Effects of Zn Deficiency and Bicarbonate on the Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Four Plant Species.
ABSTRACT: Calcareous soils are characterized by low nutrient contents, high bicarbonate (HCO3-) content, and high alkalinity. The effects of HCO3- addition under zinc-sufficient (+Zn) and zinc-deficient (-Zn) conditions on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of two Moraceae species (Broussonetia papyrifera and Morus alba) and two Brassicaceae species (Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus) were investigated. These four species were hydroponically grown in nutrient solution with 0 mM Zn (-Zn) or 0.02 mM Zn (+Zn) and 0 mM or 10 mM HCO3-. The photosynthetic response to HCO3- treatment, Zn deficiency, or both varied according to plant species. Of the four species, Broussonetia papyrifera showed the best adaptability to Zn deficiency for both the 0 mM and 10 mM HCO3- treatments due to its strong growth and minimal inhibition of photosynthesis and photosystem II (PS II). Brassica napus was sensitive to Zn deficiency, HCO3- treatment, or both as evidenced by the considerable inhibition of photosynthesis and high PS II activity. The results indicated different responses of various plant species to Zn deficiency and excess HCO3-. Broussonetia papyrifera was shown to have potential as a pioneer species in karst regions.
Project description:Morus and Broussonetia trees are widely used as food and/or feed. Among 23 phenolics identified from leaves of five Moraceae species using UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS, 15 were screened using DPPH/ABTS-guided HPLCs, including seven weak (flavonoids with one hydroxyl on B-ring) and eight strong (four caffeoylquinic acids and four flavonoids, each with a double hydroxyl on B-ring) antioxidants. We then determined the activity and synergistic effects of individual antioxidants and a mixture of the eight strongest antioxidants using DPPH-guided HPLC. Our findings revealed that (1) flavonoid glucuronide may have a more negative effect on antioxidant activity than glucoside, and (2) other compounds in the mixture may exert a negative synergistic effect on antioxidant activity of the four flavonoids with B-ring double hydroxyls but not the four caffeoylquinic acids. In conclusion, the eight phenolics with the strongest antioxidant ability reliably represented the bioactivity of the five extracts examined in this study. Moreover, the Morus alba hybrid had more phenolic biosynthesis machinery than its cross-parent M. alba, whereas the Broussonetia papyrifera hybrid had significantly less phenolic machinery than B. papyrifera. This difference is probably the main reason for livestock preference for the hybrid of B. papyrifera over B. papyrifera in feed.
Project description:<i>Broussonetia papyrifera</i> is a widely distributed economic tree species, and it is also a pioneer species in adverse environments. In order to investigate the growth and adaptation mechanism of <i>B. papyrifera</i> under cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil, potted experiments were used with six-month treatments to study Cd enrichment and the transportation, morphological and physiological characteristics of <i>B. papyrifera</i> tissues. The results showed that Cd mainly accumulated in the root when the Cd concentration was high (14.71 mg/kg), and the root biomass was significantly reduced by Cd stress although Cd promoted the growth of seedlings. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) increased with the increase in Cd concentration, and reached the maximum value of 0.21 at 14.71 mg/kg. On the contrary, translocation factor (TF) decreased significantly at 8.28-14.71 mg/kg Cd concentration. Cd not only led to the loose arrangement of the xylem vessels of leaves, but also changed the chlorophyll content. However, <i>B. papyrifera</i> could synthesize organic solutes such as soluble protein, soluble sugar and proline to reduce the intracellular osmotic potential. Our study proved that <i>B. papyrifera</i> has good tolerance to Cd stress and is a pioneer tree species for soil and ecological environment restoration.
Project description:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae) is native to Asia and is used as a medicinal plant and as a source of fiber for making paper. It was dispersed into the Pacific region as a fiber source for making nonwoven textiles (barkcloth). Microsatellites were developed to trace the human-mediated dispersal of this species into the Pacific region. METHODS AND RESULTS:A set of 36 microsatellites was isolated and initially assayed on 10 accessions to assess polymorphism. We found that 20 markers were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per marker ranging from four to 35 in 70 accessions genotyped from three Asian populations. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.04 to 0.85 and from 0.19 to 0.94, respectively. These markers were tested in four Moraceae species and one Rosaceae species. CONCLUSIONS:These markers will be useful for the assessment of genetic diversity in B. papyrifera. They show low transferability to other species tested.
Project description:The relationship between root morphological and physiological responses to variable P supply in different plant species is poorly understood. We compared root morphological and physiological responses to P supply in seven crop species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus, Lupinus albus, Glycine max, Vicia faba, Cicer arietinum) treated with or without 100 mg P kg-1 in two soils (acidic and calcareous). Phosphorus deficiency decreased root length more in fibrous root species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus) than legumes. Zea mays and Triticum aestivum had higher root/shoot biomass ratio and Brassica napus had higher specific root length compared to legumes, whereas legumes (except soybean) had higher carboxylate exudation than fibrous root species. Lupinus albus exhibited the highest P-acquisition efficiency due to high exudation of carboxylates and acid phosphatases. Lupinus albus and Cicer arietinum depended mostly on root exudation (i.e., physiological response) to enhance P acquisition, whereas Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus had higher root morphology dependence, with Glycine max and Vicia faba in between. Principal component analysis using six morphological and six physiological responses identified root size and diameter as the most important morphological traits, whereas important physiological responses included carboxylate exudation, and P-acquisition and P-utilization efficiency followed by rhizosphere soil pH and acid phosphatase activity. In conclusion, plant species can be grouped on the basis of their response to soil P being primarily via root architectural or exudation plasticity, suggesting a potential benefit of crop-specific root-trait-based management to cope with variable soil P supply in sustainable grain production.
Project description:Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in diverse aspects of plant metabolism. We investigated how the reduced form of glutathione, GSH, applied site-specifically to plants, affects zinc (Zn) distribution and behavior in oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. Foliar-applied GSH significantly increased the Zn content in shoots and the root-to-shoot Zn translocation ratio; furthermore, this treatment raised the Zn concentration in the cytosol of root cells and substantially enhanced Zn xylem loading. Notably, microarray analysis revealed that the gene encoding pectin methylesterase was upregulated in roots following foliar GSH treatment. We conclude that certain physiological signals triggered in response to foliar-applied GSH were transported via sieve tubes and functioned in root cells, which, in turn, increased Zn availability in roots by releasing Zn from their cell wall. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Zn was activated and Zn accumulation in the shoot was markedly increased. Overall design: Seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Nourin No.16, Kaneko Seed Co. Ltd., Gumma, Japan) were germinated in vermiculite by using bottom irrigation. Modified Hoagland solution (nutrient solution), described previously [Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 54 (2008) 118–127.], was used as the irrigation solution. At 10 days after germination, young seedlings were transferred to 1.5-L containers (4 seedlings/container) containing 1.2 L of the nutrient solution, and the containers were maintained in a growth chamber for a 16-h photoperiod (~200μmol m-2s-1) at 24 °C, and at 16°C at night. Nutrient solutions were aerated continuously and renewed twice weekly. Each tested plant was grown for 4 weeks before being harvested. Plants were exposed to glutathione for 4 days. GSH (glutathione, reduced form) was applied to source leaves (fully expanded leaves). In the leaf GSH treatment, 50 µL of 100 mM GSH in a foliar-application solution (10 mM MES-KOH, pH6.1, 0.01% [w/v] Triton X-100) was applied to each leaf with a painting brush; GSH was applied to 3 expanded leaves per plant daily before harvest.
Project description:Plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPB) isolated from Brassica napus were inoculated in two cultivars of Helianthus tuberosus (VR and D19) growing on sand supplemented with 0.1 mM Cd or 1 mM Zn. Plant growth, concentrations of metals and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive compounds were determined. Colonization of roots of H. tuberosus D19 by Pseudomonas sp. 262 was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 significantly enhanced growth of H. tuberosus D19 exposed to Cd or Zn. Pseudomonas sp. 228 significantly increased Cd concentrations in roots. Serratia sp. 246, and Pseudomonas sp. 256 and 228 resulted in significantly decreased contents of TBA reactive compounds in roots of Zn exposed D19 plants. Growth improvement and decrease of metal-induced stress were more pronounced in D19 than in VR. Pseudomonas sp. 262-green fluorescent protein (GFP) colonized the root epidermis/exodermis and also inside root hairs, indicating that an endophytic interaction was established. H. tuberosus D19 inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 holds promise for sustainable biomass production in combination with phytoremediation on Cd and Zn contaminated soils.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Paper mulberry or Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. (Moraceae) is a dioecious species native to continental South-east Asia and East Asia, including Taiwan, that was introduced to the Pacific by pre-historic voyagers and transported intentionally and propagated asexually across the full range of Austronesian expansion from Taiwan to East Polynesia. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dispersal of paper mulberry into Oceania through the genetic analysis of herbaria samples which represent a more complete coverage of the historical geographical range of the species in the Pacific before later introductions and local extinctions occurred.<h4>Methods</h4>DNA from 47 herbarium specimens of B. papyrifera collected from 1882 to 2006 from different islands of the Pacific was obtained under ancient DNA protocols. Genetic characterization was based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ITS-1 sequence, a sex marker, the chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 intergenic spacer and a set of ten microsatellites developed for B. papyrifera.<h4>Key results</h4>Microsatellites allowed detection of 15 genotypes in Near and Remote Oceanian samples, in spite of the vegetative propagation of B. papyrifera in the Pacific. These genotypes are structured in two groups separating West and East Polynesia, and place Pitcairn in a pivotal position. We also detected the presence of male plants that carry the Polynesian chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotype, in contrast to findings in contemporary B. papyrifera populations where only female plants bear the Polynesian cpDNA haplotype.<h4>Conclusions</h4>For the first time, genetic diversity was detected among paper mulberry accessions from Remote Oceania. A clear separation between West and East Polynesia was found that may be indicative of pulses during its dispersal history. The pattern linking the genotypes within Remote Oceania reflects the importance of central Polynesia as a dispersal hub, in agreement with archaeological evidence.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous male sterility is an advantageous trait for both constructing efficient pollination control systems and for understanding the developmental process of the male reproductive unit in many crops. A triallelic genetic male-sterile locus (BnMs5) has been identified in Brassica napus; however, its complicated genome structure has greatly hampered the isolation of this locus. The aim of this study was to physically map BnMs5 through an integrated map-based cloning strategy and analyse the local chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. METHODS: A large F(2) population was used to integrate the existing genetic maps around BnMs5. A map-based cloning strategy in combination with comparative mapping among B. napus, Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea was employed to facilitate the identification of a target bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone covering the BnMs5 locus. The genomic sequences from the Brassica species were analysed to reveal the regional chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. KEY RESULTS: BnMs5 was finally delimited to a 0·3-cM genetic fragment from an integrated local genetic map, and was anchored on the B. napus A8 chromosome. Screening of a B. napus BAC clone library and identification of the positive clones validated that JBnB034L06 was the target BAC clone. The closest flanking markers restrict BnMs5 to a 21-kb region on JBnB034L06 containing six predicted functional genes. Good collinearity relationship around BnMs5 between several Brassica species was observed, while violent chromosomal evolutionary events including insertions/deletions, duplications and single nucleotide mutations were also found to have extensively occurred during their divergence. CONCLUSIONS: This work represents major progress towards the molecular cloning of BnMs5, as well as presenting a powerful, integrative method to mapping loci in plants with complex genomic architecture, such as the amphidiploid B. napus.
Project description:Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However, strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare) and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa) grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analyzed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize) to 90% (wheat), other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg) were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu) or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg) while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively) to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.
Project description:Humans introduced paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) from Taiwan into the Pacific over 5000 years ago as a fiber source to make barkcloth textiles that were, and still are, important cultural artifacts throughout the Pacific. We have used B. papyrifera, a species closely associated to humans, as a proxy to understand the human settlement of the Pacific Islands. We report the first genetic analysis of paper mulberry textiles from historical and archaeological contexts (200 to 50 years before present) and compare our results with genetic data obtained from contemporary and herbarium paper mulberry samples. Following stringent ancient DNA protocols, we extracted DNA from 13 barkcloth textiles. We confirmed that the fiber source is paper mulberry in nine of the 13 textiles studied using the nuclear ITS-1 marker and by statistical estimates. We detected high genetic diversity in historical Pacific paper mulberry barkcloth with a set of ten microsatellites, showing new alleles and specific genetic patterns. These genetic signatures allow tracing connections to plants from the Asian homeland, Near and Remote Oceania, establishing links not observed previously (using the same genetic tools) in extant plants or herbaria samples. These results show that historic barkcloth textiles are cultural materials amenable to genetic analysis to reveal human history and that these artifacts may harbor evidence of greater genetic diversity in Pacific B. papyrifera in the past.