Osteoclastic miR-214 targets TRAF3 to contribute to osteolytic bone metastasis of breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: The role of osteoclastic miRNAs in regulating osteolytic bone metastasis (OBM) of breast cancer is still underexplored. Here, we examined the expression profiles of osteoclastogenic miRNAs in human bone specimens and identified that miR-214-3p was significantly upregulated in breast cancer patients with OBM. Consistently, we found increased miR-214-3p within osteoclasts, which was associated with the elevated bone resorption, during the development of OBM in human breast cancer xenografted nude mice (BCX). Furthermore, genetic ablation of osteoclastic miR-214-3p in nude mice prevent the development of OBM. Conditioned medium from MDA-MB-231 cells dramatically stimulated miR-214-3p expression to promote osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistically, a series of in vitro study showed that miR-214-3p directly targeted Traf3 to promote osteoclast activity and bone-resorbing activity. In addition, osteoclast-specific miR-214-3p knock-in mice showed remarkably increased bone resorption when compared to the littermate controls, which was attenuated after osteoclast-targeted treatment with Traf3 3'UTR-containing plasmid. In BCX nude mice, osteoclast-targeted antagomir-214-3p delivery could recover the TRAF3 protein expression and attenuate the development of OBM, respectively. Collectively, inhibition of osteoclastic miR-214-3p may be a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients with OBM. Meanwhile, the intraosseous TRAF3 could be a promising biomarker for evaluation of the treatment response of antagomir-214-3p.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that osteoclasts direct osteoblastic bone formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a crucial role in regulating osteoclast and osteoblast function. However, whether miRNAs mediate osteoclast-directed osteoblastic bone formation is mostly unknown. Here, we show that increased osteoclastic miR-214-3p associates with both elevated serum exosomal miR-214-3p and reduced bone formation in elderly women with fractures and in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Osteoclast-specific miR-214-3p knock-in mice have elevated serum exosomal miR-214-3p and reduced bone formation that is rescued by osteoclast-targeted antagomir-214-3p treatment. We further demonstrate that osteoclast-derived exosomal miR-214-3p is transferred to osteoblasts to inhibit osteoblast activity in vitro and reduce bone formation in vivo. Moreover, osteoclast-targeted miR-214-3p inhibition promotes bone formation in ageing OVX mice. Collectively, our results suggest that osteoclast-derived exosomal miR-214-3p transfers to osteoblasts to inhibit bone formation. Inhibition of miR-214-3p in osteoclasts may be a strategy for treating skeletal disorders involving a reduction in bone formation.
Project description:Glucocorticoid excess escalates osteoclastic resorption, accelerating bone mass loss and microarchitecture damage, which ramps up osteoporosis development. MicroRNA-29a (miR-29a) regulates osteoblast and chondrocyte function; however, the action of miR-29a to osteoclastic activity in the glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic bone remains elusive. In this study, we showed that transgenic mice overexpressing an miR-29a precursor driven by phosphoglycerate kinase exhibited a minor response to glucocorticoid-mediated bone mineral density loss, cortical bone porosity and overproduction of serum resorption markers C-teleopeptide of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b levels. miR-29a overexpression compromised trabecular bone erosion and excessive osteoclast number histopathology in glucocorticoid-treated skeletal tissue. Ex vivo, the glucocorticoid-provoked osteoblast formation and osteoclastogenic markers (NFATc1, MMP9, V-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase II and cathepsin K) along with F-actin ring development and pit formation of primary bone-marrow macrophages were downregulated in miR-29a transgenic mice. Mechanistically, tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 13b (TNFSF13b) participated in the glucocorticoid-induced osteoclast formation. miR-29a decreased the suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) enrichment in the TNFSF13b promoter and downregulated the cytokine production. In vitro, forced miR-29a expression and SOCS2 knockdown attenuated the glucocorticoid-induced TNFSF13b expression in osteoblasts. miR-29a wards off glucocorticoid-mediated excessive bone resorption by repressing the TNFSF13b modulation of osteoclastic activity. This study sheds new light onto the immune-regulatory actions of miR-29a protection against glucocorticoid-mediated osteoporosis.
Project description:Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is a severe health issue faced by postmenopausal women. microRNA-128 (miR-128) is associated with aging, inflammatory signaling, and inflammatory diseases, such as PMOP. It has also been reported to modulate in vitro osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation. However, its function in osteoclast formation is unknown. Methods: First, the expression of miR-128 and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (Nfatc1, bone resorption master marker) was investigated in bone tissues derived from PMOP patients, while their correlation to each other was also investigated. The levels of miR-128 and Nfatc1 in bone specimens and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) from mice subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) were also assayed. Next, we employed mice BMMs modified for overexpression and inhibition of miR-128 levels to determine its effect on osteoclast differentiation. Moreover, we generated osteoclastic miR-128 conditional knockout (miR-128Oc-/- ) mice and isolated miR-128 deletion-BMMs to observe its biological function on bone phenotype and osteoclastogenesis in vivo, respectively. The miR-128Oc-/- BMMs were used to explore the downstream regulatory mechanisms using pull-down, luciferase reporter, and western-blotting assays. Finally, the impact of miR-128 deficiency on OVX-induced bone loss in mice was evaluated. Results: The miR-128 level was found to be positively correlated with the increase in Nfatc1 level in mouse/human bone specimens and mouse primary BMMs. In vitro experiments demonstrated miR-128 levels that were dependent on activity of osteoclast differentiation and miR-128 overexpression or inhibition in BMMs significantly increased or decreased osteoclastogenesis, respectively. In vivo, we revealed that osteoclastic miR-128 deletion remarkedly increased bone mass through the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, we identified sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) as the direct target of miR-128 at the post-transcriptional level during osteoclast differentiation. Increased levels of SIRT1 reduced nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activity by decreasing the level of acetylation of Lysine 310, as well as inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-? (Tnf-?) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) expressions. Lastly, osteoclastic deletion of miR-128 significantly suppressed OVX-triggered osteoclastogenesis and exerted a protective effect against bone loss in mice. Conclusions: Our findings reveal a critical mechanism for osteoclastogenesis that is mediated by the miR-128/SIRT1/NF-?B signaling axis, highlighting a possible avenue for the further exploration of diagnostic and therapeutic target molecules in PMOP.
Project description:Although osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of primary bone tumor in adolescents and young adults, its mechanism remains unclear. A previous study by the authors demonstrated that miR-214-3p was upregulated in OS patients. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of miR-214-3p in OS cells. OS cell lines, U2OS and MNNG/HOS Cl#5, were transiently transfected with miR-214-3p mimics, a control mimic, miR-214-3p inhibitors and a control inhibitor. Subsequent assays revealed that elevated miR-214-3p promoted the proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities of OS cells, while the opposite effects were observed in cells that were transfected with miR-214-3p inhibitors. The interaction between miR-214-3p and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) 3'untranslated region (UTR) was verified by a dual luciferase assay, which indicated that the relative luciferase activity was decreased in 293T cells that were co-transfected with miR-214-3p mimic and psiCHECK2-CADM1-3'UTR compared with cells that were co-transfected with psiCHECK2-CADM1-3'UTR and control mimic. The knockdown of CADM1 using small-interfering RNA enhanced the proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities of OS cells. Furthermore, downregulated CADM1 expression increased the expression of phosphorylated P44/42 mitogen activated kinase (MAPK). In conclusion, miR-214-3p was able to directly target CADM1 and decrease its expression. This resulted in the activation of the P44/42 MAPK signaling pathway, and thereby promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of OS cells.
Project description:Skeletal health is maintained by bone remodeling, a process in which microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone, which is laid down by osteoblasts. This normal process can be disturbed in a variety of pathologic processes, including localized or generalized inflammation, metabolic and endocrine disorders, primary and metastatic cancers, and during aging as a result of low-grade chronic inflammation. Osteoclast formation and activity are promoted by factors, including cytokines, hormones, growth factors, and free radicals, and require expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) by accessory cells in the bone marrow, including osteoblastic and immune cells. Expression of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is required in osteoclast precursors to mediate RANKL-induced activation of NF-?B, which is also necessary for osteoclast formation and activity. TRAF3, in contrast is not required for osteoclast formation, but it limits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by promoting proteasomal degradation of NF-?B-inducing kinase in a complex with TRAF2 and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAP). TRAF3 also limits osteoclast formation induced by TNF, which mediates inflammation and joint destruction in inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, prevent TRAF3 degradation in osteoclast precursors and inhibit osteoclast formation in vitro. Chloroquine also inhibits bone destruction induced by ovariectomy and parathyroid hormone in mice in vivo. Mice genetically engineered to have TRAF3 deleted in osteoclast precursors and macrophages develop early onset osteoporosis, inflammation in multiple tissues, infections, and tumors, indicating that TRAF3 suppresses inflammation and tumors in myeloid cells. Mice with TRAF3 conditionally deleted in mesenchymal cells also develop early onset osteoporosis due to a combination of increased osteoclast formation and reduced osteoblast formation. TRAF3 protein levels decrease in bone and bone marrow during aging in mice and humans. Development of drugs to prevent TRAF3 degradation in immune and bone cells could be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent or reduce bone loss and the incidence of several common diseases associated with aging.
Project description:The deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) is frequently associated with a variety of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we identified 10 upregulated miRNAs (miR-217, miR-518b, miR-517c, miR-520g, miR-519a, miR-522, miR-518e, miR-525-3p, miR-512-3p and miR-518a-3p) and 10 downregulated miRNAs (miR-138, miR-214, miR-214#, miR-27a#, miR-199a-5p, miR-433, miR-511, miR-592, miR-483-5p and miR-483-3p) by Taqman miRNAs array and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmation. Additionally, we investigated the expression and possible role of miR-138 in HCC. qRT-PCR results showed that miR-138 was downregulated in 77.8%(14/18) of HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Overexpression of miR-138 reduced cell viability and colony formation by induction of cell arrest in HCC cell lines and inhibited tumor cell growth in xenograft nude mice. The use of miR-138 inhibitor increased cell viability and colony formation in HCC cell lines and tumor cell growth in xenograft nude mice. Using TargetScan predictions, CCND3 was defined as a potential direct target of miR-138. Furthermore, CCND3 protein expression was observed to be negatively correlated with miR-138 expression in HCC tissues. The dual-luciferase reporter gene assay results showed that CCND3 was a direct target of miR-138. The use of miR-138 mimic or inhibitor could decrease or increase CCND3 protein levels in HCC cell lines. We conclude that the frequently downregulated miR-138 can regulate CCND3 and function as a tumor suppressor in HCC. Therefore, miR-138 may serve as a useful therapeutic agent for miRNA-based HCC therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The microRNA miR-29b-3p shows important roles in regulating apoptosis and inflammation. However, its effects on intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion (II/R) injury have not been reported. Here we have investigated the functions of miR-29b-3p on II/R injury on order to find drug targets to treat the injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Two models - in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) of IEC-6 cells; in vivo, II/R injury in C57BL/6 mice were used. Western blotting and dual-luciferase reporter assays were used and mimic and siRNA transfection tests were applied to assess the effects of miR-29b-3p on II/R injury via targeting TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3). KEY RESULTS:The H/R procedure decreased cell viability and promoted inflammation and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells, and the II/R procedure also promoted intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in mice. Expression levels of miR-29b-3p were decreased in H/R-induced cells and II/R-induced intestinal tissues of mice compared with control group or sham group, which directly targeted TRAF3. Decreased miR-29b-3p level markedly increased TRAF3 expression via activating TGF-?-activated kinase 1 phosphorylation, increasing NF-?B (p65) levels to promote inflammation, up-regulating Bcl2-associated X expression, and down-regulating Bcl-2 expression to trigger apoptosis. In addition, the miR-29b-3p mimetic and TRAF3 siRNA in IEC-6 cells markedly suppressed apoptosis and inflammation to alleviate II/R injury via inhibiting TRAF3 signallimg. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:The miR-29b-3p played a critical role in II/R injury, via targeting TRAF3, which should be considered as a significant drug target to treat the disease.
Project description:MicroRNAs have an important role in bone homeostasis. However, the detailed mechanism of microRNA-mediated intercellular communication between bone cells remains elusive. Here, we report that osteoclasts secrete microRNA-enriched exosomes, by which miR-214 is transferred into osteoblasts to inhibit their function. In a coculture system, inhibition of exosome formation and secretion prevented miR-214 transportation. Exosomes specifically recognized osteoblasts through the interaction between ephrinA2 and EphA2. In osteoclast-specific miR-214 transgenic mice, exosomes were secreted into the serum, and miR-214 and ephrinA2 levels were elevated. Therefore, these exosomes have an inhibitory role in osteoblast activity. miR-214 and ephrinA2 levels in serum exosomes from osteoporotic patients and mice were upregulated substantially. These exosomes may significantly inhibit osteoblast activity. Inhibition of exosome secretion via Rab27a small interfering RNA prevented ovariectomized-induced osteoblast dysfunction in vivo. Taken together, these findings suggest that exosome-mediated transfer of microRNA plays an important role in the regulation of osteoblast activity. Circulating miR-214 in exosomes not only represents a biomarker for bone loss but could selectively regulate osteoblast function.
Project description:Osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption dynamically maintain the bone homeostasis; in the present study, we attempt to investigate the mechanism of the excessive activation of osteoclasts inducing the deregulation of bone homeostasis from the perspective of non-coding RNA regulation. Differentially expressed patterns of circRNAs were examined in non-treated and RANKL + CSF1-treated bone marrow monocyte/macrophage (BMM) cells and differentially-expressed miRNAs during osteoclast differentiation were analyzed and identified. We found that circRNA_28313 was significantly induced by RANKL + CSF1 treatment. circRNA_28313 knockdown significantly inhibited RANKL + CSF1-induced differentiation of osteoclasts within BMM cells in vitro, while suppressed ovariectomized (OVX)-induced bone resorption in mice in vivo. Via bioinformatics analyses, it has been demonstrated that miR-195a might bind to circRNA_28313 and CSF1 and together form a circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network. circRNA_28313 relieves miR-195a-mediated suppression on CSF1 via acting as a ceRNA, therefore modulating the osteoclast differentiation in BMM cells. In conclusion, circRNA_28313, miR-195a, and CSF1 form a ceRNA network to function in RANKL + CSF1-induced osteoclast differentiation, thus affecting OVX-induced bone absorption in mice.
Project description:Bisphosphonates are the mainstay of therapy worldwide for osteoporosis. However, bisphosphonates also have limitations. The objective of this study was to determine the role of miR-101-3p/Rap1b signal pathway in osteoclast differentiation after treatment with bisphosphonates. Our results revealed that miR-101-3p was an important regulator in bisphosphonates treated-osteoclasts. When miR-101-3p was down-regulated in bone marrow-derived macrophage-like cells (BMMs), the development of mature osteoclasts was promoted, and vice versa. However, alendronate decreased multinucleated cell number regardless of whether miR-101-3p was knocked down or over-expressed. TRAP activity assay confirmed the above results. Luciferase assay indicated that miR-101-3p was a negative regulator of Rap1b. Western blot analysis revealed that protein expression level of Rap1b in BMMs transfected with OV-miR-101-3p was lower than that in BMMs transfected with an empty vector. Rap1b overexpression increased TRAP-positive multinucleated cells, while Rap1b inhibition decreased the cell numbers. In vivo data showed that miR-101-3p inhibited osteoclast differentiation in ovariectomized mice while overexpressed of Rap1b blocked the differentiation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-101-3p/Rap1b signal pathway plays a key role in osteoclast differentiation after treatment with bisphosphonates. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(9): 572-576].