MRSA Prevalence and Risk Factors among Health Personnel and Residents in Nursing Homes in Hamburg, Germany - A Cross-Sectional Study.
ABSTRACT: The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms in hospitals causes problems in nursing homes. Staff in geriatric nursing homes are at greater risk of MRSA colonisation. The aim of the study was to describe the occupational exposure to MRSA among health personnel in geriatric nursing.A point prevalence survey was conducted among health personnel and residents of geriatric nursing homes within the greater Hamburg district. Nasal swabs and, where relevant, wound swabs were collected for the screening survey. Risk factors for MRSA colonisation were identified by means of a questionnaire and using the files held on the residents. Where tests on nursing staff were positive, a control swab was taken; when the results were confirmed positive, decolonisation was performed. The responsible general practitioners were notified of positive MRSA findings among residents. A molecular biological examination of the MRSA samples was performed.A total of 19 institutions participated in the study. Nasal swabs were taken from 759 nursing staff and 422 residents. Prevalence of MRSA was 1.6% among staff and 5.5% among residents. MRSA colonisation among health personnel indicated a correlation with male gender (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4-14.1). Among the residents, chronic skin diseases (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0-10.3) and indwelling devices (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2-8.1) were identified as risk factors. No link between MRSA in residents and in health personnel could be established.The number of MRSA colonisations among nursing staff and residents of geriatric nursing homes in Hamburg was rather low at 1.6% and 5.5% respectively and equates to the results of other surveys in non-outbreak scenarios.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Healthcare workers frequently come into contact with infected individuals and are at a greater risk of infection than the general population due to their occupation. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) also pose a significant challenge for personnel and medical facilities. Currently, little is known about the occupational risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in outpatient care settings. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Hamburg to investigate MRSA colonisation among outpatient nursing staff. METHODS:MRSA screening with nasal swabs was carried out, the known risk factors for colonisation were determined and information on infection control was inquired. Where tests were positive, a control swab was taken; if this confirmed a positive result, decolonisation was offered. A molecular biological examination of the MRSA samples was performed. The occupational MRSA exposure and risk factors were compared with the situation for personnel in inpatient geriatric care. RESULTS:A total of 39 outpatient services participated in the study and 579 employees were tested. The MRSA prevalence was 1.2% in all and 1.7% in nursing staff. Most of the employees that tested positive had close or known contact with MRSA patients. Health personnel frequently reported personal protective measures and their application. Compared with inpatient care staff, outpatient staff were older and had worked in their profession for a longer time. CONCLUSION:This study marks the first time that data has been made available on the occupational MRSA risk of outpatient care personnel in Hamburg. The MRSA prevalence is low and provides a good basis for describing the MRSA risk of occupational exposure by health personnel in outpatient care.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) causes problems in geriatric nursing homes. Older people are at increased a growing risk of infection due to multimorbidity and frequent stays in hospital. A high proportion of the elderly require residential care in geriatric nursing facilities, where hygiene requirements in nursing homes are similar to those in hospitals. For this reason we examined how well nursing homes are prepared for MDROs and how effectively protect their infection control residents and staff. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on infection control in residential geriatric nursing facilities in Germany 2012. The questionnaire recorded important parameters of hygiene, resident and staff protection and actions in case of existing MDROs. RESULTS: The response was 54% in Hamburg and 27% in the rest of Germany. Nursing homes were generally well equipped for dealing with infection control: There were standards for MDROs and regular hygiene training for staff. The facilities provided adequate protective clothing, affected residents are usually isolated and hygienic laundry processing conducted. There are deficits in the communication of information on infected residents with hospitals and general practitioners. 54% of nursing homes performed risk assessments for staff infection precaution. CONCLUSION: There is a growing interest in MDROs and infection control will be a challenge in for residential geriatric nursing facilities in the future. This issue has also drawn increasing attention. Improvements could be achieved by improving communication between different participants in the health service, together with specific measures for staff protection at work.
Project description:Objectives To determine the prevalence and health outcomes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in elderly care home residents. To measure the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on MRSA prevalence. Setting Care homes for elderly residents in Leeds, UK. Participants Residents able to give informed consent. Design A controlled intervention study, using a stepped wedge design, comprising 65 homes divided into three groups. Baseline MRSA prevalence was determined by screening the nares of residents (n=2492). An intervention based upon staff education and training on hand hygiene was delivered at three different times according to group number. Scores for three assessment methods, an audit of hand hygiene facilities, staff hand hygiene observations and an educational questionnaire, were collected before and after the intervention. After each group of homes received the intervention, all participants were screened for MRSA nasal colonisation. In total, four surveys took place between November 2006 and February 2009. Results MRSA prevalence was 20%, 19%, 22% and 21% in each survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in scores for all three assessment methods post-intervention (p?0.001). The intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in MRSA prevalence (p=0.023). MRSA colonisation was associated with previous and subsequent MRSA infection but was not significantly associated with subsequent hospitalisation or mortality. Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes.
Project description:A recent countrywide MRSA spa-type 1081 outbreak in The Netherlands predominantly affected nursing homes, generating questions on how infection spreads within and between nursing homes despite a low national prevalence. Since the transfer of residents between nursing homes is uncommon in The Netherlands, we hypothesized that staff exchange plays an important role in transmission. This exploratory study investigated the extent of former (last 2 years) and current staff exchange within and between nursing homes in The Netherlands. We relied on a questionnaire that was targeted towards nursing-home staff members who had contact with residents. We found that 17·9% and 12·4% of the nursing-home staff formerly (last 2 years) or currently worked in other healthcare institutes besides their job in the nursing home through which they were selected to participate in this study. Moreover, 39·7% of study participants worked on more than one ward. Our study shows that, in The Netherlands, nursing-home staff form a substantial number of links between wards within nursing homes and nursing homes are linked to a large network of healthcare institutes through their staff members potentially providing a pathway for MRSA transmission between nursing homes and throughout the country.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus poses a threat to elderly living in nursing homes. Studies focusing on the epidemiology of colonization may help in the design of infection control strategies.To identify factors associated with MRSA colonization and the dissemination of clones among nursing home residents.Nasal swabs were collected from 300 persons from nine nursing homes in the city of Bauru, Brazil. Resistance to methicillin was identified through amplification of the mecA gene. Strain typing (Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis) and characterization of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette (SCC) mec was performed. Univariate and multivariable models were used to identify predictors of overall S. aureus and MRSA carriage.Rates of S. aureus and MRSA colonization were 17.7 and 3.7%, respectively. Age and recent admission to a hospital were independently associated with colonization with S. aureus. MRSA colonization was associated with living in small (<?15 residents) and medium-sized (15-49 residents) facilities, as well as with recent hospitalization. Most MRSA strains carried SCCmec types II or IV, and there was evidence of clonal spread within and among different facilities.MRSA may be introduced in nursing homes form hospitals or arise from the community setting. Screening for asymptomatic colonization may identify persons with greater risk for infection, and is advised for residents discharged from acute care hospitals.
Project description:Nursing homes might create an environment favorable for the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus because of the presence of hospitalized elderly, overcrowding and close contacts among people. We aimed at identifying risk factors for S. aureus colonization and determining the genetic relatedness of isolates demonstrating transmission among people. We investigated 736 swab samples from 92 residents and personnel for the presence of S. aureus. Swabs from anterior nares and throat were collected quarterly (2018) in a nursing home located in Poland. Genotyping was conducted using the multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats fingerprinting (MLVF) method. We observed high seasonal variation in the proportion of participants colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains (0% to 13.5%). A multivariate analysis revealed that residents aged more than 85 years old are at risk for becoming intermittent S. aureus carriers (p = 0.013). The MLVF analysis revealed a high genetic diversity among methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains and close genetic relatedness between MRSA strains. We proved the advanced aged were predisposed to intermittent S. aureus carriage. Genotyping revealed the transmission of S. aureus among the participants living in a closed environment. A high genetic relatedness among isolated MRSA suggests its clonal spread in the nursing home.
Project description:Residents in nursing homes (NHs) always represent potential reservoirs for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). To our knowledge, there is no epidemiological information up till now that describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in nursing home residents in Shanghai, China.Four hundred and ninety-one unique residents from 7 NHs were enrolled in this study. Specimens were collected among these residents including 491 nasal swabs, 487 axillary swabs and 119 skin swabs. S. aureus isolated and identified from the swabs was characterized according to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling, toxin gene prevalence, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa and SCCmec typing.Among the 491 residents screened, S. aureus was isolated in 109 residents from 90 nasal swabs (90/491, 18.3%), 29 axillary swabs (29/487, 6.0%), and 22 skin swabs (22/119, 18.5%). Sixty-eight MRSA isolates were detected in 52 residents from 41 nasal carriers, 15 axillary carriers and 12 skin carriers. The overall prevalence rate of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was 22.2% and 10.6% respectively. Ten residents presented S. aureus in all three sample types and 12 residents presented S. aureus in two of the three sample types collected. Molecular analysis revealed CC1 (29.1%) to be the dominant clone in this study, followed by CC398 (19.9%), CC188 (13.5%) and CC5 (12.8%). The most common spa type was t127 (22.0%), followed by t14383 (12.8%) and t002 (10.6%).A high prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was revealed in nursing home residents in Shanghai. CC1 was the most common clonal complex and t127 was the most common spa type among NH residents. The data provides an important baseline for future surveillance of S. aureus in NHs in Shanghai and other highly urbanized regions in China. Implementation of infection control strategies must be given high priority in NHs to fight such high prevalence of both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA).
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is endemic in many hospital settings, including nursing homes. It is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes mortality and an economic burden to patients, hospitals, and the community. The epidemiology of the bacteria in nursing homes is both hospital- and community-like. Transmission occurs via hands of health care workers (HCWs) and direct contacts among residents during social activities. In this work, mathematical modeling in both deterministic and stochastic frameworks is used to study dissemination of MRSA among residents and HCWs, persistence and prevalence of MRSA in a population, and possible means of controlling the spread of this pathogen in nursing homes. The model predicts that: (i) without strict screening and decolonization of colonized individuals at admission, MRSA may persist; (ii) decolonization of colonized residents, improving hand hygiene in both residents and HCWs, reducing the duration of contamination of HCWs, and decreasing the resident?staff ratio are possible control strategies; (iii) the mean time that a resident remains susceptible since admission may be prolonged by screening and decolonization treatment in colonized individuals; (iv) in the stochastic framework, the total number of colonized residents varies and may increase when the admission of colonized residents, the duration of colonization, the average number of contacts among residents, or the average number of contacts that each resident requires from HCWs increases; (v) an introduction of a colonized individual into an MRSA-free nursing home has a much higher probability of leading to a major outbreak taking off than an introduction of a contaminated HCW.
Project description:Background:The present study aims to illuminate the meaning of working in a person-centred way as experienced by staff in nursing homes. Insights into what working in a person-centred way mean for nursing home staff may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of what gives staff satisfaction in their work and support further development of person-centred care approach in nursing homes. Methods:Interviews with 29 health care personnel who had participated in a one-year intervention focusing on person-centred care and thriving in three nursing homes in Australia, Norway and Sweden were performed, and a phenomenological-hermeneutical method was used to explore staffs' lived experiences of working in a person-centred way in nursing homes. Results:For nursing home staff, working in a person-centred way meant that they were able to meet individual resident's needs and expressed preferences in close family-like relationships, understanding the residents' rhythms and preferences as the basis of the daily work plans and being able to do 'the little extra' for residents. Also, working in a person-centred way meant meeting shared goals by working towards a collective practice in collaborative teams. As a whole, the staffs' lived experiences of working in a person-centred way in nursing homes was interpreted to mean thriving at work as a psychological state in which individuals experience both a sense of vitality and learning. Conclusions:Working in a person-centred way means staff thriving at work in nursing homes. The results further indicate that delivering care by only focusing on routines and practical tasks and not on residents' preferences and well-being would inhibit thriving among nursing staff, leading to the potential for dissatisfaction with work.
Project description:Importance:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major threat to nursing homes. During the COVID-19 pandemic wave that hit France in March and April 2020, staff members of some French nursing homes decided to confine themselves with their residents on a voluntary basis to reduce the risk of entry of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into the facility. Objective:To investigate COVID-19-related outcomes in French nursing homes that implemented voluntary staff confinement with residents. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study was conducted in French nursing homes from March 1 to May 11, 2020. Participants included residents and staff members of the nursing homes where staff participated in voluntary self-confinement as well as those of the facilities for elderly people where staff did not practice self-confinement. Rates of COVID-19 cases and mortality in the cohort of nursing homes with self confinement were compared with those derived from a population-based survey of nursing homes conducted by French health authorities. Exposures:Nursing homes with staff who self-confined were identified from the media and included if the confinement period of staff with residents was longer than 7 days. Main Outcomes and Measures:Mortality related to COVID-19 among residents and COVID-19 cases among residents and staff members. COVID-19 was diagnosed by primary care or hospital physicians on the basis of fever and respiratory signs (eg, cough, dyspnea) or a clinical illness compatible with COVID-19; COVID-19 diagnoses were considered confirmed if real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on nasopharyngeal swab was positive and considered possible if the test had not been performed or results were negative. Cases of COVID-19 were recorded by a telephone interview with the directors of nursing homes with staff who self-confined and by a nationwide declaration survey to health authorities for all facilities. Results:This study included 17 nursing homes in which 794 staff members confined themselves to the facility with their 1250 residents. The national survey included 9513 facilities with 385?290 staff members and 695?060 residents. Only 1 nursing home with staff who self-confined (5.8%) had cases of COVID-19 among residents, compared with 4599 facilities in the national survey (48.3%) (P?<?.001). Five residents (0.4%) in the nursing homes with staff who self-confined had confirmed COVID-19, compared with 30?569 residents (4.4%) with confirmed COVID-19 in the national survey (P?<?.001); no residents of facilities with self-confinement had possible COVID-19, compared with 31?799 residents (4.6%) with possible COVID-19 in the national survey (P?<?.001). Five residents (0.4%) in the nursing homes with staff who self-confined died of COVID-19, compared with 12?516 (1.8%) in the national survey (odds ratio, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09-0.53; P?<?.001). Twelve staff members (1.6%) from the facilties with self-confinement had confirmed or possible COVID-19, compared with 29?463 staff members (7.6%) in the national survey (P?<?.001). Conclusions and Relevance:In this cohort study of French nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic, mortality rates related to COVID-19 were lower among nursing homes that implemented staff confinement with residents compared with those in a national survey. These findings suggest that self-confinement of staff members with residents may help protect nursing home residents from mortality related to COVID-19 and residents and staff from COVID-19 infection.