Effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement with and without p-synephrine on resting energy expenditure, cognitive function and exercise performance.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without p-synephrine (S) on perceptions of readiness to perform, cognitive function, exercise performance, and markers of safety.In a randomized, double-blind, and counterbalanced manner; 25 healthy and recreationally active male and female participants ingested a flavored maltodextrin placebo (PLA), a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg) with 2 g of maltodextrin and flavoring; or, the PWS with Citrus aurantium (PWS + S) extract standardized for 30% p-synephrine (20 mg). Participants had heart rate (HR), blood pressure, resting energy expenditure (REE), 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG), perceptions about readiness to perform, cognitive function (Stroop Color-Word test), bench and leg press performance (2 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of 1RM and 1 set to failure), and Wingate anaerobic capacity (WAC) sprint performance determined as well as donated blood samples prior to and/or following exercise/supplementation. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures as well as mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI).No clinically significant differences were observed among treatments in HR, blood pressure, ECG, or general clinical blood panels. There was evidence that PWS and PWS + S ingestion promoted greater changes in REE responses. Participants reported higher perception of optimism about performance and vigor and energy with PWS and PWS + S ingestion and there was evidence that PWS and PWS + S improved changes in cognitive function scores from baseline to a greater degree than PLA after 1 or 2 h. However, the scores in the PWS + S treatment did not exceed PLA or PWS responses at any data point. No statistically significant differences were observed among treatments in total bench press lifting volume, leg press lifting volume or WAC sprint performance.Within the confines of this study, ingestion of PWS and/or PWS + S prior to exercise appears to be well-tolerated when consumed by young, healthy individuals. The primary effects appear to be to increase REE responses and improve perceptions about readiness to perform and cognitive function with limited to no effects on muscular endurance and WAC. The addition of 20 mg of p-synephrine to the PWS provided limited to no additive benefits.This trial (NCT02952014) was retrospectively registered on September 13th 2016.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine whether ingesting a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without synephrine (S) during training affects training responses in resistance-trained males.Resistance-trained males (N = 80) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet in a double-blind manner with either a flavored placebo (PLA); a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg); or, the PWS supplement with Citrus aurantium extract containing 20 mg of synephrine (PWS + S) once per day for 8-weeks during training. Participants donated a fasting blood sample and had body composition (DXA), resting heart rate and blood pressure, cognitive function (Stroop Test), readiness to perform, bench and leg press 1 RM, and Wingate anaerobic capacity assessments determined a 0, 4, and 8-weeks of standardized training. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Performance and cognitive function data were analyzed using baseline values as covariates as well as mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Blood chemistry data were also analyzed using Chi-square analysis.Although significant time effects were seen, no statistically significant overall MANOVA Wilks' Lambda interactions were observed among groups for body composition, resting heart and blood pressure, readiness to perform questions, 1RM strength, anaerobic sprint capacity, or blood chemistry panels. MANOVA univariate analysis and analysis of changes from baseline with 95% CI revealed some evidence that cognitive function and 1RM strength were increased to a greater degree in the PWS and/or PWS + S groups after 4- and/or 8-weeks compared to PLA responses. However, there was no evidence that PWS + S promoted greater overall training adaptations compared to the PWS group. Dietary supplementation of PWS and PWS + S did not increase the incidence of reported side effects or significantly affect the number of blood values above clinical norms compared to PLA.Results provide some evidence that 4-weeks of PWS and/or PWS + S supplementation can improve some indices of cognitive function and exercise performance during resistance-training without significant side effects in apparently health males. However, these effects were similar to PLA responses after 8-weeks of supplementation and inclusion of synephrine did not promote additive benefits.This trial (NCT02999581) was retrospectively registered on December 16th 2016.
Project description:In a double-blind, randomized and crossover manner, 25 resistance-trained participants ingested a placebo (PLA) beverage containing 12 g of dextrose and a beverage (RTD) containing caffeine (200 mg), ?-alanine (2.1 g), arginine nitrate (1.3 g), niacin (65 mg), folic acid (325 mcg), and Vitamin B12 (45 mcg) for 7-days, separated by a 7-10-day. On day 1 and 6, participants donated a fasting blood sample and completed a side-effects questionnaire (SEQ), hemodynamic challenge test, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests (3 × 10 repetitions at 70% of 1-RM with the last set to failure on the bench press (BP) and leg press (LP)) followed by ingesting the assigned beverage. After 15 min, participants repeated the hemodynamic test, 1-RM tests, and performed a repetition to fatigue (RtF) test at 70% of 1-RM, followed by completing the SEQ. On day 2 and 7, participants donated a fasting blood sample, completed the SEQ, ingested the assigned beverage, rested 30 min, and performed a 4 km cycling time-trial (TT). Data were analyzed by univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear models (GLM), adjusted for gender and relative caffeine intake. Data are presented as mean change (95% CI). An overall multivariate time × treatment interaction was observed on strength performance variables (p = 0.01). Acute RTD ingestion better maintained LP 1-RM (PLA: -0.285 (-0.49, -0.08); RTD: 0.23 (-0.50, 0.18) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.30); increased LP RtF (PLA: -2.60 (-6.8, 1.6); RTD: 4.00 (-0.2, 8.2) repetitions, p = 0.031); increased BP lifting volume (PLA: 0.001 (-0.13, 0.16); RTD: 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.007); and, increased total lifting volume (PLA: -13.12 (-36.9, 10.5); RTD: 21.06 (-2.7, 44.8) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.046). Short-term RTD ingestion maintained baseline LP 1-RM (PLA: -0.412 (-0.08, -0.07); RTD: 0.16 (-0.50, 0.18) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.30); LP RtF (PLA: 0.12 (-3.0, 3.2); RTD: 3.6 (0.5, 6.7) repetitions, p = 0.116); and, LP lifting volume (PLA: 3.64 (-8.8, 16.1); RTD: 16.25 (3.8, 28.7) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.157) to a greater degree than PLA. No significant differences were observed between treatments in cycling TT performance, hemodynamic assessment, fasting blood panels, or self-reported side effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thermogenic fitness drink formulas (TFD) have been shown to increase energy expenditure and markers of lipid metabolism. The purpose of the current study was to compare TFD formulas containing different caffeine concentrations versus a placebo drink on energy expenditure and lipid metabolism at rest and during exercise. METHODS:Thirty-two recreationally active participants (22.9?±?0.7 y, 167.1?±?1.4?cm, 68.8?±?2.0?kg, 24.0?±?1.2% fat) who were regular caffeine consumers, participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover design study. Participants reported to the laboratory on three occasions, each of which required consumption of either a TFD containing 140?mg or 100?mg of caffeine or a placebo. Baseline measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE) and resting fat oxidation (RFO) were assessed using indirect calorimetry as well as measurements of serum glycerol concentration. Measurements were repeated at 30, 60, 90?min post-ingestion. Following resting measures, participants completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max), maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (Fatmax), and total energy expenditure (EE). RESULTS:A significant interaction was shown for REE (p <?0.01) and RFO (p <?0.01). Area under the curve analysis showed an increased REE for the 140?mg compared to the 100?mg formula (p =?0.02) and placebo (p <?0.01) and an increased REE for the 100?mg formula compared to placebo (p =?0.02). RFO significantly decreased for caffeinated formulas at 30?min post ingestion compared to placebo and baseline (p <?0.01) and significantly increased for the 140?mg formula at 60?min post-ingestion (p =?0.03). A main effect was shown for serum glycerol concentrations over time (p <?0.01). No significant differences were shown for V?O2max (p =?0.12), Fatmax (p =?0.22), and MFO (p =?0.05), and EE (p =?0.08) across drinks. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that TFD formulas containing 100 and 140?mg of caffeine are effective in increasing REE and that a 40?mg of caffeine difference between the tested formulas may impact REE and RFO in healthy individuals within 60?min of ingestion.
Project description:Irisin is conventionally regarded as a myokine involved in the browning of white adipose tissue, energy expenditure and glucose tolerance. Its potential link to fat accumulation and metabolic dysfunction is debated. We sought to explore the relationship between circulating irisin and components of body composition in two different phenotypes of severe obesity. For this purpose, 30 obese adults with Prader-Will syndrome (PWS) (age 35.7?±?1.5?y, BMI 45.5?±?1.5?kg/m2) and 30 adult controls with common obesity (age 34.9?±?1.7?y, BMI 46.8?±?1.4?kg/m2) underwent analysis of irisin levels, metabolic profile, body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE). Normal irisin levels were obtained from a group of 20 lean donors (age 32.4?±?1.5?y, BMI 23.8?±?0.8?kg/m2). Expected differences in body composition and metabolic profile existed between study groups. PWS exhibited lower muscle mass (p?<?0.001), FFM (p?<?0.001), REE (p?<?0.001), as well as insulin (p?<?0.05), HOMA-IR (p?<?0.05) and triglycerides levels (p?<?0.05) than controls with common obesity. In PWS, irisin levels were significantly lower and overall less dispersed than in controls with common obesity (p?<?0.05), while being similar to values recorded in lean subjects. To explore the relation between irisin and body composition in obesity, univariate correlation analysis in the obese populations as a whole showed positive associations between irisin and muscle mass (p?=?0.03) as well as REE (p?=?0.01), which disappeared when controlled for the PWS status. Noticeably, a positive association became evident between irisin and %FM after controlling for the PWS status (p?=?0.02). Also positive were associations between irisin and insulin (p?=?0.02), HOMA-IR (p?=?0.02) and triglycerides (p?=?0.04). In stepwise multivariable regression analysis, irisin levels were independently predicted by the PWS status (p?=?0.001), %FM (p?=?0.004) and triglycerides (p?=?0.008). Current results suggest that obese adults with PWS harbor lower irisin levels than individuals with common obesity. The divergent models of obesity herein studied suggest a potential link between circulating irisin and muscle mass and metabolic dysfunction relating to adiposity.
Project description:Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with excessive weight gain. Hyperphagia associated with PWS may result in higher energy intake, but alterations in energy expenditure may also contribute to energy imbalance. The purpose of this critical literature review is to determine the presence of alterations in energy expenditure in individuals with PWS. Ten studies that measured total energy expenditure (TEE), resting energy expenditure (REE), sleep energy expenditure (SEE), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) were included in this review. The studies provided evidence that absolute TEE, REE, SEE, and AEE are lower in individuals with PWS than in age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched individuals without the syndrome. Alterations in lean body mass and lower physical activity amounts appear to be responsible for the lower energy expenditure in PWS rather than metabolic differences. Regardless of the underlying mechanism for lower TEE, the estimation of energy requirements with the use of equations derived for the general population would result in weight gain in individuals with PWS. The determination of energy requirements for weight management in individuals with PWS requires a more comprehensive understanding of energy metabolism. Future studies should aim to comprehensively profile all specific components of energy expenditure in individuals with PWS with the use of appropriately matched controls and gold standard methods to measure energy metabolism and body composition. One component of energy expenditure that is yet to be explored in detail in PWS is DIT. A reduced DIT (despite differences in fat free mass), secondary to hormonal dysregulation, may be present in PWS individuals, leading to a reduced overall energy expenditure. Further research exploring DIT in PWS needs to be conducted. Dietary energy recommendations for weight management in PWS have not yet been clearly established.
Project description:We have previously shown that ingesting protein at night before sleep is either beneficial or non-detrimental to metabolism, health, and body composition in obese women. However, the overnight protein-induced lipolytic actions and mechanism for improved metabolism and body composition have not been fully established. Therefore, in a crossover design, twelve obese men (age, 27.0 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned to ingest (within 30 min of sleep) casein protein (CAS, 120 kcal) or a non-nutritive placebo (PLA) before going to sleep. Markers of fat metabolism (lipolysis, substrate utilization, growth hormone), insulin, glucose, resting energy expenditure (REE), and appetite (questionnaire and ghrelin) were measured. During sleep and the next morning, interstitial glycerol from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was measured using microdialysis. There were no differences in SCAAT glycerol (overnight: CAS, 177.4 ± 26.7; PLA, 183.8 ± 20.2 μmol/L; morning: CAS, 171.6 ± 19.1; PLA, 161.5 ± 18.6 μmol/L), substrate utilization, REE, or any blood markers between CAS and PLA. Desire to eat was greater for CAS compared to baseline (p = 0.03), but not different from PLA (baseline: 39 ± 6, CAS: 62 ± 8, PLA: 55 ± 5 mm). CAS consumption before sleep did not affect fat or glucose metabolism, REE, or suppress appetite in hyperinsulemic obese men. CAS may be consumed before sleep without impeding overnight or morning fat metabolism in young, obese men.
Project description:The ingestion of beetroot juice (BJ) has been associated with improvements in physical performance in endurance sports, however the literature on resistance training (RT) is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of BJ compared to a placebo (PLA) on muscular endurance and movement concentric velocity during RT. Twelve healthy men performed an incremental RT test (back squat and bench press) with three sets, at 60%, 70%, and 80% of their repetition maximum (1-RM). Movement velocity variables, total number of repetitions performed until concentric failure, blood lactate, and ratings of perceived effort post-training were measured. A higher number of repetitions were recorded with BJ compared to those with PLA (13.8 ± 14.4; p < 0.01; effect size (ES) = 0.6). Differences were found at 60% 1-RM (9 ± 10; p < 0.05; ES = 0.61) and 70% 1-RM (3.1 ± 4.8; p < 0.05; ES = 0.49), however, no differences were found at 80% 1-RM (1.7 ± 1; p = 0.12; ES = 0.41). A greater number of repetitions was performed in back squat (13.4 ± 13; p < 0.01; ES = 0.77), but no differences were observed in bench press (0.4 ± 5.1; p = 0.785; ES = 0.03). No differences were found for the rest of the variables (p > 0.05). Acute supplementation of BJ improved muscular endurance performance in RT.
Project description:In a double-blind, crossover, randomized and placebo-controlled trial; 28 men and women ingested a placebo (PLA), 3 g of creatine nitrate (CNL), and 6 g of creatine nitrate (CNH) for 6 days. Participants repeated the experiment with the alternate supplements after a 7-day washout. Hemodynamic responses to a postural challenge, fasting blood samples, and bench press, leg press, and cycling time trial performance and recovery were assessed. Data were analyzed by univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear models (GLM). No significant differences were found among treatments for hemodynamic responses, clinical blood markers or self-reported side effects. After 5 days of supplementation, one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press improved significantly for CNH (mean change, 95% CI; 6.1 [3.5, 8.7] kg) but not PLA (0.7 [-1.6, 3.0] kg or CNL (2.0 [-0.9, 4.9] kg, CNH, p = 0.01). CNH participants also tended to experience an attenuated loss in 1RM strength during the recovery performance tests following supplementation on day 5 (PLA: -9.3 [-13.5, -5.0], CNL: -9.3 [-13.5, -5.1], CNH: -3.9 [-6.6, -1.2] kg, p = 0.07). After 5 days, pre-supplementation 1RM leg press values increased significantly, only with CNH (24.7 [8.8, 40.6] kg, but not PLA (13.9 [-15.7, 43.5] or CNL (14.6 [-0.5, 29.7]). Further, post-supplementation 1RM leg press recovery did not decrease significantly for CNH (-13.3 [-31.9, 5.3], but did for PLA (-30.5 [-53.4, -7.7] and CNL (-29.0 [-49.5, -8.4]). CNL treatment promoted an increase in bench press repetitions at 70% of 1RM during recovery on day 5 (PLA: 0.4 [-0.8, 1.6], CNL: 0.9 [0.35, 1.5], CNH: 0.5 [-0.2, 0.3], p = 0.56), greater leg press endurance prior to supplementation on day 5 (PLA: -0.2 [-1.6, 1.2], CNL: 0.9 [0.2, 1.6], CNH: 0.2 [-0.5, 0.9], p = 0.25) and greater leg press endurance during recovery on day 5 (PLA: -0.03 [-1.2, 1.1], CNL: 1.1 [0.3, 1.9], CNH: 0.4 [-0.4, 1.2], p = 0.23). Cycling time trial performance (4 km) was not affected. Results indicate that creatine nitrate supplementation, up to a 6 g dose, for 6 days, appears to be safe and provide some ergogenic benefit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. METHODS:Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO. Salivary samples were collected before each exercise session to determine estradiol-?-17 and before and after to quantify cortisol. Post-exercise REE and RER were analyzed via indirect calorimetry at the following: baseline, immediately post (IP), 30 minutes (30 min) post, and 60 minutes (60 min) post exercise. A mixed effects linear regression model, controlling for estradiol, was used to compare mean longitudinal changes in REE and RER. RESULTS:On average, HIIT produced a greater REE than AEE and HIRT (p < 0.001) post exercise. Effects of AEE and HIRT were not significantly different for post-exercise REE (p = 0.1331). On average, HIIT produced lower RER compared to either AEE or HIRT after 30 min (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0169, respectively) and compared to AEE after 60 min (p = 0.0020). On average, pre-exercise PRO ingestion increased post-exercise REE (p = 0.0076) and decreased post-exercise RER (p < 0.0001) compared to pre-exercise CHO ingestion. CONCLUSION:HIIT resulted in the largest increase in REE and largest reduction in RER.
Project description:Background/Objective:Isomaltulose is a disaccharide with a low glycaemic index and plays a role in maintaining postprandial glucose. The maintenance of glucose availability during prolonged exercise has been shown to enhance exercise performance. The present study compared the effects of pre-exercise isomaltulose versus maltodextrin ingestion on gastric parameters and cycling performance in young men. Methods:Fourteen young men (mean ± S.D., age 23 ± 2 years) performed 60 min of continuous cycling at 75% of maximum heart rate followed by a 15-min exercise performance test while ingesting a 500-mL of water containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate with either 50 g of isomaltulose or 50 g of maltodextrin. Gastrointestinal discomfort was assessed periodically using an 11-point visual analogue scale throughout the study. The gastric emptying rate was evaluated periodically with the 13C-sodium acetate breath test. For the exercise performance test, participants were instructed to pedal a cycle ergometer, exerting as much effort as possible at a self-selected pace. Results:Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations measured at 30 min after ingestion were lower in the isomaltulose trial than in the maltodextrin trial. There were no differences in mean power output during the exercise performance test, gastric emptying rate or the subjective feelings of gastrointestinal discomfort between both trials. Conclusion:Under the current exercise protocol, pre-exercise ingestion of isomaltulose compared with maltodextrin provided no additional benefit relative to gastric emptying or aerobic exercise performance. Both isomaltulose and maltodextrin ingestion did not influence gastrointestinal distress during 60 min of cycling and performance test.