NADH dehydrogenase of Trypanosoma brucei is important for efficient acetate production in bloodstream forms.
ABSTRACT: In the slender bloodstream form, Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria are repressed for many functions. Multiple components of mitochondrial complex I, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, are expressed in this stage, but electron transfer through complex I is not essential. Here we investigate the role of the parasite's second NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, NDH2, which is composed of a single subunit that also localizes to the mitochondrion. While inducible knockdown of NDH2 had a modest growth effect in bloodstream forms, NDH2 null mutants, as well as inducible knockdowns in a complex I deficient background, showed a greater reduction in growth. Altering the NAD+/NADH balance would affect numerous processes directly and indirectly, including acetate production. Indeed, loss of NDH2 led to reduced levels of acetate, which is required for several essential pathways in bloodstream form T. brucei and which may have contributed to the observed growth defect. In conclusion our study shows that NDH2 is important, but not essential, in proliferating bloodstream forms of T. brucei, arguing that the mitochondrial NAD+/NADH balance is important in this stage, even though the mitochondrion itself is not actively engaged in the generation of ATP.
Project description:The Plasmodium mitochondrial electron transport chain has received considerable attention as a potential target for new antimalarial drugs. Atovaquone, a potent inhibitor of Plasmodium cytochrome bc(1), in combination with proguanil is recommended for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of malaria. The type II NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH2) is considered an attractive drug target, as its inhibition is thought to lead to the arrest of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and, as a consequence, pyrimidine biosynthesis, an essential pathway for the parasite. Using the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei as an in vivo infection model, we studied the role of NDH2 during Plasmodium life cycle progression. NDH2 can be deleted by targeted gene disruption and, thus, is dispensable for the pathogenic asexual blood stages, disproving the candidacy for an anti-malarial drug target. After transmission to the insect vector, NDH2-deficient ookinetes display an intact mitochondrial membrane potential. However, ndh2(-) parasites fail to develop into mature oocysts in the mosquito midgut. We propose that Plasmodium blood stage parasites rely on glycolysis as the main ATP generating process, whereas in the invertebrate vector, a glucose-deprived environment, the malaria parasite is dependent on an intact mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Project description:Nitroheterocyclic prodrugs are used to treat infections caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. A key component in selectivity involves a specific activation step mediated by a protein homologous with type I nitroreductases, enzymes found predominantly in prokaryotes. Using data from determinations based on flavin cofactor, oxygen-insensitive activity, substrate range, and inhibition profiles, we demonstrate that NTRs from T. cruzi and T. brucei display many characteristics of their bacterial counterparts. Intriguingly, both enzymes preferentially use NADH and quinones as the electron donor and acceptor, respectively, suggesting that they may function as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases in the parasite mitochondrion. We exploited this preference to determine the trypanocidal activity of a library of aziridinyl benzoquinones against bloodstream-form T. brucei. Biochemical screens using recombinant NTR demonstrated that several quinones were effective substrates for the parasite enzyme, having K(cat)/K(m) values 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of nifurtimox and benznidazole. In tests against T. brucei, antiparasitic activity mirrored the biochemical data, with the most potent compounds generally being preferred enzyme substrates. Trypanocidal activity was shown to be NTR dependent, as parasites with elevated levels of this enzyme were hypersensitive to the aziridinyl agent. By unraveling the biochemical characteristics exhibited by the trypanosomal NTRs, we have shown that quinone-based compounds represent a class of trypanocidal compound.
Project description:Plasmodium falciparum NDH2 (pfNDH2) is a non-proton pumping, rotenone-insensitive alternative enzyme to the multi-subunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases (Complex I) of many other eukaryotes. Recombinantly expressed pfNDH2 prefers coenzyme CoQ(0) as an acceptor substrate, and can also use the artificial electron acceptors, menadione and dichlorophenol-indophenol (DCIP). Previously characterized NDH2 inhibitors, dibenziodolium chloride (DPI), diphenyliodonium chloride (IDP), and 1-hydroxy-2-dodecyl-4(1H)quinolone (HDQ) do not inhibit pfNDH2 activity. Here, we provide evidence that HDQ likely targets another P. falciparum mitochondrial enzyme, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (pfDHOD), which is essential for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis.
Project description:The presence of mitochondrial respiratory complex I in the pathogenic bloodstream stages of Trypanosoma brucei has been vigorously debated: increased expression of mitochondrially encoded functional complex I mRNAs is countered by low levels of enzymatic activity that show marginal inhibition by the specific inhibitor rotenone. We now show that epitope-tagged versions of multiple complex I subunits assemble into ? and ? subcomplexes in the bloodstream stage and that these subcomplexes require the mitochondrial genome for their assembly. Despite the presence of these large (740- and 855-kDa) multisubunit complexes, the electron transport activity of complex I is not essential under experimental conditions since null mutants of two core genes (NUBM and NUKM) showed no growth defect in vitro or in mouse infection. Furthermore, the null mutants showed no decrease in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity, suggesting that the observed activity is not contributed by complex I. This work conclusively shows that despite the synthesis and assembly of subunit proteins, the enzymatic function of the largest respiratory complex is neither significant nor important in the bloodstream stage. This situation appears to be in striking contrast to that for the other respiratory complexes in this parasite, where physical presence in a life-cycle stage always indicates functional significance.
Project description:Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (G3PDHs) constitute a shuttle that serves for regeneration of NAD(+) reduced during glycolysis. This NAD-dependent enzyme is employed in glycolysis and produces glycerol-3-phosphate from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, while its flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent homologue catalyzes a reverse reaction coupled to the respiratory chain. Trypanosoma brucei possesses two FAD-dependent G3PDHs. While one of them (mitochondrial G3PDH [mtG3PDH]) has been attributed to the mitochondrion and seems to be directly involved in G3PDH shuttle reactions, the function of the other enzyme (putative G3PDH [putG3PDH]) remains unknown. In this work, we used RNA interference and protein overexpression and tagging to shed light on the relative contributions of both FAD-G3PDHs to overall cellular metabolism. Our results indicate that mtG3PDH is essential for the bloodstream stage of T. brucei, while in the procyclic stage the enzyme is dispensable. Expressed putG3PDH-V5 was localized to the mitochondrion, and the data obtained by digitonin permeabilization, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence indicate that putG3PDH is located within the mitochondrion.
Project description:By means of fluorimetric measurement and by direct determination of intracellular NAD+ and NADH contents, it was proved that the respiration rate of Paracoccus denitrificans cells utilizing glucose is limited by processes preceding NADH oxidation in the respiratory chain, so that the membrane NADH dehydrogenase is not saturated by its substrate. In the separated membrane fraction on saturation with exogenous NADH the main limiting factor is represented by NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase.
Project description:Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic protist that undergoes a complex life cycle during transmission from its mammalian host (bloodstream forms) to the midgut of its insect vector (procyclic form). In both parasitic forms, most glycolytic steps take place within specialized peroxisomes, called glycosomes. Here, we studied metabolic adaptations in procyclic trypanosome mutants affected in their maintenance of the glycosomal redox balance. T. brucei can theoretically use three strategies to maintain the glycosomal NAD(+)/NADH balance as follows: (i) the glycosomal succinic fermentation branch; (ii) the glycerol 3-phosphate (Gly-3-P)/dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) shuttle that transfers reducing equivalents to the mitochondrion; and (iii) the glycosomal glycerol production pathway. We showed a hierarchy in the use of these glycosomal NADH-consuming pathways by determining metabolic perturbations and adaptations in single and double mutant cell lines using a combination of NMR, ion chromatography-MS/MS, and HPLC approaches. Although functional, the Gly-3-P/DHAP shuttle is primarily used when the preferred succinate fermentation pathway is abolished in the ?pepck knock-out mutant cell line. In the absence of these two pathways (?pepck/(RNAi)FAD-GPDH.i mutant), glycerol production is used but with a 16-fold reduced glycolytic flux. In addition, the ?pepck mutant cell line shows a 3.3-fold reduced glycolytic flux compensated by an increase of proline metabolism. The inability of the ?pepck mutant to maintain a high glycolytic flux demonstrates that the Gly-3-P/DHAP shuttle is not adapted to the procyclic trypanosome context. In contrast, this shuttle was shown earlier to be the only way used by the bloodstream forms of T. brucei to sustain their high glycolytic flux.
Project description:Trypanosoma brucei procyclic trypomastigotes were made permeable by using digitonin (0-70 micrograms/mg of protein). This procedure allowed exposure of coupled mitochondria to different substrates. Only succinate and glycerol phosphate (but not NADH-dependent substrates) were capable of stimulating oxygen consumption. Fluorescence studies on intact cells indicated that addition of succinate stimulates NAD(P)H oxidation, contrary to what happens in mammalian mitochondria. Addition of malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, stimulated NAD(P)H reduction. Malonate also inhibited intact-cell respiration and motility, both of which were restored by further addition of succinate. Experiments carried out with isolated mitochondrial membranes showed that, although the electron transfer from succinate to cytochrome c was inhibitable by antimycin, NADH-cytochrome c reductase was antimycin-insensitive. We postulate that the NADH-ubiquinone segment of the respiratory chain is replaced by NADH-fumarate reductase, which reoxidizes the mitochondrial NADH and in turn generates succinate for the respiratory chain. This hypothesis is further supported by the inhibitory effect on cell growth and respiration of 3-methoxyphenylacetic acid, an inhibitor of the NADH-fumarate reductase of T. brucei.
Project description:NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a complicated respiratory enzyme that conserves the energy from NADH oxidation, coupled to ubiquinone reduction, as a proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane. During catalysis, NADH oxidation by a flavin mononucleotide is followed by electron transfer to a chain of iron-sulfur clusters. Alternatively, the flavin may be reoxidized by hydrophilic electron acceptors, by artificial electron acceptors in kinetic studies, or by oxygen and redox-cycling molecules to produce reactive oxygen species. Here, we study two steps in the mechanism of NADH oxidation by complex I. First, molecular fragments of NAD(H), tested as flavin-site inhibitors or substrates, reveal that the adenosine moiety is crucial for binding. Nicotinamide-containing fragments that lack the adenosine do not bind, and ADP-ribose binds more strongly than NAD(+), suggesting that the nicotinamide is detrimental to binding. Second, the primary kinetic isotope effects from deuterated nicotinamide nucleotides confirm that hydride transfer is from the pro-S position and reveal that hydride transfer, along with NAD(+) dissociation, is partially rate-limiting. Thus, the transition state energies are balanced so that no single step in NADH oxidation is completely rate-limiting. Only at very low NADH concentrations does weak NADH binding limit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreduction, and at the high nucleotide concentrations of the mitochondrial matrix, weak nucleotide binding constants assist product dissociation. Using fast nucleotide reactions and a balance between the nucleotide binding constants and concentrations, complex I combines fast and energy-conserving NADH oxidation with minimal superoxide production from the nucleotide-free site.
Project description:In aerobic microorganisms, the entry point of respiratory electron transfer is represented by the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. The enzyme couples the oxidation of NADH with the reduction of quinone. In the type 1 NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Ndh1), this reaction is accompanied by the translocation of cations, such as H(+) or Na(+). In Escherichia coli, cation translocation is accomplished by the subunit NuoL, thus generating membrane potential (??). Some microorganisms achieve NADH oxidation by the alternative, nonelectrogenic type 2 NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Ndh2), which is not cation translocating. Since these enzymes had not been described in Staphylococcus aureus, the goal of this study was to identify proteins operating in the NADH:quinone segment of its respiratory chain. We demonstrated that Ndh2 represents a NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in S. aureus. Additionally, we identified a hypothetical protein in S. aureus showing sequence similarity to the proton-translocating subunit NuoL of complex I in E. coli: the NuoL-like protein MpsA. Mutants with deletion of the nuoL-like gene mpsA and its corresponding operon, mpsABC (mps for membrane potential-generating system), exhibited a small-colony-variant-like phenotype and were severely affected in ?? and oxygen consumption rates. The MpsABC proteins did not confer NADH oxidation activity. Using an Na(+)/H(+) antiporter-deficient E. coli strain, we could show that MpsABC constitute a cation-translocating system capable of Na(+) transport. Our study demonstrates that MpsABC represent an important functional system of the respiratory chain of S. aureus that acts as an electrogenic unit responsible for the generation of ??.