmed via dual luciferase reporter or western blot assays. We identified a set of miRNAs and mRNA genes differentially expressed in muscle development. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggests that the miRNA targets are primarily involved in muscle contraction, muscle development and negative regulation of cell proliferation. Our data indicated that more mRNAs are regulated by miRNAs at earlier stages than at later stages of muscle development. Landrace and Tongcheng pigs also had longer phases of myoblast proliferation than Wuzhishan pigs. This study will be helpful to further explore miRNA-mRNA interactions in myogenesis and aid to uncover the molecular mechanisms of muscle development and phenotype variance in pigs.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded non-coding RNAs that repress their target genes by binding their 3' UTRs. These RNAs play critical roles in myogenesis. To gain knowledge about miRNAs involved in the regulation of myogenesis, porcine longissimus muscles were collected from 18 developmental stages (33-, 40-, 45-, 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, 70-, 75-, 80-, 85-, 90-, 95-, 100- and 105-day post-gestation fetuses, 0 and 10-day postnatal piglets and adult pigs) to identify miRNAs using Solexa sequencing technology. We detected 197 known miRNAs and 78 novel miRNAs according to comparison with known miRNAs in the miRBase (release 17.0) database. Moreover, variations in sequence length and single nucleotide polymorphisms were also observed in 110 known miRNAs. Expression analysis of the 11 most abundant miRNAs were conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in eleven tissues (longissimus muscles, leg muscles, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine and colon), and the results revealed that ssc-miR-378, ssc-miR-1 and ssc-miR-206 were abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles. During skeletal muscle development, the expression level of ssc-miR-378 was low at 33 days post-coitus (dpc), increased at 65 and 90 dpc, peaked at postnatal day 0, and finally declined and maintained a comparatively stable level. This expression profile suggested that ssc-miR-378 was a new candidate miRNA for myogenesis and participated in skeletal muscle development in pigs. Target prediction and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), both of which were relevant to proliferation and differentiation, might be the potential targets of miR-378. Luciferase activities of report vectors containing the 3'UTR of porcine BMP2 or MAPK1 were downregulated by miR-378, which suggested that miR-378 probably regulated myogenesis though the regulation of these two genes.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, small, non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of myogenesis. Here, we examined the miRNA expression profiles of developing sheep skeletal muscle using a deep sequencing approach. We detected 2,396 miRNAs in the sheep skeletal muscle tissues. Of these, miR-192 was found to be up-regulated in prenatal skeletal muscle, but was down-regulated postnatally. MiR-192 expression also decreased during the myogenic differentiation of sheep satellite cells (SCs). MiR-192 overexpression significantly attenuated SCs myogenic differentiation but promoted SCs proliferation, whereas miR-192 inhibition enhanced SCs differentiation but suppressed SCs proliferation. We found that miR-192 targeted retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), a known regulator of myogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of RB1 in cultured cells significantly inhibited SCs myogenic differentiation but accelerated SCs proliferation, confirming the role of RB1 in myogenesis. Taken together, our findings enrich the ovine miRNA database, and outline the miRNA transcriptome of sheep during skeletal muscle development. Moreover, we show that miR-192 affects SCs proliferation and myogenic differentiation via down-regulation of RB1.
Project description:The differentiation and regeneration of skeletal muscle from myoblasts to myotubes involves myogenic transcription factors, such as myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) and serum response factor (SRF). In addition, post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs is required during myogenesis. Here, we provide evidence for novel mechanisms regulating MRTF-A during myogenic differentiation. Endogenous MRTF-A protein abundance and activity decreased during C2C12 differentiation, which was attributable to miRNA-directed inhibition. Conversely, overexpression of MRTF-A impaired differentiation and myosin expression. Applying miRNA trapping by RNA affinity purification (miTRAP), we identified miRNAs which directly regulate MRTF-A via its 3'UTR, including miR-1a-3p, miR-206-3p, miR-24-3p and miR-486-5p. These miRNAs were upregulated during differentiation and specifically recruited to the 3'UTR of MRTF-A. Concomitantly, Ago2 recruitment to the MRTF-A 3'UTR was considerably increased, whereas Dicer1 depletion or 3'UTR deletion elevated MRTF-A and inhibited differentiation. MRTF-A protein expression was inhibited by ectopic miRNA expression in murine C2C12 and primary human myoblasts. 3'UTR reporter activity diminished upon differentiation or miRNA expression, whereas deletion of the predicted binding sites reversed these effects. Furthermore, TGF-? abolished MRTF-A reduction and decreased miR-486-5p expression. Our findings implicate miR-24-3p and miR-486-5p in the repression of MRTF-A and suggest a complex network of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating myogenesis.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing. A small number of striated muscle-specific miRNAs have been identified and shown to have an important role in myogenesis, embryonic muscle growth and cardiac function and hypertrophy. One of these myomiRs (myo=muscle+miR=miRNA), miR-206, is unique in that it is only expressed in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is currently known about miR-206 and its function in myogenesis as well as propose potential new roles for miR-206 in skeletal muscle biology. The review is also intended to serve as a comprehensive resource for miR-206 with the hope of encouraging further research on the role of miR-206 in skeletal muscle.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small miRNAs ~22 nucleotides in length and play a vital role in muscle development by binding to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Large White (LW, a lean type pig) and Meishan pigs (MS, a Chinese indigenous obese breed) have significant postnatal phenotype differences in growth rate, muscle mass and meat quality, and these differences are programmed during prenatal muscle development. Little research shed light directly on the miRNA transcriptome difference in prenatal muscles between these two distinct pig breeds. Myofiber phenotypes of LW and MS were measured at developmental stages of 35, 55 and 90 days post-conception (dpc), which revealed that the myogenesis process is more intense in MS than in LW at 35 dpc. To investigate the role of miRNAs involved in regulating muscle development at earlier stages of myogenesis and decipher the miRNAs transcriptome difference between LW and MS, here, the miRNAomes of longissimus dorsi muscle collected at 35 dpc from female LW and MS were analyzed by deep sequencing. Overall, 1147 unique miRNAs comprising 434 known miRNAs, 239 conserved miRNAs and 474 candidate miRNAs were identified. Expression analysis of the 10 most abundant miRNAs in every library indicated that functional miRNAome may be a small amount and tend to be greater expressed. These sets of miRNA may play house keeping roles that were involved in myogenesis. A total of 87 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between LW and MS (reads > 1000, P < 0.05). Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed miRNAs (DE miRNAs) were associated mainly with muscle contraction, WNT, mTOR, and MAPK signaling pathways. Some myogenesis related miRNAs (miR-133, miR-1, miR-206 and miR-148a) are highly abundant in MS, while other miRNAs (let-7 family, miR-214, miR-181) highly expressed in LW. In addition, the expression patterns of miRNAs (miR-1, -133, -206) at three prenatal stages (35, 55 and 90 dpc) were determined using qRT-PCR. Notably, ssc-miR-133 was significantly more highly expressed in LW pigs skeletal muscle at all prenatal stages compared with its expression in LW pigs skeletal muscle. Taken together, the main functional miRNAs during muscle development are different between lean and obese pig breeds. The present study adds new information to existing data on porcine miRNAs and will be helpful to investigate the dominant (main functional) muscle-related miRNAs sets in different pig breeds.