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TGF-? induces M2-like macrophage polarization via SNAIL-mediated suppression of a pro-inflammatory phenotype.


ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major component of leukocytic infiltrate in tumors, which facilitates tumor progression and promotes inflammation. TGF-? promotes the differentiation of non-activated macrophages into a TAM-like (M2-like) phenotype; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we found that TGF-? induces a M2-like phenotype characterized by up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-12. In human THP-1 macrophages, overexpression of SNAIL caused M2-like differentiation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine release and promoting the expression of M2-specific markers. By contrast, SNAIL knockdown promoted M1 polarization through up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and abolished TGF-?-mediated M2-polarization of THP-1 macrophages. The SMAD2/3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways were crucial for TGF-?-induced SNAIL overexpression in THP-1 cells. These findings suggest that TGF-? skews macrophage polarization towards a M2-like phenotype via SNAIL up-regulation, and blockade of TGF-?/SNAIL signaling restores the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study provides new understanding of the role of SNAIL in M2 polarization of macrophages, and suggests a potential therapeutic target for antitumor immunity.

SUBMITTER: Zhang F 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5239552 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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