Rad18 guides poleta to replication stalling sites through physical interaction and PCNA monoubiquitination.
ABSTRACT: The DNA replication machinery stalls at damaged sites on templates, but normally restarts by switching to a specialized DNA polymerase(s) that carries out translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). In human cells, DNA polymerase eta (poleta) accumulates at stalling sites as nuclear foci, and is involved in ultraviolet (UV)-induced TLS. Here we show that poleta does not form nuclear foci in RAD18(-/-) cells after UV irradiation. Both Rad18 and Rad6 are required for poleta focus formation. In wild-type cells, UV irradiation induces relocalization of Rad18 in the nucleus, thereby stimulating colocalization with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Rad18/Rad6-dependent PCNA monoubiquitination. Purified Rad18 and Rad6B monoubiquitinate PCNA in vitro. Rad18 associates with poleta constitutively through domains on their C-terminal regions, and this complex accumulates at the foci after UV irradiation. Furthermore, poleta interacts preferentially with monoubiquitinated PCNA, but poldelta does not. These results suggest that Rad18 is crucial for recruitment of poleta to the damaged site through protein-protein interaction and PCNA monoubiquitination.
Project description:Trans-lesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a DNA damage-tolerance mechanism that uses low-fidelity DNA polymerases to replicate damaged DNA. The inherited cancer-propensity syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) results from error-prone TLS of UV-damaged DNA. TLS is initiated when the Rad6/Rad18 complex monoubiquitinates proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), but the basis for recruitment of Rad18 to PCNA is not completely understood. Here, we show that Rad18 is targeted to PCNA by DNA polymerase eta (Pol?), the XPV gene product that is mutated in XPV patients. The C-terminal domain of Pol? binds to both Rad18 and PCNA and promotes PCNA monoubiquitination, a function unique to Pol? among Y-family TLS polymerases and dissociable from its catalytic activity. Importantly, XPV cells expressing full-length catalytically-inactive Pol? exhibit increased recruitment of other error-prone TLS polymerases (Pol? and Pol?) after UV irradiation. These results define a novel non-catalytic role for Pol? in promoting PCNA monoubiquitination and provide a new potential mechanism for mutagenesis and genome instability in XPV individuals.
Project description:Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a universal DNA damage tolerance mechanism conserved from yeast to mammals. A key event in the regulation of TLS is the monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Extensive evidence indicates that the RAD6-RAD18 ubiquitin-conjugating/ligase complex specifically monoubiquitinates PCNA and regulates TLS repair. However, the mechanism by which the RAD6-RAD18 complex is targeted to PCNA has remained elusive. In this study, we used an affinity purification approach to isolate the PCNA-containing complex and have identified SIVA1 as a critical regulator of PCNA monoubiquitination. We show that SIVA1 constitutively interacts with PCNA via a highly conserved PCNA-interacting peptide motif. Knockdown of SIVA1 compromised RAD18-dependent PCNA monoubiquitination and Pol? focus formation, leading to elevated ultraviolet sensitivity and mutation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SIVA1 interacts with RAD18 and serves as a molecular bridge between RAD18 and PCNA, thus targeting the E3 ligase activity of RAD18 onto PCNA. Collectively, our results provide evidence that the RAD18 E3 ligase requires an accessory protein for binding to its substrate PCNA.
Project description:DNA damage tolerance permits bypass of DNA lesions encountered during S-phase and may be carried out by translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Human TLS requires selective monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamps encircling damaged DNA. This posttranslational modification (PTM) is catalyzed by Rad6/Rad18. Recent studies revealed that replication protein A (RPA), the major ssDNA-binding protein, is involved in the regulation of PCNA monoubiquitination and interacts directly with Rad18 on chromatin and in the nucleoplasm. However, it is unclear how RPA regulates this critical PTM and what functional role(s) these interactions serve. Here, we developed an in vitro assay to quantitatively monitor PCNA monoubiquitination under in vivo scenarios. Results from extensive experiments revealed that RPA regulates Rad6/Rad18 activity in an ssDNA-dependent manner. We found that "DNA-free" RPA inhibits monoubiquitination of free PCNA by directly interacting with Rad18. This interaction is promoted under native conditions when there is an overabundance of free RPA in the nucleoplasm where Rad6/Rad18 and a significant fraction of PCNA reside. During DNA replication stress, RPA binds the ssDNA exposed downstream of stalled primer/template (P/T) junctions, releasing Rad6/Rad18. RPA restricted the resident PCNAs to the upstream duplex regions by physically blocking diffusion of PCNA along ssDNA, and this activity was required for efficient monoubiquitination of PCNA on DNA. Furthermore, upon binding ssDNA, RPA underwent a conformational change that increased its affinity for Rad18. Rad6/Rad18 complexed with ssDNA-bound RPA was active, and this interaction may selectively promote monoubiquitination of PCNA on long RPA-coated ssDNA.
Project description:Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a process whereby specialized DNA polymerases are recruited to bypass DNA lesions that would otherwise stall high-fidelity polymerases. We provide evidence that TLS across cisplatin intrastrand cross-links is performed by multiple translesion DNA polymerases. First, we determined that PCNA monoubiquitination by RAD18 is necessary for efficient bypass of cisplatin adducts by the TLS polymerases eta (Poleta), REV1, and zeta (Polzeta) based on the observations that depletion of these proteins individually leads to decreased cell survival, cell cycle arrest in S phase, and activation of the DNA damage response. Second, we showed that in addition to PCNA monoubiquitination by RAD18, the Fanconi anemia core complex is also important for recruitment of REV1 to stalled replication forks in cisplatin treated cells. Third, we present evidence that REV1 and Polzeta are uniquely associated with protection against cisplatin and mitomycin C-induced chromosomal aberrations, and both are necessary for the timely resolution of DNA double-strand breaks associated with repair of DNA interstrand cross-links. Together, our findings indicate that REV1 and Polzeta facilitate repair of interstrand cross-links independently of PCNA monoubiquitination and Poleta, whereas RAD18 plus Poleta, REV1, and Polzeta are all necessary for replicative bypass of cisplatin intrastrand DNA cross-links.
Project description:Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) can use specialized DNA polymerases to insert and/or extend nucleotides across lesions, thereby limiting stalled replication fork collapse and the potential for cell death. Recent studies have shown that monoubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in recruitment of Y-family TLS polymerases to stalled replication forks after DNA damage treatment. To explore the possible roles of other factors that regulate the ultraviolet (UV)-induced assembly of specialized DNA polymerases at arrested replication forks, we performed immunoprecipitation experiments combined with mass spectrometry and established that DNA polymerase kappa (Pol?) can partner with MSH2, an important mismatch repair protein associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. We found that depletion of MSH2 impairs PCNA monoubiquitination and the formation of foci containing Pol? and other TLS polymerases after UV irradiation of cells. Interestingly, expression of MSH2 in Rad18-deficient cells increased UV-induced Pol? and REV1 focus formation without detectable changes in PCNA monoubiquitination, indicating that MSH2 can regulate post-UV focus formation by specialized DNA polymerases in both PCNA monoubiquitination-dependent and -independent fashions. Moreover, we observed that MSH2 can facilitate TLS across cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers photoproducts in living cells, presenting a novel role of MSH2 in post-UV cellular responses.
Project description:Monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a critical posttranslational modification essential for DNA repair by translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). The Rad18 E3 ubiquitin ligase cooperates with the E2 Rad6 to monoubiquitinate PCNA in response to DNA damage. How PCNA is monoubiquitinated in unperturbed cells and whether this plays a role in the repair of DNA associated with replication is not known. We show that the CRL4(Cdt2) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex promotes PCNA monoubiqutination in proliferating cells in the absence of external DNA damage independent of Rad18. PCNA monoubiquitination via CRL4(Cdt2) is constitutively antagonized by the action of the ubiquitin-specific protease 1 (USP1). In vitro, CRL4(Cdt2) monoubiquitinates PCNA at Lys164, the same residue that is monoubiquitinated by Rad18. Significantly, CRL4(Cdt2) is required for TLS in nondamaged cells via a mechanism that is dependent on PCNA monoubiquitination. We propose that CRL4(Cdt2) regulates PCNA-dependent TLS associated with stresses accompanying DNA replication.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, the Rad6/Rad18-dependent monoubiquitination of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an essential role in the switching between replication and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). The DNA polymerase Pol? binds to PCNA via a consensus C-terminal PCNA-interacting protein (PIP) motif. It also specifically interacts with monoubiquitinated PCNA thanks to a recently identified ubiquitin-binding domain (UBZ). To investigate whether the TLS activity of Pol? is always coupled to PCNA monoubiquitination, we monitor the ability of cell-free extracts to perform DNA synthesis across different types of lesions. We observe that a cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimer (TT-CPD), but not a N-2-acetylaminofluorene-guanine (G-AAF) adduct, is efficiently bypassed in extracts from Rad18-deficient cells, thus demonstrating the existence of a Pol?-dependent and Rad18-independent TLS pathway. In addition, by complementing Pol?-deficient cells with PIP and UBZ mutants, we show that each of these domains contributes to Pol? activity. The finding that the bypass of a CPD lesion in vitro does not require Ub-PCNA but nevertheless depends on the UBZ domain of Pol?, reveals that this domain may play a novel role in the TLS process that is not related to the monoubiquitination status of PCNA.
Project description:Replicative polymerases (pols) cannot accommodate damaged template bases, and these pols stall when such offenses are encountered during S phase. Rather than repairing the damaged base, replication past it may proceed via one of two DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways, allowing replicative DNA synthesis to resume. In translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), a specialized TLS pol is recruited to catalyze stable, yet often erroneous, nucleotide incorporation opposite damaged template bases. In template switching, the newly synthesized sister strand is used as a damage-free template to synthesize past the lesion. In eukaryotes, both pathways are regulated by the conjugation of ubiquitin to the PCNA sliding clamp by distinct E2/E3 pairs. Whereas monoubiquitination by Rad6/Rad18 mediates TLS, extension of this ubiquitin to a polyubiquitin chain by Ubc13-Mms2/Rad5 routes DDT to the template switching pathway. In this review, we focus on the monoubiquitination of PCNA by Rad6/Rad18 and summarize the current knowledge of how this process is regulated.
Project description:Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is one mode of DNA damage tolerance that uses specialized DNA polymerases to replicate damaged DNA. DNA polymerase ? (Pol?) is well known to facilitate TLS across ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and mutations in POLH are implicated in skin carcinogenesis. However, the basis for recruitment of Pol? to stalled replication forks is not completely understood. In this study, we used an affinity purification approach to isolate a Pol?-containing complex and have identified SART3, a pre-mRNA splicing factor, as a critical regulator to modulate the recruitment of Pol? and its partner RAD18 after UV exposure. We show that SART3 interacts with Pol? and RAD18 via its C-terminus. Moreover, SART3 can form homodimers to promote the Pol?/RAD18 interaction and PCNA monoubiquitination, a key event in TLS. Depletion of SART3 also impairs UV-induced single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation and RPA focus formation, resulting in an impaired Pol? recruitment and a higher mutation frequency and hypersensitivity after UV treatment. Notably, we found that several SART3 missense mutations in cancer samples lessen its stimulatory effect on PCNA monoubiquitination. Collectively, our findings establish SART3 as a novel Pol?/RAD18 association regulator that protects cells from UV-induced DNA damage, which functions in a RNA binding-independent fashion.
Project description:Timely DNA replication across damaged DNA is critical for maintaining genomic integrity. Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) allows bypass of DNA lesions using error-prone TLS polymerases. The E3 ligase RAD18 is necessary for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) monoubiquitination and TLS polymerase recruitment; however, the regulatory steps upstream of RAD18 activation are less understood. Here, we show that the UBZ4 domain-containing transcriptional repressor ZBTB1 is a critical upstream regulator of TLS. The UBZ4 motif is required for PCNA monoubiquitination and survival after UV damage. ZBTB1 associates with KAP-1, a transcriptional repressor whose phosphorylation relaxes chromatin after DNA damage. ZBTB1 depletion impairs formation of phospho-KAP-1 at UV damage sites and reduces RAD18 recruitment. Furthermore, phosphorylation of KAP-1 is necessary for efficient PCNA modification. We propose that ZBTB1 is required for localizing phospho-KAP-1 to chromatin and enhancing RAD18 accessibility. Collectively, our study implicates a ubiquitin-binding protein in orchestrating chromatin remodeling during DNA repair.