Pediatric infection due to multiresistant Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in Honduras.
ABSTRACT: We report the case of a pediatric patient with a Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis infection. Detailed microbiological investigation revealed that this isolate carries four beta-lactamase genes (bla(TEM-1b) variant, bla(SHV-5), bla(CTX-M-15), and bla(CMY-2)) conferring resistance to all beta-lactams but imipenem. This is the first report of a Salmonella isolate with CTX-M and AmpC enzymes on the American continent, the first report of bla(CMY-2) in Salmonella serotype Infantis, and the first report of bla(CTX-M-15) in the genus Salmonella.
Project description:Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6%) chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2)), and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2) and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes)), bla(TEM) (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20) and three bla(TEM-52) genes), and bla(SHV) (n = 1, bla(SHV-12)). All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006). This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2) in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2) in chicken products indicates the need for the development of continuous monitoring strategies in the interests of public health.
Project description:A total of 136 <i>Salmonella</i> isolates from chicken feces and meat samples of the top 12 integrated chicken production companies throughout Korea were collected. Among the 17 ESC-resistant <i>Salmonella</i>; <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub> was the most prevalent gene and two strains carried <i>bla</i><sub>TEM-1</sub>/<i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub> and <i>bla</i><sub>CMY-2</sub>, respectively. The transferable <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub> gene was carried by IncFII plasmid in three isolates and the <i>bla</i><sub>CMY-2</sub> gene carried by IncI1 plasmid in one isolate. <i>bla</i><sub>CMY-2</sub> gene-harboring strain was selected as the donor based on the high frequency of <i>bla</i><sub>CMY-2</sub> gene transfer in vitro and its transfer frequencies were determined at 10<sup>-3</sup> transconjugants per recipient. The transfer of <i>bla</i><sub>CMY-2</sub> gene-harboring plasmid derived from chicken isolate into a human pathogen; enteroinvasive <i>Escherichia coli</i> (EIEC), presented in mouse intestine with about 10<sup>-1</sup> transfer frequency without selective pressure. From the competition experiment; <i>bla</i><sub>CMY-2</sub> gene-harboring transconjugant showed variable fitness burden depends on the parent strains. Our study demonstrated direct evidence that the <i>bla</i><sub>CMY-2</sub> gene harboring <i>Salmonella</i> from chicken could frequently transfer its ESC-resistant gene to <i>E. coli</i> in a mouse intestine without antimicrobial pressure; resulting in the emergence of multidrug resistance in potentially virulent EIEC isolates of significance to human health; which can increase the risk of therapeutic inadequacy or failures.
Project description:Salmonella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on their prevalence in Africa. ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi and S. enterica serotype Typhimurium strains have been noted in South Africa since 2001. A total of 160 consecutive isolates of Salmonella spp. were collected from 13 hospitals located in different cities in South Africa over a 5-month period from December 2002 to April 2003. All strains were screened for production of ESBLs by the double disk diffusion test and for AmpC production by assessing resistance to cefoxitin. bla(SHV), bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), and bla(CMY-2) were sought from all ESBL-positive and cefoxitin-resistant isolates. A total of 15.6% (25 of 160) isolates produced SHV or TEM ESBLs, and 1.9% (3 of 160) produced CMY-2. Nine S. enterica serotype Typhimurium, eight S. enterica serotype Isangi, and three S. enterica serotype Muenchen strains produced either TEM-63 or a derivative of TEM-63 designated TEM-131. Both TEM-63 and TEM-131 have an isoelectric point of 5.6, and their sequences have the following amino acid substitutions compared to the TEM-1 sequence: Leu21Phe, Glu104Lys, Arg164Ser, and Met182Thr. Additionally, TEM-131 has an Ala237Thr substitution. ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. have become a significant public health problem in South Africa with particular implications for the treatment of serious nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in children, for whom extended-spectrum cephalosporins were the preferred treatment.
Project description:Background:Food products of animal origin brought into the EU from third countries, both legally and illegally, can harbor foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. In this study, we examined five S. enterica isolates recovered either from legally imported chicken meat (n?=?3) or from meat products confiscated from air travel passengers arriving in Germany (n?=?2). The isolates were serotyped and further characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR-detection and sequencing of genes associated with antimicrobial resistances, and macrorestriction analysis. Transferability of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was assessed by conjugation experiments and the plasmids tested for their incompatibility groups. Results:The three isolates from legal imports were identified as S. Heidelberg or as non-flagellated. All three isolates were identified as AmpC producers carrying bla CMY-2 and as non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin. They were additionally resistant to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The bla CMY-2-carrying plasmids were transferable by conjugation and belonged to incompatibility groups IncI1 or IncA/C. The two isolates from illegally imported meat belonged to the serovars Infantis or Weltevreden. The former was phenotypically resistant to five classes of antimicrobial agents while the S. Weltevreden isolate was fully susceptible to all agents tested. Conclusion:The results of this study demonstrate that meat products imported from third countries, both legally and illegally, can harbor multiresistant Salmonella enterica. Consequently, these imports could constitute a source for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant isolates, including those resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.
Project description:Among 3,027 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates identified between January 1999 and December 2002 in a medical center in northern Taiwan, 31 were resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin ceftriaxone (1.02% [31/3,027]), including 2 in 1999 (0.36% [2/549]), 13 in 2000 (1.49% [13/870]), 7 in 2001 (0.78% [7/893]), and 9 in 2002 (1.26% [9/715]). Sixteen of these isolates belonged to Salmonella serogroup B, nine belonged to serogroup C, four belonged to serogroup D, and two belonged to serogroup E. The majority were from stool cultures. The mechanism of resistance was investigated for eight isolates, including three S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, one S. enterica serovar Wagenia, one S. enterica serovar Senftenberg, one S. enterica serovar Derby, one S. enterica serovar Panama, and one S. enterica serovar Duesseldorf isolate. All eight patients from whom these isolates were recovered had community-acquired infections. All eight isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime but susceptible to imipenem and ciprofloxacin. Ceftriaxone resistance was due to the production of the CMY-2 AmpC beta-lactamase by seven isolates and the CTX-M-14 beta-lactamase by the remaining isolate. Both beta-lactamase genes were carried on conjugative plasmids. In a 2.5-kb region encompassing the bla(CMY-2) gene, at nucleotide 49 upstream of the start codon of bla(CMY-2), three of the seven bla(CMY-2)-positive isolates had an A nucleotide and four had a G nucleotide. In conclusion, the ceftriaxone resistance of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates in our hospital was attributed to the CTX-M-14 and CMY-2 beta-lactamases.
Project description:Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to clinically important third-generation cephalosporins, which are often used to treat invasive salmonellosis. In the United States, ESBLs are rarely found in Salmonella. However, in 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration found bla<sub>CTX-M-65</sub> ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in retail chicken meat. The isolate had a rare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. To clarify the sources and potential effects on human health, we examined isolates with this pattern obtained from human surveillance and associated metadata. Using broth microdilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing, we characterized the isolates. Of 34 isolates, 29 carried the bla<sub>CTX-M-65</sub> gene with <9 additional resistance genes on 1 plasmid. Of 19 patients with travel information available, 12 (63%) reported recent travel to South America. Genetically, isolates from travelers, nontravelers, and retail chicken meat were similar. Expanded surveillance is needed to determine domestic sources and potentially prevent spread of this ESBL-containing plasmid.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovars have been isolated from Colombian broilers and broiler meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of ESBL/pAmpC genes in extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant Salmonella enterica and the phylogeny of ESBL/pAmpC-carrying Salmonella using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). A total of 260 cefotaxime resistant Salmonella isolates, obtained between 2008 and 2013 from broiler farms, slaughterhouses and retail, were included. Isolates were screened by PCR for ESBL/pAmpC genes. Gene and plasmid subtyping and strain Multi Locus Sequence Typing was performed in silico for a selection of fully sequenced isolates. Core-genome-based analyses were performed per ST encountered. bla CMY-2-like was carried in 168 isolates, 52 carried bla CTX-M-2 group, 7 bla SHV, 5 a combination of bla CMY-2-like-bla SHV and 3 a combination of bla CMY-2-like-bla CTX-M-2 group. In 25 isolates no ESBL/pAmpC genes that were screened for were found. WGS characterization of 36 selected strains showed plasmid-encoded bla CMY-2 in 21, bla CTX-M-165 in 11 and bla SHV-12 in 7 strains. These genes were mostly carried on IncI1/ST12, IncQ1, and IncI1/ST231 plasmids, respectively. Finally, 17 strains belonged to S. Heidelberg ST15, 16 to S. Paratyphi B variant Java ST28, 1 to S. Enteritidis ST11, 1 to S. Kentucky ST152 and 1 to S. Albany ST292. Phylogenetic comparisons with publicly available genomes showed separate clustering of Colombian S. Heidelberg and S. Paratyphi B var. Java. In conclusion, resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella from Colombian poultry is mainly encoded by bla CMY-2 and bla CTX-M-165 genes. These genes are mostly associated with IncI1/ST12 and IncQ1 plasmids, respectively. Evolutionary divergence is observed between Colombian S. Heidelberg and S. Paratyphi B var. Java and those from other countries.
Project description:During 2002 to 2003, eight Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow poultry and poultry product isolates from various sources (chicken farms, poultry slaughterhouse, or retail store) and one S. enterica rough strain isolated from human feces were found to produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-9. Poultry and poultry product isolates were recovered from different locations in the southwest of France. The human rough isolate had sequences of flagellin genes (fliC and fljB) typical of serotype Virchow and ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns closely similar to those of serotype Virchow strains. PFGE confirmed the clonal relationship between the poultry isolates, while the human isolate displayed a pattern with 94% homology. The bla(CTX-M-9) gene was located on a conjugative plasmid and was shown to be linked to orf513. Plasmid profiling found a very similar EcoRI restriction pattern in six transconjugants studied, including transconjugants obtained from the human isolate. A single hatchery, supplying chicks to the six farms, was identified. Emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing S. enterica strains in food animals is a major concern, as such strains could disseminate on a large scale and lead to antibiotic therapy difficulties.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serotype Newport isolates resistant to at least nine antimicrobials (including extended-spectrum cephalosporins), known as serotype Newport MDR-AmpC isolates, have been rapidly emerging as pathogens in both animals and humans throughout the United States. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with clinical failures, including death, in patients with systemic infections. In this study, 87 Salmonella serotype Newport strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and examined for the presence of class 1 integrons and bla(CMY) genes. Thirty-five PFGE patterns were observed with XbaI, and three of these patterns were indistinguishable among isolates from humans and animals. Fifty-three (60%) Salmonella serotype Newport isolates were identified as serotype Newport MDR-AmpC, including 16 (53%) of 30 human isolates, 27 (93%) of 29 cattle isolates, 7 (70%) of 10 swine isolates, and 3 (30%) of 10 chicken isolates. However, 28 (32%) Salmonella serotype Newport isolates were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. The bla(CMY) gene was present in all serotype Newport MDR-AmpC isolates. Furthermore, the plasmid-mediated bla(CMY) gene was transferable via conjugation to an Escherichia coli strain. The transconjugant showed the MDR-AmpC resistance profile. Thirty-five (40%) of the isolates possessed class 1 integrons. Sequence analyses of the integrons showed that they contained aadA, which confers resistance to streptomycin, or aadA and dhfr, which confer resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. One integron from a swine isolate contained the sat-1 gene, which encodes resistance to streptothricin, an antimicrobial agent that has never been approved for use in the United States. In conclusion, Salmonella serotype Newport MDR-AmpC was commonly identified among Salmonella serotype Newport isolates recovered from humans and food animals. These findings support the possibility of transmission of this organism to humans through the food chain.
Project description:We identified two distinct bla(CTX-M)-bearing and five distinct bla(CMY-2)-bearing genetic structures located on plasmids from Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolates (n = 35) collected from chickens in South Korea. All Salmonella plasmids shared a common replicon, bla(CTX-M-15) transposon, and core resistance phenotype, while E. coli bla(CTX-M-15) plasmids included four distinct replicons.