Cloning and expression of clt genes encoding milk-clotting proteases from Myxococcus xanthus 422.
ABSTRACT: The screening of a gene library of the milk-clotting strain Myxococcus xanthus 422 constructed in Escherichia coli allowed the description of eight positive clones containing 26 open reading frames. Only three of them (cltA, cltB, and cltC) encoded proteins that exhibited intracellular milk-clotting ability in E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia pastoris expression systems.
Project description:In humans, there are two isoforms each of clathrin heavy chain (CHC17 and CHC22) and light chain (LCa and LCb) subunits, all encoded by separate genes. CHC17 forms the ubiquitous clathrin-coated vesicles that mediate membrane traffic. CHC22 is implicated in specialized membrane organization in skeletal muscle. CHC17 is bound and regulated by LCa and LCb, whereas CHC22 does not functionally interact with either light chain. The imbalanced interactions between clathrin subunit isoforms suggest a distinct evolutionary history for each isoform pair. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis placed both heavy and light chain gene duplications during chordate evolution, 510-600 million years ago. Genes encoding CHC22 orthologues were found in several vertebrate species, with only a pseudogene present in mice. Multiple paralogons surrounding the CHC genes (CLTC and CLTD) were identified, evidence that genomic or large-scale gene duplication produced the two CHC isoforms. In contrast, clathrin light chain genes (CLTA and CLTB) apparently arose by localized duplication, within 1-11 million years of CHC gene duplication. Analysis of sequence divergence patterns suggested that structural features of the CHCs were maintained after gene duplication, but new interactions with regulatory proteins evolved for the CHC22 isoform. Thus, independent mechanisms of gene duplication expanded clathrin functions, concomitant with development of neuromuscular sophistication in chordates.
Project description:Bacillus methanolicus LB-1 isolated from traditional rice wine was found to produce a milk clotting enzyme (MCE), and its fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. Then the MCE was produced by ethanol precipitation, and further chromatography separation resulted in a 10.46-fold purification with a 59.28% recovery. The MCA (milk clotting activity) of the purified MCE reached 597,310?±?0.13 SU/g. The optimal temperature of the MCE was determined to be 50 °C and it was stable in the low temperature range of 40-45 °C. The MCE had an optimum pH of 6.5, and it was stable under neutral conditions. Calcium chloride at the concentration of 25 mM was found to be the most effective stimulus. The MCE was identified by LC-MS to be a putative protein (ID I3EB99) containing 759 amino acids with a molecular weight of 80.37 kDa and a pI of 9.23.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although the mitotic arrest deficient protein MAD2B (MAD2L2) is thought to inhibit the anaphase promoting complex (APC) by binding to CDC20 and/or CDH1 (FZR1), its exact role in cell cycle control still remains to be established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a yeast two-hybrid interaction trap we identified the human clathrin light chain A (CLTA) as a novel MAD2B binding protein. A direct interaction was established in mammalian cells via GST pull-down and endogenous co-immunoprecipitation during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Through subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy we found that MAD2B and CLTA co-localize at the mitotic spindle. Clathrin forms a trimeric structure, i.e., the clathrin triskelion, consisting of three heavy chains (CLTC), each with an associated light chain. This clathrin structure has previously been shown to be required for the function of the mitotic spindle through stabilization of kinetochore fibers. Upon siRNA-mediated MAD2B depletion, we found that CLTA was no longer concentrated at the mitotic spindle but, instead, diffusely distributed throughout the cell. In addition, we found a marked increase in the percentage of misaligned chromosomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Previously, we identified MAD2B as an interactor of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated protein PRCC. In addition, we found that fusion of PRCC with the transcription factor TFE3 in t(X;1)(p11;q21)-positive RCCs results in an impairment of this interaction and a concomitant failure to shuttle MAD2B to the nucleus. Our current data show that MAD2B interacts with CLTA during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and that depletion of MAD2B leads to a marked increase in the percentage of misaligned chromosomes and a redistribution of CLTA during mitosis.
Project description:Clathrin light chain (CLC) subunits in vertebrates are encoded by paralogous genes CLTA and CLTB, and both gene products are alternatively spliced in neurons. To understand how this CLC diversity influences neuronal clathrin function, we characterized the biophysical properties of clathrin comprising individual CLC variants for correlation with neuronal phenotypes of mice lacking either CLC-encoding gene. CLC splice variants differentially influenced clathrin knee conformation within assemblies, and clathrin with neuronal CLC mixtures was more effective in membrane deformation than clathrin with single neuronal isoforms nCLCa or nCLCb. Correspondingly, electrophysiological recordings revealed that neurons from mice lacking nCLCa or nCLCb were both defective in synaptic vesicle replenishment. Mice with only nCLCb had a reduced synaptic vesicle pool and impaired neurotransmission compared to WT mice, while nCLCa-only mice had increased synaptic vesicle numbers, restoring normal neurotransmission. These findings highlight differences between the CLC isoforms and show that isoform mixing influences tissue-specific clathrin activity in neurons, which requires their functional balance.
Project description:Paenibacillus spp. BD3526, a bacterium exhibiting a protein hydrolysis circle surrounded with an obvious precipitation zone on skim milk agar, was isolated from raw yak (Bos grunniens) milk collected in Tibet, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and whole genome sequence comparison indicated the isolate belong to the genus Paenibacillus. The strain BD3526 demonstrated strong ability to produce protease with milk clotting activity (MCA) in wheat bran broth. The protease with MCA was predominantly accumulated during the late-exponential phase of growth. The proteolytic activity (PA) of the BD3526 protease was 1.33-fold higher than that of the commercial R. miehei coagulant. A maximum MCA (6470 ± 281 SU mL(-1)) of the strain BD3526 was reached under optimal cultivation conditions. The protease with MCA was precipitated from the cultivated supernatant of wheat bran broth with ammonium sulfate and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the protease with MCA was determined as 35 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gelatin zymography. The cleavage site of the BD3526 protease with MCA in ?-casein was located at the Met106-Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis.
Project description:We present a silica nanoparticle (SNP) functionalized with polyphosphate (polyP) that accelerates the natural clotting process of the body. SNPs initiate the contact pathway of the blood-clotting system; short-chain polyP accelerates the common pathway by the rapid formation of thrombin, which enhances the overall blood-clotting system, both by accelerating fibrin generation and by facilitating the regulatory anticoagulation mechanisms essential for hemostasis. Analysis of the clotting properties of bare SNPs, bare polyP, and polyP-functionalized SNPs in plasma demonstrated that the attachment of polyP to SNPs to form polyP-SNPs creates a substantially enhanced synergistic effect that lowers clotting time and increases thrombin production at low concentrations. PolyP-SNP even retains its clotting function at ambient temperature. The polyP-SNP system has the potential to significantly improve trauma-treatment protocols and outcomes in hospital and prehospital settings.
Project description:Myxobacteria utilize the catechol natural products myxochelin A and B in order to maintain their iron homeostasis. Recently, the production of these siderophores, along with a new myxochelin derivative named pseudochelin A, was reported for the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040. The latter derivative features a characteristic imidazoline moiety, which was proposed to originate from an intramolecular condensation reaction of the ?-aminoethyl amide group in myxochelin B. To identify the enzyme catalyzing this conversion, we compared the myxochelin regulons of two myxobacterial strains that produce solely myxochelin A and B with those of P. piscicida S2040. This approach revealed a gene exclusive to the myxochelin regulon in P. piscicida S2040, coding for an enzyme of the amidohydrolase superfamily. To prove that this enzyme is indeed responsible for the postulated conversion, the reaction was reconstituted in vitro using a hexahistidine-tagged recombinant protein made in Escherichia coli, with myxochelin B as the substrate. To test the production of pseudochelin A under in vivo conditions, the amidohydrolase gene was cloned into the myxobacterial plasmid pZJY156 and placed under the control of a copper-inducible promoter. The resulting vector was introduced into the myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus DSM 16526, a native producer of myxochelin A and B. Following induction with copper, the myxobacterial expression strain was found to synthesize small quantities of pseudochelin A. Replacement of the copper-inducible promoter with the constitutive pilA promoter led to increased production levels in M. xanthus, which facilitated the isolation and subsequent structural verification of the heterologously produced compound.IMPORTANCE In this study, an enzyme for imidazoline formation in pseudochelin biosynthesis was identified. Evidence for the involvement of this enzyme in the postulated reaction was obtained after in vitro reconstitution. Furthermore, the function of this enzyme was demonstrated in vivo by transferring the corresponding gene into the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, which thereby became a producer of pseudochelin A. In addition to clarifying the molecular basis of imidazoline formation in siderophore biosynthesis, we describe the heterologous expression of a gene in a myxobacterium without chromosomal integration. Due to its metabolic proficiency, M. xanthus represents an interesting alternative to established host systems for the reconstitution and manipulation of biosynthetic pathways. Since the plasmid used in this study is easily adaptable for the expression of other enzymes as well, we expand the conventional expression strategy for myxobacteria, which is based on the integration of biosynthetic genes into the host genome.
Project description:Blood clotting reactions, such as those catalyzed by the tissue factor:factor VIIa complex (TF:FVIIa), assemble on membrane surfaces containing anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS). In fact, membrane binding is critical for the function of most of the steps in the blood clotting cascade. In spite of this, our understanding of how the membrane contributes to catalysis, or even how these proteins interact with phospholipids, is incomplete. Making matters more complicated, membranes containing mixtures of PS and neutral phospholipids are known to spontaneously form PS-rich membrane microdomains in the presence of plasma concentrations of calcium ions, and it is likely that blood-clotting proteases such as TF:FVIIa partition into these PS-rich microdomains. Unfortunately, little is known about how membrane microdomain composition influences the activity of blood-clotting proteases, which is typically not under experimental control even in "simple" model membranes. Our laboratories have developed and applied new technologies for studying membrane proteins to gain insights into how blood-clotting protease-cofactor pairs assemble and function on membrane surfaces. This includes using a novel, nanoscale bilayer system (Nanodiscs) that permits assembling blood-clotting protease-cofactor pairs on stable bilayers containing from 65 to 250 phospholipid molecules per leaflet. We have used this system to investigate how local (nanometer-scale) changes in phospholipid bilayer composition modulate TF:FVIIa activity. We have also used detailed molecular-dynamics simulations of nanoscale bilayers to provide atomic-scale predictions of how the membrane-binding domain of factor VIIa interacts with PS in membranes.
Project description:Most of the steps in the blood clotting cascade require clotting proteins to bind to membrane surfaces with exposed phosphatidylserine. In spite of the importance of these protein-membrane interactions, we still lack a detailed understanding of how clotting proteins interact with membranes and how membranes contribute so profoundly to catalysis. Our laboratories are using multidisciplinary approaches to explore, at atomic-resolution, how blood clotting protein complexes assemble and function on membrane surfaces.
Project description:Enteric bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are exposed to a variety of stresses in the nonhost environment. The development of biofilms provides E. coli with resistance to environmental insults, such as desiccation and bleach. We found that biofilm formation, specifically production of the matrix components curli and cellulose, protected E. coli against killing by the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the predatory bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Additionally, matrix-encased bacteria at the air-biofilm interface exhibited ?40-fold-increased survival after C. elegans and M. xanthus killing compared to the non-matrix-encased cells that populate the interior of the biofilm. To determine if nonhost Enterobacteriaceae reservoirs supported biofilm formation, we grew E. coli on media composed of pig dung or commonly contaminated foods, such as beef, chicken, and spinach. Each of these medium types provided a nutritional environment that supported matrix production and biofilm formation. Altogether, we showed that common, nonhost reservoirs of E. coli supported the formation of biofilms that subsequently protected E. coli against predation.