Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers.
ABSTRACT: Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump's efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.
Project description:The liquid desiccant air-conditioning system allows reducing energy consumption compared to the conventional compressor-type air conditioners. In order to develop desiccant materials for air conditioners, we have investigated the dehumidification capability of quaternary ammonium Ionic Liquids (ILs) and the equilibrium water vapor pressure of aqueous solutions of these ammonium salts. Among the seven tested types of ILs, 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium dimethylphosphate ([Ch][DMPO4]) displayed the best dehumidification capability and the lowest equilibrium water vapor pressure. Furthermore, the 80% aqueous solution of [Ch][DMPO4] exhibited a less corrosive effect on four types of metals, i.e., steel (hot dip zinc-aluminum alloy plated steel), copper (C1100P), aluminum (A5052), and stainless steel (SUS: SUS304). It should be noted that this [Ch][DMPO4] is not only non-toxic but also exhibits a stable nature; the aqueous solution produced no odor after storing for over 1 year under ambient conditions. Graphical abstract We found that 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium dimethylphosphate ([Ch][DMPO4]) exhibited excellent dehumidification capability with a high dehumidification rate. We strongly expect that the liquid desiccant-type air conditioner using the [Ch][DMPO4] aqueous solution might contribute to avoiding an outbreak of a new type of corona virus infection in the near future.Image 1
Project description:Latent cooling load accounts for 30% of the total load of air-conditioning, and its proportion is even higher in many tropical and subtropical climates. Traditional vapour-compression air-conditioning (VCAC) has a low coefficient of performance (COP) due to the refrigeration dehumidification process, which often makes necessary a great deal of subsequent re-heating. Technologies using conventional desiccants or sorbents for indoor moisture control are even less competitive than VCAC due to their high regeneration temperature, long cycling time and bulky components. Here, we report a novel high temperature cooling system that uses porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as advanced sorbents for humidity control. We directly coat MOFs on the surface of evaporator and condenser. The system has no additional components compared to a traditional VCAC. The evaporator can simultaneously remove both the sensible and latent loads of the incoming air without reducing the temperature below its dew point. The regeneration of wet MOFs is completely driven by the residual heat from the condenser. The MOF-coated heat exchangers can achieve a cooling power density of 82?W·L-1. We demonstrate that the system has a high COP, up to 7.9, and can save 36.1% of the energy required, compared to the traditional VCAC system with reheating. The amphiphilic MOFs used in the research have high water uptake, are made of low-cost raw materials and have high hydrothermal stability. They thus have the potential for being scaled up for large-scale applications in air conditioning.
Project description:The data presented in this article are the measurement results of an air-to-air enthalpy exchanger and a heat exchanger. Such exchangers are used in ventilation devices. The data include 86 measurement points with different boundary conditions (winter and summer condition). The temperature, the humidity, the volume flow and all relevant pressures and pressure differences are provided. The data are mean values of a steady-state measurement. For more insight and interpretation of the results please see "Effectiveness of a membrane enthalpy heat exchanger" .
Project description:This study reports on the unique water vapor adsorption properties of biomass-derived starch particles (SPs). SPs offer an alternative desiccant for air-to-air energy exchangers in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems because of their remarkable adsorption-desorption performance. SP15 has a particle diameter (d p) of 15 ?m with a surface area (SA) of 2.89 m2/g and a pore width (P w) of 80 Å. Microporous starch particles (SP15) were compared with high amylose starch (HAS15; SA = 0.56 m2/g, d p = 15 ?m, P w = 46 Å) and silica gel (SG13; SA = 478 m2/g, d p = 13 ?m, P w = 62 Å). Transient water vapor tests were performed using a customized small-scale energy exchanger coated with SP15, HAS15, and SG13. The water swelling (%) for SP15 was ca. 2 orders of magnitude greater with markedly higher (ca. three- and six-fold) water vapor uptake compared to HAS15 and SG13, respectively. At similar desiccant coating levels on the energy exchanger, the latent effectiveness of the SP15 system was much improved (4-31%) over the HAS15 and SG13 systems at controlled operating conditions. SP15 is a unique desiccant material with high affinity for water vapor and superior adsorption properties where ca. 98% regeneration was achieved under mild conditions. Therefore, SPs display unique adsorption-desorption properties, herein referred to as the "Goldilocks effect". This contribution reports on the utility of SPs as promising desiccant coatings in air-to-air energy exchangers for ventilation systems or as advanced materials for potential water/energy harvesting applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are protected from humidity-caused degradation by a desiccant added to the device packaging. The present study assessed malaria RDT products for the availability, type and design of desiccants and their information supplied in the instructions for use (IFU). METHODS: Criteria were based on recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Community (CE) and own observations. Silica gel sachets were defined as self-indicating (all beads coated with a humidity indicator that changes colour upon saturation), partial-indicating (part of beads coated) and non-indicating (none of the beads coated). Indicating silica gel sachets were individually assessed for humidity saturation and (in case of partial-indicating silica gels) for the presence of indicating beads. RESULTS: Fifty malaria RDT products from 25 manufacturers were assessed, 14 (28%) products were listed by the "Global Fund Quality Assurance Policy" and 31 (62%) were CE-marked. All but one product contained a desiccant, mostly (47/50, 94%) silica gel. Twenty (40%) RDT products (one with no desiccant and 19 with non-indicating desiccant) did not meet the WHO guidelines recommending indicating desiccant. All RDT products with self- or partial-indicating silica gel (n?=?22 and 8 respectively) contained the toxic cobalt dichloride as humidity indicator. Colour change indicating humidity saturation was observed for 8/16 RDT products, at a median incidence of 0.8% (range 0.05%-4.6%) of sachets inspected. In all RDTs with partial-indicating silica gel, sachets with no colour indicating beads were found (median proportion 13.5% (0.6%-17.8%) per product) and additional light was needed to assess the humidity colour. Less than half (14/30, 47%) IFUs of RDT products with indicating desiccants mentioned to check the humidity saturation before using the test. Information on properties, safety hazards and disposal of the desiccant was not included in any of the IFUs. There were no differences between Global Fund-listed and CE marked RDT products compared to those which were not. Similar findings were noted for a panel of 11 HIV RDTs that was assessed with the same checklist as the malaria RDTs. CONCLUSION: RDTs showed shortcomings in desiccant type and information supplied in the IFU.
Project description:Humidity is a significant factor contributing to heat stress, but without enough consideration in studies of quantifying heat hazard or heat risk assessment. Here, the simplified wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) considering joint effects of temperature and humidity was utilized as a heat index and the number of annual total heat wave days (HWDs) was employed to quantify heat hazard. In order to evaluate the humidity effects on heat waves, we quantified the difference in the number of HWDs over global land based on air temperature and WBGT. Spatial and temporal changes in surface air temperature, relative humidity, WBGT, and the difference in HWDs were analyzed using multi-model simulations for the reference period (1986-2005) and different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Our analysis suggests that annual mean WBGT has been increasing since 1986, which is consistent with the rising trend in surface air temperature despite a slight decrease in relative humidity. Additionally, changes in annual mean WBGT are smaller and more spatially uniform than those in annual mean air temperature as a cancelation effect between temperature and water vapor. Results show that there is an underestimation of around 40-140 days in the number of HWDs per year in most regions within 15° latitude of the equator (the humid and warm tropics) during 2076-2095 without considering humidity effects. However, the estimation of HWDs has limited distinction between using WBGT and temperature alone in arid or cold regions.
Project description:With electric heat pumps substituting for fossil-fueled alternatives, the temporal variability of their power consumption becomes increasingly important to the electricity system. To easily include this variability in energy system analyses, this paper introduces the "When2Heat" dataset comprising synthetic national time series of both the heat demand and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pumps. It covers 16 European countries, includes the years 2008 to 2018, and features an hourly resolution. Demand profiles for space and water heating are computed by combining gas standard load profiles with spatial temperature and wind speed reanalysis data as well as population geodata. COP time series for different heat sources - air, ground, and groundwater - and different heat sinks - floor heating, radiators, and water heating - are calculated based on COP and heating curves using reanalysis temperature data. The dataset, as well as the scripts and input parameters, are publicly available under an open source license on the Open Power System Data platform.
Project description:This experiment contains microarray measurements for 135 Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaf samples covering three genotypes under six different environmental conditions. The three genotypes comprise the Col-0 wildtype and two loss-of-function mutants of aquaporins, a pip2;1 pip2;2 double mutant and a pip2;1 pip2;2 pip2;4 triple mutant (respective AGI locus identifiers: AT3G53420, AT2G37170, AT5G60660). The six conditions include control condition (well-watered, 22°C, 70% relative air humidity), drought stress (one week without watering), heat stress without changing the absolute humidity of the ambient air (6 hours at 33°C, 37% relative air humidity), heat stress with supplemented air humidity to maintain a constant vapor pressure deficit before and during the heat episode (6 hours at 33°C, 84% relative air humidity), and the combinations of drought pretreatment with each of the two heat stress variants (one week of drought followed by 6 hours of heat stress). Samples from all conditions were harvested at the same time (within 15 min starting at 5 p.m.).
Project description:Ocean-atmosphere interactions are complex and extend over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Among the key components of these interactions is the ocean-atmosphere (latent and sensible) turbulent heat flux (THF). Here, based on daily optimally-interpolated data from the extratropical Southern Hemisphere (south of 30°S) from a period 1985-2013, we analyze short-term variability and trends in THF and variables influencing it. It is shown that, in spite of climate-change-related positive trends in surface wind speeds over large parts of the Southern Ocean, the range of the THF variability has been decreasing due to decreasing air-water temperature and humidity differences. Occurrence frequency of very large heat flux events decreased accordingly. Remarkably, spectral analysis of the THF data reveals, in certain regions, robust periodicity at frequencies 0.03-0.04 day(-1), corresponding exactly to frequencies of the baroclinic annular mode (BAM). Finally, it is shown that the THF is correlated with the position of the major fronts in sections of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current where the fronts are not constrained by the bottom topography and can adjust their position to the atmospheric and oceanic forcing, suggesting differential response of various sections of the Southern Ocean to the changing atmospheric forcing.
Project description:The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.