Activation of Liver X Receptor Attenuates Oleic Acid-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Liver X receptors (LXRs) were identified as receptors that sense oxidized cholesterol derivatives. LXRs are best known for their hepatic functions in regulating cholesterol metabolism and triglyceride synthesis, but whether and how LXRs play a role in the lung diseases is less understood. To study the function of LXRs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), we applied the oleic acid (OA) model of ARDS to mice whose LXR was genetically or pharmacologically activated. The VP-LXR? knock-in (LXR-KI) mice, in which a constitutively activated LXR? (VP-LXR?) was inserted into the mouse LXR? locus, were used as the genetic gain-of-function model. We showed that the OA-induced lung damages, including the cytokine levels and total cell numbers and neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the wet/dry weight ratio, and morphological abnormalities were reduced in the LXR-KI mice and wild-type mice treated with the LXR agonist GW3965. The pulmonoprotective effect of GW3965 was abolished in the LXR-null mice. Consistent with the pulmonoprotective effect of LXR and the induction of antioxidant enzymes by LXR, the OA-induced suppression of superoxide dismutase and catalase was attenuated in LXR-KI mice and GW3965-treated wild-type mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of LXRs can alleviate OA-induced ARDS by attenuating the inflammatory response and enhancing antioxidant capacity.
Project description:The liver X receptors (LXRs) have been known as sterol sensors that impact cholesterol and lipid homeostasis, as well as inflammation. Although the hepatic functions of LXRs are well documented, whether and how LXRs play a pathophysiological role in the lung remain largely unknown. Here we show that LXRalpha and LXRbeta are expressed in both type I and type II mouse lung epithelial cells, as well as in human lung cancer cells. To study the role of LXRalpha in vivo including the pulmonary function of this LXR isoform, we created LXRalpha knock-in (LXR-KI) mice in which a constitutively activated LXRalpha (VP-LXRalpha) was inserted into the mouse LXRalpha locus. We show that activation of LXR in LXR-KI mice or LXR agonist-treated wild type mice induced pulmonary expression of genes encoding multiple antioxidant enzymes. Consistent with the induction of antioxidant enzymes, LXR-KI mice and LXR ligand-treated wild type mice showed a substantial resistance to lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury and decreased production of reactive oxygen species. In summary, we have uncovered a novel role of LXR in regulating antioxidant enzymes in the lung and the implication of this regulation in pulmonary tissue protection.
Project description:The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a prototypic molecule for recognizing pathogens. Liver X receptors (LXRs), belonging to nuclear receptors (NRs) for cholesterol metabolism through heterodimerizing with other NRs, were recently reported to participate in inflammation. However, their roles in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) are unclear. Therefore, this study was sought to explore roles of LXRs in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) sinonasal tissues and derived fibroblasts. Immunohistochemistry indicated that LXR? and ? expression and lipid/fat deposition were differentially expressed in the control and CRSsNP nasal mucosa. GW7647 (a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist) and GW3965 (a dual agonist for LXR? and ?) significantly caused PTX3 induction in the fibroblast cells. GW3965 induced PTX3 mRNA and protein expression, and the induction substantially led to PTX3 secretion. Meanwhile, an endogenous agonist-cholesterol had a similar enhancing effect on the induction of PTX3 protein. LXR siRNA knockdown to lower LXR? or ? expression significantly compromised PTX3 induction. Interestingly, GW3965 also induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) activation and its inhibition reduced PTX3 expression. Collectively, we demonstrated here for the first time that CRSsNP nasal mucosa differentially expresses LXR? and ? and deposits lipids/fats that may contain cholesterol metabolites to activate LXRs. Activation of LXRs leads to PTX3 production in sinonasal mucosa-derived fibroblasts. Our previous study showed PTX3 overexpression in the nasal cavity of CRSsNP, whereas this study highlights that cholesterol metabolites and LXR activation regulate PTX3 production and may contribute to antimicrobial activity and tissue repair during CRSsNP progression.
Project description:GLUCOCORTICOIDS are steroid hormones that strongly influence intermediary carbohydrate metabolism by increasing the transcription rate of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, and suppress the immune system through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The liver X receptors (LXRs), on the other hand, bind to cholesterol metabolites, heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR), and regulate the cholesterol turnover, the hepatic glucose metabolism by decreasing the expression of G6Pase, and repress a set of inflammatory genes in immune cells. Since the actions of these receptors overlap with each other, we evaluated the crosstalk between the GR- and LXR-mediated signaling systems. Transient transfection-based reporter assays and gene silencing methods using siRNAs for LXRs showed that overexpression/ligand (GW3965) activation of LXRs/RXRs repressed GR-stimulated transactivation of certain glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-driven promoters in a gene-specific fashion. Activation of LXRs by GW3965 attenuated dexamethasone-stimulated elevation of circulating glucose in rats. It also suppressed dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in rats, mice and human hepatoma HepG2 cells, whereas endogenous, unliganded LXRs were required for dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In microarray transcriptomic analysis of rat liver, GW3965 differentially regulated glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional activity of about 15% of endogenous glucocorticoid-responsive genes. To examine the mechanism through which activated LXRs attenuated GR transcriptional activity, we examined LXR?/RXR? binding to GREs. Endogenous LXR?/RXR? bound GREs and inhibited GR binding to these DNA sequences both in in vitro and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, while their recombinant proteins did so on classic or G6Pase GREs in gel mobility shift assays. We propose that administration of LXR agonists may be beneficial in glucocorticoid treatment- or stress-associated dysmetabolic states by directly and gene-specifically attenuating the transcriptional activity of the GR on glucose and/or lipid metabolism.
Project description:Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. LXR ligands have athero-protective properties independent of their effects on cholesterol metabolism. Platelets are involved in the initiation of atherosclerosis and despite being anucleate express nuclear receptors. We hypothesized that the athero-protective effects of LXR ligands could be in part mediated through platelets and therefore explored the potential role of LXR in platelets. Our results show that LXR-? is present in human platelets and the LXR ligands, GW3965 and T0901317, modulated nongenomically platelet aggregation stimulated by a range of agonists. GW3965 caused LXR to associate with signaling components proximal to the collagen receptor, GPVI, suggesting a potential mechanism of LXR action in platelets that leads to diminished platelet responses. Activation of platelets at sites of atherosclerotic lesions results in thrombosis preceding myocardial infarction and stroke. Using an in vivo model of thrombosis in mice, we show that GW3965 has antithrombotic effects, reducing the size and the stability of thrombi. The athero-protective effects of GW3965, together with its novel antiplatelet/thrombotic effects, indicate LXR as a potential target for prevention of athero-thrombotic disease.
Project description:Liver X receptors (LXR)-?,? regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibit inflammatory gene expression. We studied the effects of the LXR?,?-agonist GW3965 on acute and chronic organ damage in the F344-LEW rat kidney transplantation model. In addition, to gain LXR isoform and cell-specific insights BALB/c kidneys were transplanted into mice with macrophage overexpression of LXR? (mLXR?-tg) and evaluated 7 and 42 days after transplantation. After 56 days GW3965 improved significantly function and morphology of rat kidney allografts by substantial reduction of mononuclear cell infiltrate and fibrosis; in vitro GW3965 reduced inflammatory activity of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and alloreactivity of T cells. Kidneys transplanted into mLXR?-tg mice were also protected from development of chronic allograft dysfunction. Similarly to GW3965-activated BMDMs, mLXR?-tg macrophages secreted significantly less monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1?. Interestingly, 7 days after transplantation, when the total number of intragraft macrophages did not differ, evidently more arginase 1- and mannose receptor C type 1-positive cells were found in LXR rat and mice kidney allografts; in vitro both LXR activation by GW3965 and mLXR? overexpression accentuated the induction of alternative activation of BMDMs by IL-4/IL-13, suggesting an additional mechanism by LXRs to prevent graft damage. The results highlight the relevance of macrophage LXR? in allograft rejection and prevention of fibrosis.
Project description:Liver X receptors (LXRs) are key regulators of lipid and cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Little is known, however, about the function and evolution of LXRs in non-mammalian species. The present study reports the cloning of LXRs from African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), Western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis), and zebrafish (Danio rerio), and their functional characterization and comparison with human and mouse LXRs. Additionally, an ortholog of LXR in the chordate invertebrate Ciona intestinalis was cloned and functionally characterized. Ligand specificities of the frog and zebrafish LXRs were very similar to LXRalpha and LXRbeta from human and mouse. All vertebrate LXRs studied were activated robustly by the synthetic ligands T-0901317 and GW3965 and by a variety of oxysterols. In contrast, Ciona LXR was not activated by T-0901317 or GW3965 but was activated by a limited number of oxysterols, as well as some androstane and pregnane steroids. Pharmacophore analysis, homology modeling, and docking studies of Ciona LXR predict a receptor with a more restricted ligand-binding pocket and less intrinsic disorder in the ligand-binding domain compared to vertebrate LXRs. The results suggest that LXRs have a long evolutionary history, with vertebrate LXRs diverging from invertebrate LXRs in ligand specificity.
Project description:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory disease of the liver. Liver X receptors (LXRs), including the ? and ? isoforms, are previously known for their anti-inflammatory activities. The goal of this study is to determine whether and how LXR plays a role in AIH. LXR? gain-of-function and loss-of-function mouse models were used, in conjunction with the concanavalin A (ConA) model of T-cell mediated hepatitis. We first showed that the hepatic expression of LXR? was decreased in the ConA model of hepatitis and in human patients with AIH. In the ConA model, we were surprised to find that activation of LXR? in the constitutively activated VP-LXR? whole-body knock-in (LXR?-KI) mice exacerbated ConA-induced AIH, whereas the LXR?-/- mice showed attenuated ConA-induced AIH. Interestingly, hepatocyte-specific activation of LXR? in the fatty acid binding protein-VP-LXR? transgenic mice did not exacerbate ConA-induced hepatitis. Mechanistically, the sensitizing effect of the LXR?-KI allele was invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell dependent, because the sensitizing effect was abolished when the LXR?-KI allele was bred into the NKT-deficient CD1d-/- background. In addition, LXR?-enhanced ConA-induced hepatitis was dependent on interferon gamma. In contrast, adoptive transfer of hepatic iNKT cells isolated from LXR?-KI mice was sufficient to sensitize CD1d-/- mice to ConA-induced AIH. Conclusion: Activation of LXR? sensitizes mice to ConA-induced AIH in iNKT and interferon gamma-dependent manner. Our results suggest that LXR? plays an important role in the development of AIH.
Project description:Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that function as cholesterol sensors and regulate cholesterol homeostasis. High cholesterol has been recognized as a risk factor in asthma; however, the mechanism of this linkage is not known.To explore the importance of cholesterol homeostasis for asthma, we investigated the contribution of LXR activity in an ovalbumin- and a house dust mite-driven eosinophilic asthma mouse model.In both models, airway inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity, and goblet cell hyperplasia were reduced in mice deficient for both LXR? and LXR? isoforms (LXR?(-/-)?(-/-)) as compared to wild-type mice. Inversely, treatment with the LXR agonist GW3965 showed increased eosinophilic airway inflammation. LXR activity contributed to airway inflammation through promotion of type 2 cytokine production as LXR?(-/-)?(-/-) mice showed strongly reduced protein levels of IL-5 and IL-13 in the lungs as well as reduced expression of these cytokines by CD4(+) lung cells and lung-draining lymph node cells. In line herewith, LXR activation resulted in increased type 2 cytokine production by the lung-draining lymph node cells.In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the cholesterol regulator LXR acts as a positive regulator of eosinophilic asthma in mice, contributing to airway inflammation through regulation of type 2 cytokine production.
Project description:The liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that are activated by oxysterols. In response to ligand binding, LXRs regulate a variety of genes involved in the catabolism, transport, and uptake of cholesterol and its metabolites. Here we demonstrate that LXRs also regulate plasma lipoprotein metabolism through control of the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) gene. LXR ligands induce the expression of PLTP in cultured HepG2 cells and mouse liver in vivo in a coordinate manner with known LXR target genes. Moreover, plasma phospholipid transfer activity is increased in mice treated with the synthetic LXR ligand GW3965. Unexpectedly, PLTP expression was also highly inducible by LXR in macrophages, a cell type not previously recognized to express this enzyme. The ability of synthetic and oxysterol ligands to regulate PLTP mRNA in macrophages and liver is lost in animals lacking both LXRalpha and LXRbeta, confirming the critical role of these receptors. We further demonstrate that the PLTP promoter contains a high-affinity LXR response element that is bound by LXR/RXR heterodimers in vitro and is activated by LXR/RXR in transient-transfection studies. Finally, immunohistochemistry studies reveal that PLTP is highly expressed by macrophages within human atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting a potential role for this enzyme in lipid-loaded macrophages. These studies outline a novel pathway whereby LXR and its ligands may modulate lipoprotein metabolism.
Project description:Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote the maintenance of the endothelium by secreting vasoreparative factors. A population of EPCs known as early outgrowth cells (EOCs) is being investigated as novel cell-based therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated that the absence of liver X receptors (LXRs) is detrimental to the formation and function of EOCs under hypercholesterolemic conditions. Here, we investigate whether LXR activation in EOCs is beneficial for the treatment of atherosclerosis. EOCs were differentiated from the bone marrow of wild-type (WT) and LXR-knockout (Lxr??-/-) mice in the presence of vehicle or LXR agonist (GW3965). WT EOCs treated with GW3965 throughout differentiation showed reduced mRNA expression of endothelial lineage markers (Cd144, Vegfr2) compared with WT vehicle and Lxr??-/- EOCs. GW3965-treated EOCs produced secreted factors that reduced monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells in culture. When injected into atherosclerosis-prone Ldlr-/- mice, GW3965-treated EOCs, or their corresponding conditioned media (CM) were both able to reduce aortic sinus plaque burden compared with controls. Furthermore, when human EOCs (obtained from patients with established CAD) were treated with GW3965 and the CM applied to endothelial cells, monocyte adhesion was decreased, indicating that our results in mice could be translated to patients. Ex vivo LXR agonist treatment of EOCs therefore produces a secretome that decreases early atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice, and additionally, CM from human EOCs significantly inhibits monocyte to endothelial adhesion. Thus, active factor(s) within the GW3965-treated EOC secretome may have the potential to be useful for the treatment of atherosclerosis.