Comprehensive RNA-Seq Profiling to Evaluate the Sheep Mammary Gland Transcriptome in Response to Experimental Mycoplasma agalactiae Infection.
ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M. agalactiae type strain PG2 in comparison with uninfected control animals using Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in the infected udders and RT-qPCR analyses of selected DEGs showed their expression profiles to be in agreement with results from RNA-Seq. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed majority of the DEGs to be associated with mycoplasma defense responses that are directly or indirectly involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses. Similar RNA-Seq analyses were also performed with spleen cells of the same sheep to know the specific systemic transcriptome responses. Spleen cells exhibited a comparatively lower number of DEGs suggesting a less prominent host response in this organ. To our knowledge this is the first study that describes host transcriptomics of M. agalactiae infection and the related immune-inflammatory responses. The data provides useful information to further dissect the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying mycoplasma mastitis, which is a prerequisite for designing effective intervention strategies.
Project description:Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammatory disease often due to bacterial infections. Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. Until now, the involvement of the bovine mammary gland microbiota in the host-pathogen interaction has been poorly investigated, and mainly during the infectious episode. In this study, the bovine teat microbiome was investigated in 31 quarters corresponding to 27 animals, which were all free of inflammation at sampling time but which had different histories regarding mastitis: from no episode of mastitis on all the previous lactations (Healthy quarter, Hq) to one or several clinical mastitis events (Mastitic quarter, Mq). Several quarters whose status was unclear (possible history of subclinical mastitis) were classified as NDq. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from foremilk samples and swab samples of the teat canal. Taxonomic profiles were determined by pyrosequencing on 16s amplicons of the V3-4 region. Hq quarters showed a higher diversity compared to Mq ones (Shannon index: ~8 and 6, respectively). Clustering of the quarters based on their bacterial composition made it possible to separate Mq and Hq quarters into two separate clusters (C1 and C2, respectively). Discriminant analysis of taxonomic profiles between these clusters revealed several differences and allowed the identification of taxonomic markers in relation to mastitis history. C2 quarters were associated with a higher proportion of the Clostridia class (including genera such as Ruminococcus, Oscillospira, Roseburia, Dorea, etc.), the Bacteroidetes phylum (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Paludibacter, etc.), and the Bifidobacteriales order (Bifidobacterium), whereas C1 quarters showed a higher proportion of the Bacilli class (Staphylococcus) and Chlamydiia class. These results indicate that microbiota is altered in udders which have already developed mastitis, even far from the infectious episode. Microbiome alteration may have resulted from the infection itself and or the associated antibiotic treatment. Alternatively, differences in microbiome composition in udders with a history of mastitis may have occurred prior to the infection and even contributed to infection development. Further investigations on the dynamics of mammary gland microbiota will help to elucidate the contribution of this endogenous microbiota to the mammary gland health.
Project description:Mycoplasmas possess complex pathogenicity determinants that are largely unknown at the molecular level. Mycoplasma agalactiae serves as a useful model to study the molecular basis of mycoplasma pathogenicity. The generation and in vivo screening of a transposon mutant library of M. agalactiae were employed to unravel its host colonization factors. Tn4001mod mutants were sequenced using a novel sequencing method, and functionally heterogeneous pools containing 15 to 19 selected mutants were screened simultaneously through two successive cycles of sheep intramammary infections. A PCR-based negative selection method was employed to identify mutants that failed to colonize the udders and draining lymph nodes in the animals. A total of 14 different mutants found to be absent from ? 95% of samples were identified and subsequently verified via a second round of stringent confirmatory screening where 100% absence was considered attenuation. Using this criterion, seven mutants with insertions in genes MAG1050, MAG2540, MAG3390, uhpT, eutD, adhT, and MAG4460 were not recovered from any of the infected animals. Among the attenuated mutants, many contain disruptions in hypothetical genes, implying their previously unknown role in M. agalactiae pathogenicity. These data indicate the putative role of functionally different genes, including hypothetical ones, in the pathogenesis of M. agalactiae. Defining the precise functions of the identified genes is anticipated to increase our understanding of M. agalactiae infections and to develop successful intervention strategies against it.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mastitis is a disease of economic concern that affects dairy industry worldwide. This study aimed to investigate and identify possible etiologies encountered in an episode of acute gangrenous mastitis in lactating she-camels in Al Dhafra region, Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Beside the routine clinical examination, conventional bacteriological methods were used to isolate and identify possible aerobic/anaerobic bacterial or fungal pathogens from cultured milk samples collected from the mastitic she-camels. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for the detection of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis strains, and the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced to confirm the isolation. The isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobials. RESULTS:Acute gangrenous mastitis is reported in the dromedary camel herd with about 80% morbidity rate among lactating she-camels exhibited acute, painful hard swelling of affected teat, quarter or entire udder. About 41.7% of the infected animals were stamped out for culling due to complete or partial amputation of udder quarters. Streptococcus agalactiae was the sole isolated organism (6 isolates). The antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that, the Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were sensitive to both penicillin and ampicillin. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing results by BLASTN confirmed the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae with high confidence (100% identity). Phylogenetic analysis indicated clustering of one isolate (CMAUAE accession number; MN267805.1) with Streptococcus agalactiae that infects multi-hosts including humans, while strains (CMBUAE to CMFUAE with accession numbers; MN267806.1 to MN267810.1 respectively) clustered with Streptococcus agalactiae that infects humans. No Mycoplasma spp was detected by qPCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS:In the present study, the Streptococcus agalactiae was found to be the main cause of acute gangrenous mastitis in dromedary camels in UAE. More research should be done to investigate other possible causes of clinical or subclinical mastitis in dromedary camels in UAE.
Project description:Background:Health of mammary glands is fundamental for milk and dairy products hygiene and quality, with huge impacts on consumers welfare. Methods:This study aims to investigate the microbial agents (bacteria, fungi and lentiviruses) isolated from 89 macroscopically healthy udders of regularly slaughtered small ruminants (41 sheep, 48 goats), also correlating their presence with the histological findings. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association between lesions and positivity for different microbial isolates, animal age and bacteria. Results:Twenty-five samples were microbiologically negative; 138 different bacteria were isolated in 64 positive udders. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most prevalent bacteria isolated (46.42%), followed by environmental opportunists (34.76%), others (10.14%) and pathogens (8.68%). Most mammary glands showed coinfections (75%). Lentiviruses were detected in 39.3% of samples. Histologically, chronic non-suppurative mastitis was observed in 45/89 glands, followed by chronic mixed mastitis (12/89) and acute suppurative mastitis (4/89). Only 28 udders were normal. Histological lesions were significantly associated with the animal species and lentiviruses and coagulase-negative staphylococci infections. Goats had significantly higher risk to show chronic mixed mastitis compared to sheep. Goats showed a significantly lower risk (OR = 0.26; 95% CI [0.06-0.71]) of being infected by environmental opportunists compared to sheep, but higher risk (OR = 10.87; 95% CI [3.69-37.77]) of being infected with lentiviruses. Discussion:The results of the present study suggest that macroscopically healthy glands of small ruminants could act as a reservoir of microbial agents for susceptible animals, representing a potential risk factor for the widespread of acute or chronic infection in the flock.
Project description:Clinical mastitis in sheep has gravely restrained production performance for a long time. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and resistance in meat sheep mammary gland with clinical mastitis are not yet understood, especially for clinical mastitis caused by natural infection. In this work, RNA-sequencing was firstly used to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in clinical mastitic mammary tissues (CMMTs) when compared with healthy mammary tissues (HMTs) from meat sheep flocks. We identified 420 DEGs including 316 upregulated and 104 downregulated genes in CMMTs. Gene ontology annotation revealed these DEGs were mainly engaged in immune response and inflammation response. Pathway enrichment showed they were primarily enriched in pathways relevant to inflammation, immune response and metabolism. Alternative splicing analysis showed most common differential splicing genes in CMMTs and HMTs were implicated in immune response. Immunostaining for three immune response-related proteins encoded by DEGs were mainly observed in mammary epithelium from both CMMTs and HMTs, and their positive signals were more intensive in CMMTs than those in HMTs. These findings provide experimental basis and reference for further researching the molecular genetic mechanisms, particularly immune defence mechanisms, of sheep mammary gland during clinical mastitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mastitis is still considered to be the most economically important infectious disease in dairy cattle breeding. The immune response in mammary gland tissues could help in developing support strategies to combat this disease. The role of neutrophils and macrophages in the innate response of mammary gland is well known. However, the immune response in mammary gland tissues, including levels of antimicrobial peptide transcripts, has not been well recognized. Moreover, most studies are conducted in vitro, on cell cultures, or on artificially infected animals, with analysis being done within a several dozen hours after infection.The aim of the study was to examine the in vivo transcript levels of beta-defensin and cathelicidins genes in cow mammary gland secretory tissue (parenchyma) with the chronic, recurrent and incurable mammary gland inflammation induced by coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative Staphyloccoci vs. bacteria-free tissue. RESULTS: The mRNA of DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, BNBD10 and LAP genes, but not of TAP gene, were detected in all investigated samples regardless of the animals' age and microbiological status of the mammary gland, but at different levels. The expression of most of the beta-defensin genes was shown to be much higher in tissues derived from udders infected with bacteria (CoPS or CoNS) than from bacteria-free udders, regardless of parity. Cathelicidins (CATH4, CATH5 and CATH6) showed expression patterns contrasting those of ?-defensins, with the highest expression in tissues derived from bacteria-free udders. CONCLUSION: Increased expression of genes encoding ?-defensins in the infected udder confirms their crucial role in the defense of the cow mammary gland against mastitis. On the other hand, the elevated cathelicidin transcripts in non-infected tissues indicate their role in the maintenance of healthy mammary tissues. The expression levels of investigated genes are likely to depend on the duration of the infection and type of bacteria.
Project description:Milk fat globules (MFGs) are vesicles released in milk as fat droplets surrounded by the endoplasmic reticulum and apical cell membranes. During formation and apocrine secretion by lactocytes, various amounts of cytoplasmic crescents remain trapped within the released vesicle, making MFGs a natural sampling mechanism of the lactating cell contents. With the aim of investigating the events occurring in the mammary epithelium during bacterial infection, the MFG proteome was characterized by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), SDS-PAGE followed by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS), label-free quantification by the normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF) approach, Western blotting, and pathway analysis, using sheep naturally infected by Mycoplasma agalactiae. A number of protein classes were found to increase in MFGs upon infection, including proteins involved in inflammation and host defense, cortical cytoskeleton proteins, heat shock proteins, and proteins related to oxidative stress. Conversely, a strikingly lower abundance was observed for proteins devoted to MFG metabolism and secretion. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing proteomic changes occurring in MFGs during sheep infectious mastitis. The results presented here offer new insights into the in vivo response of mammary epithelial cells to bacterial infection and open the way to the discovery of protein biomarkers for monitoring clinical and subclinical mastitis.
Project description:Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics.
Project description:Background:Mastitis in dairy cows caused by Staphylococcus aureus is a major problem hindering economic growth in dairy farms worldwide. It is difficult to prevent or eliminate due to its asymptomatic nature and long persistence of infection. Although transcriptomic responses of bovine mammary gland cells to pathogens that cause mastitis have been studied, the common responses of peripheral blood leukocytes to S. aureus infection across two consecutive generations of dairy cattle have not been investigated. Methods:In the current study, RNA-Seq was used to profile the transcriptomes of peripheral blood leukocytes sampled from S. aureus-infected mothers and their S. aureus-infected daughters, and also healthy non-infected mothers and their healthy daughters. Differential gene expression was evaluated as follows: 1) S. aureus-infected cows versus healthy non-infected cows (S vs. H, which include all the mothers and daughters), 2) S. aureus-infected mothers versus healthy non-infected mothers (SM vs. HM), and 3) S. aureus-infected daughters versus healthy non-infected daughters (SMD vs. HMD). Results:Analysis of all identified expressed genes in the four groups (SM, SMD, HM, and HMD) showed that EPOR, IL9, IFNL3, CCL26, IL26 were exclusively expressed in both the HM and HMD groups, and that they were significantly (P?<? 0.05) enriched for the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway. A total of 17, 13 and 10 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR P adj. <?0.1 and |FC|?>?1.2) were detected in the three comparisons, respectively. DEGs with P?<? 0.05 and |FC|?>?2 were used for functional enrichment analyses. For the S vs. H comparison, DEGs detected included CCL20, IL13 and MMP3, which are associated with the IL-17 signaling pathway. In the SM vs. HM and SMD vs. HMD comparisons, five (BLA-DQB, C1R, C2, FCGR1A, and KRT10) and six (BLA-DQB, C3AR1, CFI, FCAR, FCGR3A, and LOC10498484) genes, respectively, were involved in the S. aureus infection pathway. Conclusions:Our study provides insights into the transcriptomic responses of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes across two generations of cattle naturally infected with S. aureus. The genes highlighted in this study could serve as expression biomarkers for mastitis and may also contain sequence variation that can be used for genetic improvement of dairy cattle for resilience to mastitis.
Project description:Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to the complexity of the mammalian proteome and plays an important role in diseases, including infectious diseases. The differential AS patterns of these transcript sequences between the healthy (HS3A) and mastitic (HS8A) cows naturally infected by Staphylococcus aureus were compared to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mastitis resistance and susceptibility. In this study, using the Illumina paired-end RNA sequencing method, 1352 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with higher than twofold changes were found in the HS3A and HS8A mammary gland tissues. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway is the most significantly enriched pathway. Approximately 16k annotated unigenes were respectively identified in two libraries, based on the bovine Bos taurus UMD3.1 sequence assembly and search. A total of 52.62% and 51.24% annotated unigenes were alternatively spliced in term of exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5' splicing and alternative 3' splicing. Additionally, 1,317 AS unigenes were HS3A-specific, whereas 1,093 AS unigenes were HS8A-specific. Some immune-related genes, such as ITGB6, MYD88, ADA, ACKR1, and TNFRSF1B, and their potential relationships with mastitis were highlighted. From Chromosome 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 17, and 20, 3.66% (HS3A) and 5.4% (HS8A) novel transcripts, which harbor known quantitative trait locus associated with clinical mastitis, were identified. Many DEGs in the healthy and mastitic mammary glands are involved in immune, defense, and inflammation responses. These DEGs, which exhibit diverse and specific splicing patterns and events, can endow dairy cattle with the potential complex genetic resistance against mastitis.