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Functions and regulation of the Brr2 RNA helicase during splicing.


ABSTRACT: Pre-mRNA splicing entails the stepwise assembly of an inactive spliceosome, its catalytic activation, splicing catalysis and spliceosome disassembly. Transitions in this reaction cycle are accompanied by compositional and conformational rearrangements of the underlying RNA-protein interaction networks, which are driven and controlled by 8 conserved superfamily 2 RNA helicases. The Ski2-like helicase, Brr2, provides the key remodeling activity during spliceosome activation and is additionally implicated in the catalytic and disassembly phases of splicing, indicating that Brr2 needs to be tightly regulated during splicing. Recent structural and functional analyses have begun to unravel how Brr2 regulation is established via multiple layers of intra- and inter-molecular mechanisms. Brr2 has an unusual structure, including a long N-terminal region and a catalytically inactive C-terminal helicase cassette, which can auto-inhibit and auto-activate the enzyme, respectively. Both elements are essential, also serve as protein-protein interaction devices and the N-terminal region is required for stable Brr2 association with the tri-snRNP, tri-snRNP stability and retention of U5 and U6 snRNAs during spliceosome activation in vivo. Furthermore, a C-terminal region of the Prp8 protein, comprising consecutive RNase H-like and Jab1/MPN-like domains, can both up- and down-regulate Brr2 activity. Biochemical studies revealed an intricate cross-talk among the various cis- and trans-regulatory mechanisms. Comparison of isolated Brr2 to electron cryo-microscopic structures of yeast and human U4/U6•U5 tri-snRNPs and spliceosomes indicates how some of the regulatory elements exert their functions during splicing. The various modulatory mechanisms acting on Brr2 might be exploited to enhance splicing fidelity and to regulate alternative splicing.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5224448 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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