A global view of meiotic double-strand break end resection.
ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks that initiate meiotic recombination are exonucleolytically processed. This 5'?3' resection is a central, conserved feature of recombination but remains poorly understood. To address this lack, we mapped resection endpoints genome-wide at high resolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Full-length resection requires Exo1 exonuclease and the DSB-responsive kinase Tel1, but not Sgs1 helicase. Tel1 also promotes efficient and timely resection initiation. Resection endpoints display pronounced heterogeneity between genomic loci that reflects a tendency for nucleosomes to block Exo1, yet Exo1 also appears to digest chromatin with high processivity and at rates similar to naked DNA in vitro. This paradox points to nucleosome destabilization or eviction as a defining feature of the meiotic resection landscape.
Project description:The DNA double-strand breaks that initiate homologous recombination during meiosis are subject to extensive 5ʹ→3′ exonucleolytic processing. This resection is a central and conserved feature of recombination, yet its mechanism is poorly understood. Using a purpose-made deep-sequencing method, namely S1Seq, we mapped meiotic resection endpoints genome-wide at high spatial resolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Generating full-length resection tracts requires Exo1 exonuclease activity and the DNA-damage responsive kinase Tel1, but not the helicase Sgs1. Tel1 is also required for efficient and timely initiation of resection. We find that distributions of resection endpoints at individual genomic loci display pronounced heterogeneity that reflects a tendency for nucleosomes to block Exo1 in vivo, yet modeling experiments indicate that Exo1 digests chromatin with high apparent processivity and at rates approaching those for naked DNA in vitro. This paradox points to nucleosome destabilization or eviction as a determining feature of the meiotic resection landscape. Overall design: 36 samples total: two biological replicate S1Seq maps of S.cerevisiae for each genetic background and time point in meiosis
Project description:The DNA double-strand breaks that initiate homologous recombination during meiosis are subject to extensive 5ʹ→3′ exonucleolytic processing. This resection is a central and conserved feature of recombination, yet its mechanism is poorly understood. Using a purpose-made deep-sequencing method, namely S1Seq, we mapped meiotic resection endpoints genome-wide at high spatial resolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Generating full-length resection tracts requires Exo1 exonuclease activity and the DNA-damage responsive kinase Tel1, but not the helicase Sgs1. Tel1 is also required for efficient and timely initiation of resection. We find that distributions of resection endpoints at individual genomic loci display pronounced heterogeneity that reflects a tendency for nucleosomes to block Exo1 in vivo, yet modeling experiments indicate that Exo1 digests chromatin with high apparent processivity and at rates approaching those for naked DNA in vitro. This paradox points to nucleosome destabilization or eviction as a determining feature of the meiotic resection landscape. 36 samples total: two biological replicate S1Seq maps of S.cerevisiae for each genetic background and time point in meiosis
Project description:Sae2 functions in the DNA damage response by controlling Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX)-catalyzed end resection, an essential step for homology-dependent repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs), and by attenuating DNA damage checkpoint signaling. Phosphorylation of Sae2 by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1/Cdc28) activates the Mre11 endonuclease, while the physiological role of Sae2 phosphorylation by Mec1 and Tel1 checkpoint kinases is not fully understood. Here, we compare the phenotype of sae2 mutants lacking the main CDK (sae2-S267A) or Mec1 and Tel1 phosphorylation sites (sae2-5A) with sae2? and Mre11 nuclease defective (mre11-nd) mutants. The phosphorylation-site mutations confer DNA damage sensitivity, but not to the same extent as sae2?. The sae2-S267A mutation is epistatic to mre11-nd for camptothecin (CPT) sensitivity and synergizes with sgs1?, whereas sae2-5A synergizes with mre11-nd and exhibits epistasis with sgs1?. We find that attenuation of checkpoint signaling by Sae2 is mostly independent of Mre11 endonuclease activation but requires Mec1 and Tel1-dependent phosphorylation of Sae2. These results support a model whereby CDK-catalyzed phosphorylation of Sae2 activates resection via Mre11 endonuclease, whereas Sae2 phosphorylation by Mec1 and Tel1 promotes resection by the Dna2-Sgs1 and Exo1 pathways indirectly by dampening the DNA damage response.
Project description:DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR) involves resection of the break to expose a 3' single-stranded DNA tail. In budding yeast, resection occurs in two steps: initial short-range resection, performed by Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 and Sae2; and long-range resection catalysed by either Exo1 or Sgs1-Dna2. Here we use genetic assays to investigate the importance of Exo1 and the Sgs1 homologue Rqh1 for DNA repair and promotion of direct repeat recombination in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We find that Exo1 and Rqh1 function in alternative redundant pathways for promoting survival following replication fork breakage. Exo1 promotes replication fork barrier-induced direct repeat recombination but intriguingly limits recombination induced by fork breakage. Direct repeat recombination induced by ultraviolet light depends on either Exo1 or Rqh1. Finally, we show that Rqh1 plays a major role in limiting Exo1-dependent direct repeat recombination induced by replication fork stalling but only a minor role in constraining recombination induced by fork breakage. The implications of our findings are discussed in the context of the benefits that long-range resection may bring to processing perturbed replication forks.
Project description:Homologous recombination is a major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks. This repair process is initiated by resection of the 5?-terminated strand at the break site. In yeast, resection is carried out by three nucleolytic complexes: Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2, which functions at the initial step and also stimulates the two processive pathways, Sgs1-Dna2 and Exonuclease 1 (Exo1). Here we investigated the relationship between the three resection pathways with a focus on Exo1. Exo1 preferentially degrades the 5?-terminal stand of duplex DNA that is single stranded at the 3? end, in agreement with its role downstream of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex. Replication protein A (RPA) stimulates DNA end resection by Exo1 by both preventing nonspecific binding of Exo1 to and preventing degradation of single-stranded DNA. Nucleolytic degradation of DNA by Exo1 is inhibited by the helicase-deficient Sgs1 K706A mutant protein and, reciprocally, the nuclease-deficient Exo1 D173A mutant protein inhibits DNA unwinding by Sgs1. Thus, the activities of Sgs1 and Exo1 at DNA ends are mutually exclusive, establishing biochemically that both machineries function independently in DNA end processing. We also reconstituted Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1-RPA-Dna2 and Exo1 resection reactions both individually and combined, either with or without the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex. We show that the yeast Sgs1-Dna2 and Exo1 pathways do not stimulate one another and function as independent and separate DNA end-processing machineries, even in the presence of the stimulatory Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex.
Project description:Meiotic recombination requires the formation of programmed Spo11-dependent DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Sae2 protein and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex are necessary to remove the covalently attached Spo11 protein from the DNA ends, which are then resected by so far unknown nucleases. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of Sae2 Ser-267 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required to initiate meiotic DSB resection by allowing Spo11 removal from DSB ends. This finding suggests that Cdk1 activity is required for the processing of Spo11-induced DSBs, thus providing a mechanism for coordinating DSB resection with progression through meiotic prophase. Furthermore, the helicase Sgs1 and the nucleases Exo1 and Dna2 participate in lengthening the 5'-3' resection tracts during meiosis by controlling a step subsequent to Spo11 removal.
Project description:The MRX complex together with Sae2 initiates resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to generate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that triggers homologous recombination. The absence of Sae2 not only impairs DSB resection, but also causes prolonged MRX binding at the DSBs that leads to persistent Tel1- and Rad53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation and cell cycle arrest. Whether this enhanced checkpoint signaling contributes to the DNA damage sensitivity and/or the resection defect of sae2? cells is not known. By performing a genetic screen, we identify rad53 and tel1 mutant alleles that suppress both the DNA damage hypersensitivity and the resection defect of sae2? cells through an Sgs1-Dna2-dependent mechanism. These suppression events do not involve escaping the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest. Rather, defective Rad53 or Tel1 signaling bypasses Sae2 function at DSBs by decreasing the amount of Rad9 bound at DSBs. As a consequence, reduced Rad9 association to DNA ends relieves inhibition of Sgs1-Dna2 activity, which can then compensate for the lack of Sae2 in DSB resection and DNA damage resistance. We propose that persistent Tel1 and Rad53 checkpoint signaling in cells lacking Sae2 increases the association of Rad9 at DSBs, which in turn inhibits DSB resection by limiting the activity of the Sgs1-Dna2 resection machinery.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks impact genome stability by triggering many of the large-scale genome rearrangements associated with evolution and cancer. One of the first steps in repairing this damage is 5'?3' resection beginning at the break site. Recently, tools have become available to study the consequences of not extensively resecting double-strand breaks. Here we examine the role of Sgs1- and Exo1-dependent resection on genome stability using a non-selective assay that we previously developed using diploid yeast. We find that Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking Sgs1 and Exo1 retains a very efficient repair process that is highly mutagenic to genome structure. Specifically, 51% of cells lacking Sgs1 and Exo1 repair a double-strand break using repetitive sequences 12-48 kb distal from the initial break site, thereby generating a genome rearrangement. These Sgs1- and Exo1-independent rearrangements depend partially upon a Rad51-mediated homologous recombination pathway. Furthermore, without resection a robust cell cycle arrest is not activated, allowing a cell with a single double-strand break to divide before repair, potentially yielding multiple progeny each with a different rearrangement. This profusion of rearranged genomes suggests that cells tolerate any dangers associated with extensive resection to inhibit mutagenic pathways such as break-distal recombination. The activation of break-distal recipient repeats and amplification of broken chromosomes when resection is limited raise the possibility that genome regions that are difficult to resect may be hotspots for rearrangements. These results may also explain why mutations in resection machinery are associated with cancer.
Project description:The multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex recruits ATM/Tel1 checkpoint kinase and CtIP/Ctp1 homologous recombination (HR) repair factor to double-strand breaks (DSBs). HR repair commences with the 5'-to-3' resection of DNA ends, generating 3' single-strand DNA (ssDNA) overhangs that bind Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, followed by Rad51 recombinase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex is critical for DSB resection, although the enigmatic ssDNA endonuclease activity of Mre11 and the DNA-end processing factor Sae2 (CtIP/Ctp1 ortholog) are largely unnecessary unless the resection activities of Exo1 and Sgs1-Dna2 are also eliminated. Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1/CtIP are essential for DSB repair in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals. To investigate DNA end resection in Schizo. pombe, we adapted an assay that directly measures ssDNA formation at a defined DSB. We found that Mre11 and Ctp1 are essential for the efficient initiation of resection, consistent with their equally crucial roles in DSB repair. Exo1 is largely responsible for extended resection up to 3.1 kb from a DSB, with an activity dependent on Rqh1 (Sgs1) DNA helicase having a minor role. Despite its critical function in DSB repair, Mre11 nuclease activity is not required for resection in fission yeast. However, Mre11 nuclease and Ctp1 are required to disassociate the MRN complex and the Ku70-Ku80 nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex from DSBs, which is required for efficient RPA localization. Eliminating Ku makes Mre11 nuclease activity dispensable for MRN disassociation and RPA localization, while improving repair of a one-ended DSB formed by replication fork collapse. From these data we propose that release of the MRN complex and Ku from DNA ends by Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1 is a critical step required to expose ssDNA for RPA localization and ensuing HR repair.
Project description:The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. The first step in DSB repair by homologous recombination is the processing of the ends by one of two resection pathways, executed by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Exo1 and Sgs1-Dna2 machineries. Here we report in vitro and in vivo studies that characterize the impact of chromatin on each resection pathway. We find that efficient resection by the Sgs1-Dna2-dependent machinery requires a nucleosome-free gap adjacent to the DSB. Resection by Exo1 is blocked by nucleosomes, and processing activity can be partially restored by removal of the H2A-H2B dimers. Our study also supports a role for the dynamic incorporation of the H2A.Z histone variant in Exo1 processing, and it further suggests that the two resection pathways require distinct chromatin remodeling events to navigate chromatin structure.