The Yaf9 component of the SWR1 and NuA4 complexes is required for proper gene expression, histone H4 acetylation, and Htz1 replacement near telomeres.
ABSTRACT: Yaf9, Taf14, and Sas5 comprise the YEATS domain family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which in humans includes proteins involved in acute leukemias. The YEATS domain family is essential, as a yaf9Delta taf14Delta sas5Delta triple mutant is nonviable. We verify that Yaf9 is a stable component of NuA4, an essential histone H4 acetyltransferase complex. Yaf9 is also associated with the SWR1 complex, which deposits the histone H2A variant Htz1. However, the functional contribution of Yaf9 to these complexes has not been determined. Strains lacking YAF9 are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents, cold, and caffeine, and the YEATS domain is required for full Yaf9 function. NuA4 lacking Yaf9 retains histone acetyltransferase activity in vitro, and Yaf9 does not markedly reduce bulk H4 acetylation levels, suggesting a role for Yaf9 in the targeting or regulation of NuA4. Interestingly, yaf9Delta strains display reduced transcription of genes near certain telomeres, and their repression is correlated with reduced H4 acetylation, reduced occupancy by Htz1, and increased occupancy by the silencing protein Sir3. Additionally, the spectra of phenotypes, genes, and telomeres affected in yaf9Delta and htz1Delta strains are significantly similar, further supporting a role for Yaf9 in Htz1 deposition. Taken together, these data indicate that Yaf9 may function in NuA4 and SWR1 complexes to help antagonize silencing near telomeres.
Project description:Yaf9 is an integral part of the NuA4 acetyltransferase and the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complexes. Here, we show that Yaf9 associates with acetylated histone H3 with high preference for H3K27ac. The crystal structure of the Yaf9 YEATS domain bound to the H3K27ac peptide reveals that the sequence C-terminal to K27ac stabilizes the complex. The side chain of K27ac inserts between two aromatic residues, mutation of which abrogates the interaction in vitro and leads in vivo to phenotypes similar to YAF9 deletion, including loss of SWR1-dependent incorporation of variant histone H2A.Z. Our findings reveal the molecular basis for the recognition of H3K27ac by a YEATS reader and underscore the importance of this interaction in mediating Yaf9 function within the NuA4 and SWR1 complexes.
Project description:Chromatin can be modified by posttranslational modifications of histones, ATP-dependent remodeling, and incorporation of histone variants. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Yaf9 is a subunit of both the essential histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4 and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWR1-C, which deposits histone variant H2A.Z into euchromatin. Yaf9 contains a YEATS domain, found in proteins associated with multiple chromatin-modifying enzymes and transcription complexes across eukaryotes. Here, we established the conservation of YEATS domain function from yeast to human, and determined the structure of this region from Yaf9 by x-ray crystallography to 2.3 A resolution. The Yaf9 YEATS domain consisted of a beta-sandwich characteristic of the Ig fold and contained three distinct conserved structural features. The structure of the Yaf9 YEATS domain was highly similar to that of the histone chaperone Asf1, a similarity that extended to an ability of Yaf9 to bind histones H3 and H4 in vitro. Using structure-function analysis, we found that the YEATS domain was required for Yaf9 function, histone variant H2A.Z chromatin deposition at specific promoters, and H2A.Z acetylation.
Project description:Phenotypic plasticity is common in development. Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungal pathogen of humans, possesses the unique ability to achieve rapid and reversible cell fate between unicellular form (yeast) and multicellular form (hypha) in response to environmental cues. The NuA4 histone acetyltransferase activity and Hda1 histone deacetylase activity have been reported to be required for hyphal initiation and maintenance. However, how Hda1 and NuA4 regulate hyphal elongation is not clear. NuA4 histone acetyltransferase and SWR1 chromatin remodeling complexes are conserved from yeast to human, which may have merged together to form a larger TIP60 complex since the origin of metazoan. In this study, we show a dynamic merge and separation of NuA4 and SWR1 complexes in C. albicans. NuA4 and SWR1 merge together in yeast state and separate into two distinct complexes in hyphal state. We demonstrate that acetylation of Eaf1 K173 controls the interaction between the two complexes. The YEATS domain of Yaf9 in C. albicans can recognize an acetyl-lysine of the Eaf1 and mediate the Yaf9-Eaf1 interaction. The reversible acetylation and deacetylation of Eaf1 by Esa1 and Hda1 control the merge and separation of NuA4 and SWR1, and this regulation is triggered by Brg1 recruitment of Hda1 to chromatin in response nutritional signals that sustain hyphal elongation. We have also observed an orchestrated promoter association of Esa1, Hda1, Swr1, and H2A.Z during the reversible yeast-hyphae transitions. This is the first discovery of a regulated merge of the NuA4 and SWR1 complexes that controls cell fate determination and this regulation may be conserved in polymorphic fungi.
Project description:NuA4, the only essential histone acetyltransferase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetylates the N-terminal tails of histones H4 and H2A. Affinity purification of NuA4 revealed the presence of three previously undescribed subunits, Vid21/Eaf1/Ydr359c, Swc4/Eaf2/Ygr002c, and Eaf7/Ynl136w. Experimental analyses revealed at least two functionally distinct sets of polypeptides in NuA4: (i) Vid21 and Yng2, and (ii) Eaf5 and Eaf7. Vid21 and Yng2 are required for bulk histone H4 acetylation and are functionally linked to the histone H2A variant Htz1 and the Swr1 ATPase complex (SWR-C) that assembles Htz1 into chromatin, whereas Eaf5 and Eaf7 have a different, as yet undefined, role. Mutations in Htz1, the SWR-C, and NuA4 cause defects in chromosome segregation that are consistent with genetic interactions we have observed between the genes encoding these proteins and genes encoding kinetochore components. Because SWR-C-dependent recruitment of Htz1 occurs in both transcribed and centromeric regions, a NuA4/SWR-C/Htz1 pathway may regulate both transcription and centromere function in S. cerevisiae.
Project description:Histone variants help specialize chromatin regions; however, their impact on transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. Here, we determined the genome-wide localization and dynamics of Htz1, the yeast histone H2A variant. Htz1 localizes to hundreds of repressed/basal Pol II promoters and prefers TATA-less promoters. Specific Htz1 deposition requires the SWR1 complex, which largely colocalizes with Htz1. Htz1 occupancy correlates with particular histone modifications, and Htz1 deposition is partially reliant on Gcn5 (a histone acetyltransferase) and Bdf1, an SWR1 complex member that binds acetylated histones. Changes in growth conditions cause a striking redistribution of Htz1 from activated to repressed/basal promoters. Furthermore, Htz1 promotes full gene activation but does not generally impact repression. Importantly, Htz1 releases from purified chromatin in vitro under conditions where H2A and H3 remain associated. We suggest that Htz1-bearing nucleosomes are deposited at repressed/basal promoters but facilitate activation through their susceptibility to loss, thereby helping to expose promoter DNA.
Project description:The yeast histone variant H2AZ (Htz1) is implicated in transcription activation, prevention of the ectopic spread of heterochromatin, and genome integrity. Our genome-wide localization analysis revealed that Htz1 is widely, but nonrandomly, distributed throughout the genome in an SWR1-dependent manner. We found that Htz1 is enriched in intergenic regions compared with coding regions. Its occupancy is inversely proportional to transcription rates and the enrichment of the RNA polymerase II under different growth conditions. However, Htz1 does not seem to directly regulate transcription repression genome-wide; instead, the presence of Htz1 under the inactivated condition is essential for optimal activation of a subset of genes. In addition, Htz1 is not generally responsible for nucleosome positioning, even at those promoters where Htz1 is highly enriched. Finally, using a biochemical approach, we demonstrate that incorporation of Htz1 into nucleosomes inhibits activities of histone modifiers associated with transcription, Dot1, Set2, and NuA4 and reduces the nucleosome mobilization driven by chromatin remodeling complexes. These lines of evidence collectively suggest that Htz1 may serve to mark quiescent promoters for proper activation.
Project description:In eukaryotes, chromosomal processes are usually modulated through chromatin-modifying complexes that are dynamically targeted to specific regions of chromatin. In this study, we show that the chromatin-remodeling complex SWR1 (SWR1-C) uses a distinct strategy to regulate heterochromatin spreading. Swr1 binds in a stable manner near heterochromatin to prepare specific chromosomal regions for H2A.Z deposition, which can be triggered by NuA4-mediated acetylation of histone H4. We also demonstrate through experiments with Swc4, a module shared by NuA4 and SWR1-C, that the coupled actions of NuA4 and SWR1-C lead to the efficient incorporation of H2A.Z into chromatin and thereby synergize heterochromatin boundary activity. Our results support a model where SWR1-C resides at the heterochromatin boundary to maintain and amplify antisilencing activity of histone H4 acetylation through incorporating H2A.Z into chromatin.
Project description:Nucleosome destabilization by histone variants and modifications has been implicated in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, with the histone variant H2A.Z and acetylation of H3K56 (H3K56ac) being two examples. Here we find that deletion of SWR1, the major subunit of the SWR1 complex depositing H2A.Z into chromatin in exchange for H2A, promotes epigenetic white-opaque switching in Candida albicans. We demonstrate through nucleosome mapping that SWR1 is required for proper nucleosome positioning on the promoter of WOR1, the master regulator of switching, and that its effects differ in white and opaque cells. Furthermore, we find that H2A.Z is enriched adjacent to nucleosome-free regions at the WOR1 promoter in white cells, suggesting a role in the stabilization of a repressive chromatin state. Deletion of YNG2, a subunit of the NuA4 H4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that targets SWR1 activity through histone acetylation, produces a switching phenotype similar to that of swr1, and both may act downstream of the GlcNAc signaling pathway. We further uncovered a genetic interaction between swr1 and elevated H3K56ac with the discovery that the swr1 deletion mutant is highly sensitive to nicotinamide. Our results suggest that the interaction of H2A.Z and H3K56ac regulates epigenetic switching at the nucleosome level, as well as having global effects.
Project description:Actin-related proteins are ubiquitous components of chromatin remodelers and are conserved from yeast to man. We have examined the role of the budding yeast actin-related protein Arp6 in gene expression, both as a component of the SWR1 complex (SWR-C) and in its absence. We mapped Arp6 binding sites along four yeast chromosomes using chromatin immunoprecipitation from wild-type and swr1 deleted (swr1Delta) cells. We find that a majority of Arp6 binding sites coincide with binding sites of Swr1, the catalytic subunit of SWR-C, and with the histone H2A variant Htz1 (H2A.Z) deposited by SWR-C. However, Arp6 binding detected at centromeres, the promoters of ribosomal protein (RP) genes, and some telomeres is independent of Swr1 and Htz1 deposition. Given that RP genes and telomeres both show association with the nuclear periphery, we monitored the ability of Arp6 to mediate the localization of chromatin to nuclear pores. Arp6 binding is sufficient to shift a randomly positioned locus to nuclear periphery, even in a swr1Delta strain. Arp6 is also necessary for the pore association of its targeted RP promoters possibly through cell cycle-dependent factors. Loss of Arp6, but not Htz1, leads to an up-regulation of these RP genes. In contrast, the pore-association of GAL1 correlates with Htz1 deposition, and loss of Arp6 reduces both GAL1 activation and peripheral localization. We conclude that Arp6 functions both together with the nucleosome remodeler Swr1 and also without it, to mediate Htz1-dependent and Htz1-independent binding of chromatin domains to nuclear pores. This association is shown to have modulating effects on gene expression.
Project description:Chromatin remodeling complexes cooperate to regulate gene promoters and to define chromatin neighborhoods. Here, we identified genetic and functional connections between two silencing-related chromatin factors in the maintenance of native heterochromatic structures and nucleosome composition at promoters. Building on a previously reported link between the histone chaperone Asf1 and the Yaf9 subunit of the SWR1-C chromatin remodeler, we found that ASF1 broadly interacted with genes encoding for SWR1-C subunits. Asf1 and Yaf9 were required for maintaining expression of heterochromatin-proximal genes and they worked cooperatively to prevent repression of telomere-proximal genes by limiting the spread of SIR complexes into nearby regions. Genome-wide Sir2 profiling, however, revealed that the cooperative heterochromatin regulation of Asf1 and SWR1-C occurred only on a subset of yeast telomeres. Extensive analyses demonstrated that formation of aberrant heterochromatin structures in the absence of ASF1 and YAF9 was not causal for the pronounced growth and transcriptional defects in cells lacking both these factors. Instead, genetic and molecular analysis revealed that H3K56 acetylation was required for efficient deposition of H2A.Z at subtelomeric and euchromatic gene promoters, pointing to a role for Asf1-dependent H3K56 acetylation in SWR1-C biology.