Prevalence and Risk Factors for Lumbar Spondylosis and Its Association with Low Back Pain among Rural Korean Residents.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the relevant risk factors for lumbar spondylosis (LS) among middle-aged and elderly rural Korean residents and to explore the association between radiographic LS and lower back pain (LBP) in relation to age and gender.This community-based, cross-sectional study evaluated 1512 subjects with available radiograph. The prevalence of LBP was obtained using a questionnaire and disability resulting from LBP was measured using a validated Korean version of the Oswestry disability index (ODI). In lumbar spine radiographs, vertebral levels from L1/2 to L4/5 were evaluated for the presence of osteophytes and joint-space narrowing (JSN), and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading was applied.Of 4261 subjects aged 40-79 years, data from 1512 subjects were included. The prevalence of radiographic LS indicated by grade ?2 osteophytes and JSN were 53.9 and 15.8%, respectively. Seventy-three percent of subjects had KL grade ?2 spondylosis and LBP was present in 36.5% of subjects. Although LS was more common among males, the prevalence of LBP was higher among females. Age, male gender and history of hand or knee arthritis were risk factors for LS. LS was significantly associated with LBP mostly among females over 60 years old and correlated with the ODI after adjusting for age and gender.Our study among rural Korean residents revealed a high prevalence of LS and LBP. The association between LS and LBP was observed mostly among females and LS was significantly correlated with the severity of back pain.
Project description:Objective:The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility genes responsible for lumbar spondylosis (LS) in Korean patients. Methods:Data from 1427 subjects were made available for radiographic grading and genome wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. Lateral lumbar spine radiographs were obtained and the various degrees of degenerative change were semi-quantitatively scored. A pilot GWAS was performed using the AffymetrixGenome-Wide Human single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 500K array. A total of 352228 SNPs were analyzed and the association between the SNPs and case-control status was analyzed by stepwise logistic regression analyses. Results:The top 100 SNPs with a cutoff p-value of less than 3.7×10-4 were selected for joint space narrowing, while a cutoff p-value of 6.0×10-4 was applied to osteophytes and the Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) osteoarthritis grade. The SNPs with the strongest effect on disc space narrowing, osteophytes, and K-L grade were serine incorporator 1 (rs155467, odds ratio [OR]=17.58, p=1.6×10-4), stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM1, rs210781, OR=5.53, p=5×10-4), and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C (rs11224760, OR=3.99, p=4.8×10-4), respectively. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 was significantly associated with both disc space narrowing and osteophytes (rs1979400, OR=2.01, p=1.1×10-4 for disc space narrowing, OR=1.79, p=3×10-4 for osteophytes), while zinc finger and BTB domain containing 7C was significantly and negatively associated with both osteophytes and a K-L grade >2 (rs12457004,OR=0.25, p=5.8×10-4 and OR=0.27, p=5.3×10-4, respectively). Conclusion:We identified SNPs that potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of LS. This is the first report of a GWAS in an Asian population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>With increase of spine surgeries, failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) prevalence is also rising. While complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used for low back pain (LBP), there are no studies reporting use of integrative Korean medicine in FBSS patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with pain continuing after back surgery or recurring within 1 year and visual analogue scale (VAS) of LBP or leg pain of ?6 (total n = 120) were recruited at 2 hospital sites from November 2011 to September 2014. Weekly sessions of integrative Korean medicine treatment were conducted for 16 weeks (herbal medicine, acupuncture/electroacupuncture, pharmacopuncture/bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manual therapy) with additional follow-ups at 24 weeks and 1 year. Outcome measures included VAS of LBP and leg pain (primary outcome), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short-Form 36 (SF-36), medical use, and patient global impression of change (PGIC).<h4>Results</h4>VAS of LBP and leg pain improved at 6 months (LBP from 6.1±2.0 at baseline to 2.9±2.3; and leg pain from 5.4±2.6 to 2.4±2.5, respectively). Eighty patients (66.7%) showed improvement of 50% or more in main pain of LBP or leg pain from baseline. Disability and quality of life also improved at 6 months (ODI from 41.3±12.3 at baseline to 23.6±13.6; and SF-36 from 42.8±14.5 to 62.7±16.8). At 1 year follow-up, conventional medical management use decreased, improvement in pain and disability was maintained, and 79.2% reported improvement of PGIC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Despite limitations as an observational study, integrative Korean medicine treatment showed positive results in pain, function, and quality of life of FBSS patients.
Project description:Current evidence on the effectiveness and safety of Chuna manipulative therapy (CMT) for managing non-acute lower back pain (LBP) is insufficient. We investigated the comparative effectiveness and safety of CMT, a Korean style of manipulation, plus usual care (UC) compared to UC alone for non-acute LBP. We conducted a parallel, two-armed, multi-centered, assessor blinded, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial at four major Korean medical hospitals. Overall, 194 patients were randomly allocated to either CMT plus UC (n = 97) or UC alone (n = 97), for six weeks of treatment and six months follow-up. The primary outcome was measured using the numerical rating scale (NRS) of LBP intensity at 7 weeks. Secondary outcomes included NRS of leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for functional disability, patient global impression of change (PGIC) scale, and safety. A total of 194 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, and 174 patients provided complete data for the primary outcome. At 7 weeks, clinically significant differences between groups were observed in the NRS of LBP (CMT + UC: -3.02 ± 1.72, UC: -1.36 ± 1.75, p < 0.001), ODI scores (CMT + UC: -5.65 ± 4.29, UC: -3.72 ± 4.63, p = 0.003), NRS of leg pain (CMT + UC: -2.00 ± 2.33, UC: -0.44 ± 1.86, p < 0.0001), and PGIC (CMT + UC: -0.28 ± 0.85, UC: 0.01 ± 0.66, p = 0.0119). Mild to moderate safety concerns were reported in 21 subjects. CMT plus UC showed higher effectiveness compared to UC alone in patients with non-acute LBP in reducing LBP and leg pain and in improving function with good safety results using a powered sample size and including mid-term follow-up.
Project description:We assessed whether grip strength was related to various types of radiographic damage in Korean adults with osteoarthritis (OA).Data from 2,251 subjects enrolled in the Dong-gu study, who had no hand joint pain, were analyzed to investigate the relationship between grip strength and OA. Hand grip strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer, and radiographs of the hand and knee were scored according to a semi-quantitative grading system. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore associations between grip strength and radiographic features of OA.Grip strength in men and women was negatively related to hand (both p < 0.001) and knee (men, p < 0.001; women, p = 0.010) OA after adjusting for confounders. Hand (men, p < 0.001; women, p = 0.001) and knee (both p < 0.001) joint space narrowing (JSN) showed the strongest associations with low grip strength, regardless of gender. Moreover, the severity of hand osteophytes in women (p = 0.001), and subchondral cysts (men, p < 0.001) was correlated with low grip strength in both genders.Among subjects without hand joint pain, low grip strength was associated significantly with hand and knee radiographic OA, regardless of gender. Among all types of OA radiographic damage, low grip strength showed the strongest association with JSN.
Project description:To describe differences in radiographic features of hip osteoarthritis (OA) between African American and white men and women.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of radiographic hip OA using baseline data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project, using Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade, and the presence, location, and severity of 4 individual radiographic features (joint space narrowing [JSN], subchondral cysts, sclerosis, and osteophytes). Sex-specific logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between race and individual radiographic features, adjusting for age, body mass index, education, and prior hip injury. Robust variance estimators via generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlation between hips from the same individual.The sample (n = 2,739) comprised 57% women and 31% African American participants. Among women, African Americans and whites had a similar prevalence of hip OA, defined as K/L grade > or =2 (23% versus 22%), but African American women were significantly more likely to have superior or medial JSN, moderate or severe axial JSN, medial or lateral osteophytes, and subchondral cysts. Among men, 21% of African Americans and 17% of whites had hip OA; African American men were more likely to have superior or medial JSN and lateral osteophytes, but were less likely to have axial JSN.Individual radiographic features and patterns of hip OA differed by race among women and men, suggesting the possibility of anatomic and/or developmental variation in the hip joint. African Americans have an increased frequency of features that have been predictive of hip replacement in other populations, a finding worthy of further study.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the comparative prevalence, associations with selected patient characteristics, and clinical outcomes of medial and lateral compartment patellofemoral (PF) joint osteoarthritis (OA).<h4>Methods</h4>Information was collected by questionnaires, clinical assessment, and radiographs from 745 eligible community-dwelling symptomatic adults age ?50 years. PF joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytes were scored from skyline radiographs using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International atlas. Multilevel models were used to assess associations of compartmental PF joint OA with age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and varus-valgus malalignment, while median regression was used to examine associations with clinical outcomes (current pain intensity on a numeric rating scale [0-10] and the function subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [0-68]).<h4>Results</h4>Isolated lateral PF joint OA was more common than isolated medial PF joint OA, particularly at higher severity thresholds. Irrespective of severity threshold, age (?2 odds ratio [OR] 1.19 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.12, 1.26]), BMI (?2 OR 1.15 [95% CI 1.07, 1.24]), and valgus malalignment (?2 OR 2.58 [95% CI 1.09, 6.07]) were associated with increased odds of isolated lateral JSN, but isolated medial JSN was only associated with age (?2 OR 1.20 [95% CI 1.14, 1.27]). The pattern of association was less clear for PF joint osteophytes. Isolated lateral PF joint OA, defined by JSN or osteophytes, was associated with higher pain scores than isolated medial PF joint OA, but these differences were modest and were not significant. A similar pattern of association was seen for functional limitation but only when PF joint OA was defined by JSN.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Isolated lateral PF joint OA is more common than isolated medial PF joint OA, and it is more consistently associated with established OA risk factors. It is also associated with higher, but clinically nonsignificant, pain and function scores than isolated medial PF joint OA, particularly when PF joint OA is defined using JSN.
Project description:PURPOSE: The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common scoring systems used for patients with low back pain (LBP). Although the normative score of the ODI was reported to be 10.19 in a review article, no study has calculated the normative score after adjusting the value based on the age distribution. In addition, none of the previous studies has estimated the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The purpose of this study was to estimate the normative score by adjusting the data for age distribution in Japan, and to determine the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. METHODS: We conducted an internet survey on LBP using the Japanese version of the ODQ. A total of 1,200 respondents, composed of 100 males and 100 females in each age group (from the 20s to 70s), participated in this study. We also asked them to provide information about their backgrounds. We estimated the normative score after correcting for the age distribution of Japan. We also estimated the ODI of those with or without disability, the factors associated with the ODI, and the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. RESULTS: The participants' backgrounds were similar to the national survey. The normative score of the ODI was estimated at 8.73. The ODI of the LBP with disability group was 22.07. Those with sciatica and obese subjects showed higher ODI than those without. The optimal cut-off value was estimated to be 12. CONCLUSIONS: We defined the normative score and the cut-off value of the ODI.
Project description:High Bone Mass (HBM) is associated with (a) radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), partly mediated by increased BMI, and (b) pelvic enthesophytes and hip osteophytes, suggestive of a bone-forming phenotype. We aimed to establish whether HBM is associated with radiographic features of OA in non-weight-bearing (hand) joints, and whether such OA demonstrates a bone-forming phenotype.HBM cases (BMD Z-scores?+3.2) were compared with family controls. A blinded assessor graded all PA hand radiographs for: osteophytes (0-3), joint space narrowing (JSN) (0-3), subchondral sclerosis (0-1), at the index Distal Interphalangeal Joint (DIPJ) and 1st Carpometacarpal Joint (CMCJ), using an established atlas. Analyses used a random effects logistic regression model, adjusting a priori for age and gender. Mediating roles of BMI and bone turnover markers (BTMs) were explored by further adjustment.314 HBM cases (mean age 61.1years, 74% female) and 183 controls (54.3years, 46% female) were included. Osteophytes (grade?1) were more common in HBM (DIPJ: 67% vs. 45%, CMCJ: 69% vs. 50%), with adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.82 [1.11, 2.97], p=0.017 and 1.89 [1.19, 3.01], p=0.007 respectively; no differences were seen in JSN. Further adjustment for BMI failed to attenuate ORs for osteophytes in HBM cases vs. controls; DIPJ 1.72 [1.05, 2.83], p=0.032, CMCJ 1.76 [1.00, 3.06], p=0.049. Adjustment for BTMs (concentrations lower amongst HBM cases) did not attenuate ORs.HBM is positively associated with OA in non-weight-bearing joints, independent of BMI. HBM-associated OA is characterised by osteophytes, consistent with a bone-forming phenotype, rather than JSN reflecting cartilage loss. Systemic factors (e.g. genetic architecture) which govern HBM may also increase bone-forming OA risk.
Project description:Hypertension and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypertension and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis in Koreans.A total 17,128 participants (age ?20 years) who answered low back pain and osteoarthritis items in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009) were analyzed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression and were adjusted for age, sex, income level, education, occupation, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity.Lifetime prevalence of LBP in hypertensive subjects was 34.4%, and that of osteoarthritis 26.2%. LBP prevalence was significantly lower in hypertensives (fully adjusted OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70-0.90), and both LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence was significantly lower in participants with systolic blood pressure ?140mmHg than those with <120mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70-0.94, and 0.81; 95% CI 0.68-0.96, respectively). Prevalence of LBP in subjects with diastolic blood pressure ?90mmHg was also significantly lower than those with <80mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63-0.85). LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence did not differ by systolic or diastolic blood pressure interval in respondents taking antihypertensive medication. LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence increased with longer hypertension duration (fully adjusted p for trend 0.028, and 0.0008, respectively).Hypertension showed an inverse relationship with LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence, which may be ascribed to hypertension-associated hypalgesia, and antihypertensive medication intake and longer hypertension duration attenuated this association.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Low back pain (LBP) and decreased mobility function are common problem among older people. Muscle weakness has been reported as a risk factor for these conditions, and exercise therapy can improve them. We created a novel exercise device that also measures abdominal trunk muscle strength. Malnutrition has also emerged as a major problem among older people. Muscle is a direct key linking decreased mobility function and malnutrition. This study aimed to examine the associations of LBP with not only decreased physical function and muscle weakness but also nutritional status of older people.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined the associations of LBP with muscle weakness, decreased mobility function (locomotive syndrome [LS]), and malnutrition among older women. The study included 101 female patients aged 60 years or older scheduled to undergo surgery for degenerative lower extremity diseases. Preoperatively, physical tests including abdominal trunk muscle strength assessment using the device and laboratory tests were conducted. Subjects with LBP (numerical rating scale ?2; range, 0-4) during the preceding month were allocated to the LBP group (n = 36). Other subjects were allocated to the non-LBP group (n = 65).<h4>Results</h4>The LBP group had lower abdominal trunk and knee extensor muscle strength, lower serum albumin, and hemoglobin levels as blood biomarkers associated with malnutrition risk, and higher LS test scores than the non-LBP group. A multivariate analysis showed that abdominal trunk muscle weakness and advanced LS were associated with LBP. LBP intensity was negatively correlated with abdominal trunk and knee extensor muscle strength and positively correlated with the LS test score. The serum hemoglobin level was negatively correlated with the LS test score.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Abdominal trunk muscle weakness and decreased mobility function were associated with LBP among older women.