Efficacy of trifluridine and tipiracil (TAS-102) versus placebo, with supportive care, in a randomized, controlled trial of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from Spain: results of a subgroup analysis of the phase 3 RECOURSE trial.
ABSTRACT: TAS-102 is a combination of the thymidine-based nucleoside analog trifluridine and the thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor tipiracil. Efficacy and safety of TAS-102 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) refractory or intolerant to standard therapies were evaluated in the phase 3 RECOURSE trial. Results of RECOURSE demonstrated significant improvement in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with TAS-102 versus placebo [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.68 and 0.48 for OS and PFS, respectively; both P < 0.001]. The current analysis evaluates efficacy and safety of TAS-102 in the RECOURSE Spanish subgroup.Primary and key secondary endpoints were evaluated in a post hoc analysis of the RECOURSE Spanish subgroup, using univariate and multivariate analyses. Safety and tolerability were reported with descriptive statistics.The RECOURSE Spanish subgroup included 112 patients (mean age 61 years, 62 % male). Median OS was 6.8 months in the TAS-102 group (n = 80) versus 4.6 months in the placebo group (n = 32) [HR = 0.47; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.28-0.78; P = 0.0032). Median PFS was 2.0 months in the TAS-102 group and 1.7 months in the placebo group (HR = 0.47; 95 % CI: 0.30-0.74; P = 0.001). Eighty (100 %) TAS-102 versus 31 (96.9 %) placebo patients had adverse events (AEs). The most common drug-related ≥Grade 3 AE was neutropenia (40 % TAS-102 versus 0 % placebo). There was 1 (1.3 %) case of febrile neutropenia in the TAS-102 group versus none in the placebo group.In the RECOURSE Spanish subgroup, TAS-102 was associated with significantly improved OS and PFS versus placebo, consistent with the overall RECOURSE population. No new safety signals were identified. CLINICALTRIALS.NCT01607957.
Project description:Background:The evidence base for optimum third-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is not conclusive. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of regorafenib as third-line therapy in mCRC. This indirect meta-analysis compared the efficacy and safety of regorafenib with other available third-line therapies for mCRC. Methods:A literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library for studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of fruquintinib, regorafenib, TAS-102, and nintedanib as third-line therapies in patients with mCRC. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were the primary outcomes, while objective response rate (ORR) and safety were the secondary outcomes. Hazard ratio (HR) and relative risk (RR) with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for analysis of survival, clinical response, and safety data. An adjusted indirect meta-analysis with placebo as the common comparator was performed. Results:We identified eight RCTs comparing regorafenib (two studies), fruquintinib (two studies), TAS-102 (three studies), and nintedanib (one study) against placebo. The OS with regorafenib was significantly better when compared with nintedanib (HR?=?0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95, p?=?0.02) but was similar to that of fruquintinib (HR?=?1.01; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.52, p?=?0.94) and TAS-102 (HR?=?0.97; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.38, p?=?0.88). The PFS and ORR for regorafenib were slightly better than those of TAS-102 (PFS: HR?=?0.86, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.37, p?=?0.5; ORR: RR?=?1.13, 95% CI: 0.11, 11.05, p?=?0.92) and nintedanib (PFS: HR?=?0.68, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.10, p?=?0.12; ORR: not reported) but were lower than those for fruquintinib (PFS: HR?=?1.53, 95% CI: 0.93, 2.52, p?=?0.08; ORR: RR?=?0.68269, 95% CI: 0.045, 10.32, p?=?0.79). Safety analysis showed that the RR of adverse events (AEs) was lesser in patients treated with regorafenib in comparison with that in patients treated with fruquintinib, but was similar to that in patients treated with nintedanib and TAS-102. Conclusion:Regorafenib has efficacy similar to that of TAS-102 and better safety when compared with fruquintinib. Considering the mechanism of action of regorafenib, which targets multiple factors in the angiogenic pathway, it could be an ideal option for treatment in the beyond second-line setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the phase III RECOURSE trial, trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) extended overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory or intolerant to standard therapies. The present analysis investigated the efficacy and safety of trifluridine/tipiracil in RECOURSE subgroups. METHODS:Primary and key secondary end-points were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model in prespecified subgroups, including geographical subregion (United States of America [USA], European Union [EU], Japan), age (<65 years, ?65 years) and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) status (wild type, mutant). Safety and tolerability were reported with descriptive statistics. RESULTS:Eight-hundred patients were enrolled: USA, n = 99; EU, n = 403; Japan, n = 266. Patients aged ?65 years and those with mutant KRAS tumours comprised 44% and 51% of all patients in the subregions, respectively. Final OS analysis (including 89% of events, compared with 72% in the initial analysis) confirmed the survival benefit associated with trifluridine/tipiracil, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.81; P = 0.0001). Median OS in the three regions was 6.5-7.8 months in the trifluridine/tipiracil arm and 4.3-6.7 months in the placebo arm (USA: HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.34-0.94; P = 0.0277; EU: HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.48-0.80; P = 0.0002; Japan: HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.57-1.00; P = 0.0470). Median PFS was 2.0-2.8 months for trifluridine/tipiracil and 1.7-1.8 months for placebo; HRs favoured trifluridine/tipiracil in all regions. Similar clinical benefits of trifluridine/tipiracil were observed in elderly patients and in those with mutant KRAS tumours. There were no marked differences among subregions in terms of safety and tolerability. CONCLUSIONS:Trifluridine/tipiracil was effective in all subgroups, regardless of age, geographical origin or KRAS status. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01607957.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trifluridine (FTD) is an active cytotoxic component of the metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) drug TAS-102, and thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor (TPI) inhibits the rapid degradation of FTD. We tested whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in FTD metabolism and TPI excretion could predict outcome in patients with mCRC treated with TAS-102. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We investigated three different cohorts: a training cohort (n = 52) and a testing cohort (n = 129) both receiving TAS-102 and a control cohort (n = 52) receiving regorafenib. SNPs of TK1, ENT1, CNT1, MATE1, MATE2 and OCT2 were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-based direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS:In the training cohort, patients with any ENT1 rs760370 G allele had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS; 3.5 versus 2.1 months, respectively, hazard ratio [HR] 0.44, P = 0.004) and overall survival (OS; 8.7 versus 5.3 months, respectively, HR 0.27, P = 0.003) than the A/A genotype. These findings were validated in the testing cohort (P = 0.021 and 0.009 for PFS and OS, respectively). In addition, the combination of ENT1 rs760370, MATE1 rs2289669 and OCT2 rs316019 SNPs significantly stratified patients with the risk of PFS and OS in both cohorts (P < 0.001 for PFS and OS in the training cohort; P = 0.053 and 0.025 for PFS and OS, respectively, in the testing cohort). No significant differences were observed in the control group. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of ENT1, MATE1 and OCT2 SNPs may serve as a predictive and prognostic marker in mCRC patients treated with TAS-102.
Project description:BACKGROUND This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify key randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs), followed by network meta-analysis, to compare the efficacy and safety profiles of regorafenib, fruquintinib, and TAS-102 in previously treated patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Systematic literature review was performed using the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane library online databases to identify published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the odds ratios (ORs) for the objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), and fatal adverse events (FAEs) were compared indirectly using network meta-analysis based on a random-effects model. RESULTS Five RCTs that included 2,604 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were analyzed. Indirect comparisons showed that fruquintinib was associated with significant superiority for PFS (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34-0.95) and DCR (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.08-3.01) when compared with TAS-102 in patients with mCRC. However, there was no significant difference between OS or ORR between regorafenib, fruquintinib, and TAS-102. Fruquintinib was associated with a significantly higher risk of SAEs when compared with TAS-102 or regorafenib. There was no significant difference in the risk of AEs or FAEs following indirect comparison between fruquintinib, regorafenib, and TAS-102. CONCLUSIONS The findings from network meta-analysis showed that fruquintinib was associated with significant superiority for PFS and DCR compared with TAS-102, but fruquintinib was associated with significantly increased risk for SAEs compared with regorafenib and TAS-102.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The phase II J003 (N = 169) and phase III RECOURSE (N = 800) trials demonstrated a significant improvement in survival with trifluridine (FTD)/tipiracil (TPI) versus placebo in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. This post hoc analysis investigated pharmacokinetic data of FTD/TPI exposure and pharmacodynamic markers, such as chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) and clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 210 patients from RECOURSE were enrolled in this substudy. A limited sampling approach was used, with three pharmacokinetic samples drawn on day 12 of cycle 1. Patients were categorized as being above or below the median area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for FTD and TPI. We conducted a post hoc analysis using the entire RECOURSE population to determine the correlations between CIN and clinical outcome. We then carried out a similar analysis on the J003 trial to validate the results. RESULTS:In the RECOURSE subset, patients in the high FTD AUC group had a significantly increased CIN risk. Analyses of the entire population demonstrated that FTD/TPI-treated patients with CIN of any grade in cycles 1 and 2 had significantly longer median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than patients who did not develop CIN and patients in the placebo group. Patients who required an FTD/TPI treatment delay had increased OS and PFS versus those in the placebo group and those who did not develop CIN. Similar results were obtained in the J003 cohort. CONCLUSIONS:In RECOURSE, patients with higher FTD drug exposure had an increased CIN risk. FTD/TPI-treated patients who developed CIN had improved OS and PFS versus those in the placebo group and those who did not develop CIN. Similar findings were reported in the J003 cohort, thus validating the RECOURSE results. The occurrence of CIN may be a useful predictor of treatment outcomes for FTD/TPI-treated patients. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER:NCT01607957 (RECOURSE). JAPAN PHARMACEUTICAL INFORMATION CENTER NUMBER:JapicCTI-090880 (J003).
Project description:TAS-102 (trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride; a novel combination oral nucleoside anti-tumor agent) has recently received regulatory approval for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Internal review of data at a single-institution showed a trend towards better overall survival (OS) for patients who experienced chemotherapy-induced neutropenia at 1-month (CIN-1-month). To explore this finding further, a cohort study was designed based on outcome data from three centers in United States and one from Japan.CIN-1-month after starting TAS-102 was defined by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 4.03 as a neutrophil count decrease of???grade 2 (absolute neutrophil count?<?1500/mm(3)). Patients had confirmed mCRC that was refractory to standard therapies. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were compared between patients with CIN-1-month (CIN-1-month positive) versus those who did not have CIN-1-month (CIN-1-month negative); with the median progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences evaluated using the Log-rank test.Our cohort study had a total of 149 patients with data regarding their neutrophil assessment at 1-month mark. Patients who developed???grade 2 CIN-1-month had a both longer PFS (median 3.0 months versus 2.4 months; Log-rank P-value?=?0.01), as well as OS (14.0 versus 5.6 months; Log-rank P-value?<?0.0001). Only CIN-1-month (adjusted HR: 0.21 (95 % CI: 0.11-0.38) and higher baseline CEA levels (adjusted HR: 2.00 (95 % CI: 1.22-3.35) were noted to be independent predictors of OS. Furthermore, the CIN-1-month was noted to be a statistically significantly predictor of OS over a wide range of cutoffs.Our observations are novel and hypothesis generating. Neutropenia after starting TAS-102 was associated with better prognosis in patients with refractory mCRC. It can be postulated that the dosage of TAS-102 potentially may need to be increased to achieve better outcomes in patients not experiencing any neutropenia. Further pharmacologic investigations should help elucidate these issues.
Project description:REVEL demonstrated improved overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and objective response rate (ORR) with docetaxel+ramucirumab versus docetaxel+placebo in 1,253 intent-to-treat (ITT) stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients with disease progression following platinum-based chemotherapy. Results from the East Asian subgroup analysis are reported.Subgroup analyses were performed in the East Asian ITT population (n=89). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed for OS and PFS, and the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was performed for response rate.In docetaxel+ramucirumab (n=43) versus docetaxel+placebo (n=46), median OS was 15.44 months versus 10.17 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.762; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.444 to 1.307), median PFS was 4.88 months versus 2.79 months (HR, 0.658; 95% CI, 0.408 to 1.060), and ORR was 25.6% (95% CI, 13.5 to 41.2) versus 8.7% (95% CI, 2.4 to 20.8). Due to increased incidence of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in East Asian patients, starting dose of docetaxel was reduced for newly enrolled East Asian patients (75 to 60 mg/m2, n=24). In docetaxel+ramucirumab versus docetaxel+placebo, incidence of neutropenia was 84.4% versus 72.7% (75 mg/m2) and 54.5% versus 38.5% (60 mg/m2). Incidence of febrile neutropenia was 43.8% versus 12.1% (75 mg/m2) and 0% versus 7.7% (60 mg/m2).Results of this subgroup analysis showed a trend favoring ramucirumab+docetaxel for median OS, PFS, and improved ORR in East Asian patients, consistent with ITT population results. Reduction of starting dose of docetaxel in East Asian patients was associated with improved safety.
Project description:Background:Tri-phosphorylated trifluridine (FTD) incorporation into DNA is TAS-102's main anti-tumor action. We tested whether genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination (HR) and cell cycle checkpoint pathway for DNA repair is associated with outcomes in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with TAS-102. Patients and methods:We analyzed genomic DNA extracted from 233 samples of three cohorts: an evaluation cohort of 52 patients receiving TAS-102, a validation cohort of 129 patients receiving TAS-102 and a control cohort of 52 patients receiving regorafenib. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes involved in HR (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCD2, H2AX, RAD51) and cell cycle checkpoint (ATR, CHEK1, CHEK2, CDKN1A, TP53, CHE1, PIN1, PCNA) were analyzed by PCR-based direct sequencing. Results:In univariate analysis for the evaluation cohort, patients with any G allele in ATM rs609429 had longer overall survival (OS) than those with the C/C variant (8.7 vs. 4.4 months, HR 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.99, P?=?0.022). Patients carrying any A allele in XRCC3 rs861539 had significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (3.8 vs. 2.3 months, HR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92, P?=?0.024) and OS (15.6 vs. 6.3 months, HR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.79, P?=?0.012) than those with the G/G variant. In multivariable analysis, ATM rs609429 remained significant for OS (P?=?0.020). In the validation cohort, patients having ATM rs609429 with any G allele showed longer OS and PFS; the G/A variant in XRCC3 rs861539 showed longer OS, though without statistical significance. Conclusion:Genetic variants in the HR pathway may predict clinical outcome in mCRC patients receiving TAS-102.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The RAISE phase III clinical trial demonstrated that ramucirumab + FOLFIRI improved overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.844, P = 0.0219] and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 0.793, P < 0.0005) compared with placebo + FOLFIRI for second-line metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) patients previously treated with first-line bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, and a fluoropyrimidine. Since some patient or disease characteristics could be associated with differential efficacy or safety, prespecified subgroup analyses were undertaken. This report focuses on three of the most relevant ones: KRAS status (wild-type versus mutant), age (<65 versus ?65 years), and time to progression (TTP) on first-line therapy (<6 versus ?6 months). PATIENTS AND METHODS:OS and PFS were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis, with HR determined by the Cox proportional hazards model. Treatment-by-subgroup interaction was tested to determine whether treatment effect was consistent between subgroup pairs. RESULTS:Patients with both wild-type and mutant KRAS benefited from ramucirumab + FOLFIRI treatment over placebo + FOLFIRI (interaction P = 0.526); although numerically, wild-type KRAS patients benefited more (wild-type KRAS: median OS = 14.4 versus 11.9 months, HR = 0.82, P = 0.049; mutant KRAS: median OS = 12.7 versus 11.3 months, HR = 0.89, P = 0.263). Patients with both longer and shorter first-line TTP benefited from ramucirumab (interaction P = 0.9434), although TTP <6 months was associated with poorer OS (TTP ?6 months: median OS = 14.3 versus 12.5 months, HR = 0.86, P = 0.061; TTP <6 months: median OS = 10.4 versus 8.0 months, HR = 0.86, P = 0.276). The subgroups of patients ?65 versus <65 years also derived a similar ramucirumab survival benefit (interaction P = 0.9521) (?65 years: median OS = 13.8 versus 11.7 months, HR = 0.85, P = 0.156; <65 years: median OS = 13.1 versus 11.9 months, HR = 0.86, P = 0.098). The safety profile of ramucirumab + FOLFIRI was similar across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:These analyses revealed similar efficacy and safety among patient subgroups with differing KRAS mutation status, longer or shorter first-line TTP, and age. Ramucirumab is a beneficial addition to second-line FOLFIRI treatment for a wide range of patients with mCRC. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01183780.
Project description:Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines recommend regorafenib or trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) for the third-line therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In this analysis, we evaluated hospitalizations during regorafenib or TAS-102 treatment and the impact of hospitalizations on overall survival (OS). This retrospective analysis was based on unselected, consecutive mCRC patients treated with regorafenib and/or TAS-102 at the tertiary cancer centers in Salzburg and Wels-Grieskirchen, Austria. Between January 2013 and May 2019, 93 patients started third- or fourth-line therapy with regorafenib or TAS-102. Tumor therapy (regorafenib versus TAS-102, HR: 1.95 [95% CI: 1.07-3.54], p = 0.03) and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (2-3 versus 0-1, HR: 4.04 [95% CI: 2.11-7.71], p < 0.001) showed a statistically significant association with hospitalization risk in multivariate analysis. The corresponding hospitalization probability from initiation of third- or fourth-line was 30% with regorafenib versus 18% with TAS-102 at five weeks and 41% versus 28% at ten weeks, respectively. Hospitalizations irrespective of cause during regorafenib or TAS-102 therapy did neither impact median survival in patients undergoing only third-line therapy (never-hospitalized: 5.7 months [95% CI: 3.9-10.5] versus hospitalized: 5.4 months [95% CI: 2.8-9.6], p = 0.45), nor in patients receiving third- and fourth-line therapy (12.2 months [95% CI: 10.6-28.8] versus 18.6 months [95% CI: 6.3-not reached], p = 0.90). In conclusion, apart from poor ECOG performance status, regorafenib therapy was associated with an increased hospitalization probability during palliative systemic third- and fourth-line therapy in mCRC. However, hospitalizations during regorafenib or TAS-102 therapy did not impact OS beyond second-line therapy.