Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Masked Hypertension: The Jackson Heart Study.
ABSTRACT: Masked hypertension is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Identifying modifiable risk factors for masked hypertension could provide approaches to reduce its prevalence. Life's Simple 7 is a measure of cardiovascular health developed by the American Heart Association that includes body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, and glucose. We examined the association between cardiovascular health and masked daytime hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African American cohort. Life's Simple 7 factors were assessed during a study visit and categorized as poor, intermediate, or ideal. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed after the study visit. Using BP measured between 10:00 am and 8:00 pm on ambulatory BP monitoring, masked daytime hypertension was defined as mean clinic systolic BP/diastolic BP <140/90 mm?Hg and mean daytime systolic BP/diastolic BP ?135/85 mm?Hg. Among the 758 participants with systolic BP/diastolic BP <140/90 mm?Hg, 30.5% had masked daytime hypertension. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios for masked daytime hypertension comparing participants with 2, 3, and ?4 versus ?1 ideal Life's Simple 7 factors were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.33), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.57-1.03), and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.33-0.79), respectively. Masked daytime hypertension was less common among participants with ideal versus poor levels of physical activity (ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-1.00), ideal or intermediate levels pooled together versus poor diet (prevalence ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.91), ideal versus poor levels of cigarette smoking (prevalence ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.82), and ideal versus intermediate levels of clinic BP (prevalence ratio, 0.28, 95% CI, 0.16-0.48). Better cardiovascular health is associated with a lower preva lence of masked hypertension.
Project description:Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can detect phenotypes associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Diabetes is associated with increased CVD risk but few data are available documenting whether blood pressure (BP) phenotypes, detected by ABPM, differ between individuals with versus without diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 567 participants in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, taking antihypertensive medication to evaluate the association between diabetes and ABPM phenotypes. Two clinic BP measurements were taken at baseline following a standardized protocol. ABPM was performed for 24?h following the clinic visit. ABPM phenotypes included daytime, sustained, nocturnal and isolated nocturnal hypertension, a non-dipping BP pattern, and white coat, masked and masked isolated nocturnal hypertension. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ?126?mg?dl-1, haemoglobin A1c ?6.5% (48?mmol?mol-1) or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic medications. Of the included participants (mean age 62.3 years, 71.8% female), 196 (34.6%) had diabetes. After multivariable adjustment, participants with diabetes were more likely to have daytime hypertension (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.60), masked hypertension (PR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11-1.93) and masked isolated nocturnal hypertension (PR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.89). Although nocturnal hypertension was more common among participants with versus without diabetes, this association was not present after adjustment for daytime systolic BP. Diabetes was not associated with the other ABPM phenotypes investigated. This study highlights the high prevalence of ABPM phenotypes among individuals with diabetes taking antihypertensive medication.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Among individuals without hypertension based on clinic blood pressure (BP), it is unclear who should be screened for masked hypertension, defined as having hypertension based on out-of-clinic BP. We hypothesized that individuals with a higher 10-year predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk, calculated using the pooled cohort risk equations, have a higher prevalence of masked hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS:We analyzed data from the Jackson Heart Study-a population-based cohort of blacks-to determine the association of predicted ASCVD risk with masked hypertension. The sample included 644 participants, 40 to 79 years of age, with clinic systolic/diastolic BP <140/90 mm Hg, who completed ambulatory BP monitoring, were free of cardiovascular disease, and had data on factors needed to calculate ASCVD risk. Ten-year predicted ASCVD risk was calculated using the pooled cohort risk equations. Any masked hypertension was defined as masked daytime hypertension (mean daytime systolic/diastolic BP ?135/85 mm Hg), masked nighttime hypertension (mean nighttime systolic/diastolic BP ?120/70 mm Hg), or masked 24-hour hypertension (mean 24-hour systolic/diastolic BP ?130/80 mm Hg). The prevalence of any masked hypertension was 54.0%. Compared with participants in the lowest (<5%) predicted ASCVD risk category, multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) for any masked hypertension were 1.36 (1.03-1.79), 1.62 (1.22-2.16), and 1.91 (1.47-2.48) for those with ASCVD risk of 5% to <7.5%, 7.5% to <10%, and ?10%, respectively. The C statistic for discriminating between participants with versus without any masked hypertension was 0.681 (95% confidence interval, 0.640-0.723) for ASCVD risk and 0.703 (95% confidence interval, 0.663-0.744) for clinic systolic BP and diastolic BP. CONCLUSIONS:Higher ASCVD risk was associated with an increased prevalence of masked hypertension. Although the discrimination of ASCVD risk for masked hypertension was not superior to clinic BP, risk prediction equations may be useful for identifying the subgroup of individuals with both masked hypertension and high predicted ASCVD risk.
Project description:Several modifiable health behaviors and health factors that comprise the Life's Simple 7-a cardiovascular health metric-have been associated with hypertension risk. We determined the association between cardiovascular health and incident hypertension in JHS (the Jackson Heart Study)-a cohort of blacks. We analyzed participants without hypertension or cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-2004) who attended ?1 follow-up visit in 2005 to 2008 or 2009 to 2012 (n=1878). Body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, and fasting glucose were assessed at baseline and categorized as ideal, intermediate, or poor using the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 definitions. Incident hypertension was defined at the first visit wherein a participant had systolic BP ?140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ?90 mm Hg, or self-reported taking antihypertensive medication. The percentage of participants with ?1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ideal Life's Simple 7 components was 6.5%, 22.4%, 34.4%, 25.2%, 10.0%, and 1.4%, respectively. No participants had 7 ideal components. During follow-up (median, 8.0 years), 944 (50.3%) participants developed hypertension, including 81.3% with ?1 and 11.1% with 6 ideal components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension comparing participants with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 versus ?1 ideal component were 0.80 (0.61-1.03), 0.58 (0.45-0.74), 0.30 (0.23-0.40), 0.26 (0.18-0.37), and 0.10 (0.03-0.31), respectively (Ptrend <0.001). This association was present among participants with baseline systolic BP <120 mm Hg and diastolic BP <80 mm Hg and separately systolic BP 120 to 139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80 to 89 mm Hg. Blacks with better cardiovascular health have lower hypertension risk.
Project description:Masked hypertension, defined as nonelevated clinic blood pressure (BP) with elevated out-of-clinic BP, has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans and Asians. Few data are available on masked hypertension and CVD and mortality risk among blacks. We analyzed data from the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort study of blacks. Analyses included participants with clinic-measured systolic/diastolic BP <140/90 mm?Hg who completed ambulatory BP monitoring after the baseline examination in 2000 to 2004 (n=738). Masked daytime (10:00 am-8:00 pm) hypertension was defined as mean ambulatory systolic/diastolic BP ?135/85 mm?Hg. Masked nighttime (midnight to 6:00 am) hypertension was defined as mean ambulatory systolic/diastolic BP ?120/70 mm?Hg. Masked 24-hour hypertension was defined as mean systolic/diastolic BP ?130/80 mm?Hg. CVD events (nonfatal/fatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or fatal coronary heart disease) and deaths identified through December 2010 were adjudicated. Any masked hypertension (masked daytime, nighttime, or 24-hour hypertension) was present in 52.2% of participants; 28.2%, 48.2% and 31.7% had masked daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour hypertension, respectively. There were 51 CVD events and 44 deaths during a median follow-up of 8.2 and 8.5 years, respectively. CVD rates per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval) in participants with and without any masked hypertension were 13.5 (9.9-18.4) and 3.9 (2.2-7.1), respectively. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for CVD was 2.49 (1.26-4.93) for any masked hypertension and 2.86 (1.59-5.13), 2.35 (1.23-4.50), and 2.52 (1.39-4.58) for masked daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour hypertension, respectively. Masked hypertension was not associated with all-cause mortality. Masked hypertension is common and associated with increased risk for CVD events in blacks.
Project description:Masked hypertension, defined as nonelevated clinic blood pressure (BP) and elevated out-of-clinic BP may be an intermediary stage in the progression from normotension to hypertension. We examined the associations of out-of-clinic BP and masked hypertension using ambulatory BP monitoring with incident clinic hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort of blacks. Analyses included 317 participants with clinic BP <140/90 mm?Hg, complete ambulatory BP monitoring, who were not taking antihypertensive medication at baseline in 2000 to 2004. Masked daytime hypertension was defined as mean daytime blood pressure ?135/85 mm?Hg, masked night-time hypertension as mean night-time BP ?120/70 mm?Hg, and masked 24-hour hypertension as mean 24-hour BP ?130/80 mm?Hg. Incident clinic hypertension, assessed at study visits in 2005 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012, was defined as the first visit with clinic systolic/diastolic BP ?140/90 mm?Hg or antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 187 (59.0%) incident cases of clinic hypertension. Clinic hypertension developed in 79.2% and 42.2% of participants with and without any masked hypertension, 85.7% and 50.4% with and without masked daytime hypertension, 79.9% and 43.7% with and without masked night-time hypertension, and 85.7% and 48.2% with and without masked 24-hour hypertension, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of incident clinic hypertension for any masked hypertension and masked daytime, night-time, and 24-hour hypertension were 2.13 (1.51-3.02), 1.79 (1.24-2.60), 2.22 (1.58-3.12), and 1.91 (1.32-2.75), respectively. These findings suggest that ambulatory BP monitoring can identify blacks at increased risk for developing clinic hypertension.
Project description:Blood pressure (BP) can differ substantially when measured in the clinic versus outside of the clinic setting. Few population-based studies with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) include African Americans. We calculated the prevalence of clinic hypertension and ABPM phenotypes among 1016 participants in the population-based Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African-American cohort. Mean daytime systolic BP was higher than mean clinic systolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (127.1[standard deviation 12.8] vs. 124.5[15.7] mm Hg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (131.2[13.6] vs. 130.0[15.6] mm Hg, respectively). Mean daytime diastolic BP was higher than clinic diastolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (78.2[standard deviation 8.9] vs. 74.6[8.4] mm Hg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (77.6[9.4] vs. 74.3[8.5] mm Hg, respectively). The prevalence of daytime hypertension was higher than clinic hypertension for participants not taking antihypertensive medication (31.8% vs. 14.3%) and taking antihypertensive medication (43.0% vs. 23.1%). A high percentage of participants not taking and taking antihypertensive medication had nocturnal hypertension (49.4% and 61.7%, respectively), white-coat hypertension (30.2% and 29.3%, respectively), masked hypertension (25.4% and 34.6%, respectively), and a nondipping BP pattern (62.4% and 69.6%, respectively). In conclusion, these data suggest hypertension may be misdiagnosed among African Americans without using ABPM.
Project description:Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is diagnosed in patients treated for hypertension who are normotensive in the clinic but hypertensive outside. In this study of 333 veterans with CKD, we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of MUCH as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring using three definitions of hypertension (daytime hypertension ?135/85 mmHg; either nighttime hypertension ?120/70 mmHg or daytime hypertension; and 24-hour hypertension ?130/80 mmHg) or by home BP monitoring (hypertension ?135/85 mmHg). The prevalence of MUCH was 26.7% by daytime ambulatory BP, 32.8% by 24-hour ambulatory BP, 56.1% by daytime or night-time ambulatory BP, and 50.8% by home BP. To assess the reproducibility of the diagnosis, we repeated these measurements after 4 weeks. Agreement in MUCH diagnosis by ambulatory BP was 75-78% (? coefficient for agreement, 0.44-0.51), depending on the definition used. In contrast, home BP showed an agreement of only 63% and a ? coefficient of 0.25. Prevalence of MUCH increased with increasing clinic systolic BP: 2% in the 90-110 mmHg group, 17% in the 110-119 mmHg group, 34% in the 120-129 mmHg group, and 66% in the 130-139 mmHg group. Clinic BP was a good determinant of MUCH (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.87). In diagnosing MUCH, home BP was not different from clinic BP. In conclusion, among people with CKD, MUCH is common and reproducible, and should be suspected when clinic BP is in the prehypertensive range. Confirmation of MUCH diagnosis should rely on ambulatory BP monitoring.
Project description:Resistant hypertension (RH) may be one of the cause of the plateau in improving the control rate in hypertension (HT) management. The misdiagnosis of RH by clinic blood pressure (BP) is important clinical problem. Aim of the study were to investigate the prevalence of RH by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and the factor associated with control status of ambulatory BPs.For 1230 subjects taking one or more antihypertensive medication (AHM) enrolled in the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (Kor-ABP) registry, the prevalence of RH was calculated which was defined as uncontrolled BP by three AHM classes including diuretic or BP in need of four or more AHM classes. The prevalence determined by clinic versus ambulatory BP was compared.The age was 59.3 ± 12.5 years, and 44.3 % were female (n = 1230). Among them 72 subjects were taking three AHM drugs including diuretics and 105 subjects were taking four or more AHM classes. With uncontrolled daytime ambulatory BP in 41 among 72 subjects, prevalence of RH was 11.9 % (146/1230). By using nighttime BP criteria, there was significant difference in the prevalence of RH for clinic versus nighttime BP (146/177 vs. 159/177, p = 0.0124). For control status of daytime BP, masked uncontrolled BP was 16.9 % and controlled BP with white-coat effect was 14.1 %. For nighttime BP control status, odd ratios for smoking (0.624), drinking (1.512), coronary artery disease (0.604), calcium antagonist (1.705), and loop diuretics (0.454) were all significant.The prevalence itself was 11.9 % by daytime BP and it was significantly higher when using nighttime BP criteria. Control status of daytime BP was misclassified in 31.0 %. Smoking, drinking, coronary artery disease, calcium antagonist, and loop diuretics were associated with nighttime BP control status.
Project description:The 2017 Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend out-of-clinic BP monitoring to screen for white coat and masked hypertension among adults not taking antihypertensive medication and white coat effect and masked uncontrolled hypertension among adults taking antihypertensive medication. We estimated the percentage of US adults meeting criteria for out-of-clinic BP monitoring by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline using the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=9623). Among US adults not taking antihypertensive medication, 92.6% (95% CI, 90.7%-94.1%) with systolic/diastolic BP ?130/80 mm?Hg met criteria for out-of-clinic BP monitoring to screen for white coat hypertension and 32.8% (95% CI, 30.4%-35.3%) with systolic/diastolic BP<130/80 mm?Hg met criteria to screen for masked hypertension. Criteria for out-of-clinic BP monitoring to screen for white coat hypertension were less often met at an older age and did not differ by race/ethnicity or sex. The proportion meeting criteria for out-of-clinic BP monitoring to screen for masked hypertension was higher at an older age, among men versus women and non-Hispanic blacks and whites versus non-Hispanic Asians or Hispanics. Among US adults taking antihypertensive medication, 12.5% (95% CI, 10.5%-14.9%) with systolic/diastolic BP ?130/80 mm?Hg met criteria to screen for white coat effect and 57.4% (95% CI, 52.7%-62.1%) with systolic/diastolic BP<130/80 mm?Hg met criteria to screen for masked uncontrolled hypertension. Criteria for out-of-clinic BP monitoring to screen for white coat effect was more commonly met at an older age and among non-Hispanic blacks than non-Hispanic whites and to screen for masked uncontrolled hypertension in older adults and men. In conclusion, ?103.8 million US adults (45.8%) met the 2017 Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines criteria for out-of-clinic BP monitoring.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypertension diagnosed by blood pressure (BP) measured in the clinic is associated with rapid kidney function decline (RKFD) and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). The extent to which hypertension defined using out-of-clinic BP measurements is associated with these outcomes is unclear. METHODS:We evaluated the association of any masked hypertension (daytime SBP/DBP???135/85?mmHg, night-time SBP/DBP???120/70?mmHg or 24-h SBP/DBP???130/80?mmHg) with RKFD and incident CKD among 676 African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study with clinic-measured SBP/DBP less than 140/90?mmHg who completed ambulatory BP monitoring in 2000-2004. RKFD was defined as a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at least 30% and incident CKD was defined as development of eGFR less than 60?ml/min per 1.73?m with an at least 25% decline in eGFR between 2000-2004 and 2009-2013. RESULTS:The mean age of participants was 57.6 years, 28.8% were men and 52.7% had any masked hypertension. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 13.8 and 8.6% of participants had RKFD and incident CKD, respectively. In unadjusted analyses, masked hypertension was associated with an increased odds for incident CKD [odds ratio (OR) 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22, 3.97]. This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for demographic characteristics, baseline eGFR and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.04, 3.67) but was eliminated after propensity score adjustment (OR 1.62, 95% CI 0.87, 3.00). There was no association between masked hypertension and RKFD. CONCLUSION:Masked hypertension may be associated with the development of CKD in African-Americans.