Chromatin organization revealed by nanostructure of irradiation induced ?H2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 foci.
ABSTRACT: The spatial distribution of DSB repair factors ?H2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 in ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) in HeLa cells using super resolution STED nanoscopy after low and high linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation was investigated. 53BP1 and ?H2AX form IRIF with same mean size of (540?±?40) nm after high LET irradiation while the size after low LET irradiation is significantly smaller. The IRIF of both repair factors show nanostructures with partial anti-correlation. These structures are related to domains formed within the chromatin territories marked by ?H2AX while 53BP1 is mainly situated in the perichromatin region. The nanostructures have a mean size of (129?±?6) nm and are found to be irrespective of the applied LET and the labelled damage marker. In contrast, Rad51 shows no nanostructure and a mean size of (143?±?13) nm independent of LET. Although Rad51 is surrounded by 53BP1 it strongly anti-correlates meaning an exclusion of 53BP1 next to DSB when decision for homologous DSB repair happened.
Project description:PURPOSE:Ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) known also as DNA repair foci represent most sensitive endpoint for assessing DNA double strand breaks (DSB). IRIF are usually visualized and enumerated with the aid of fluorescence microscopy using antibodies to ?H2AX and 53BP1. This study analyzed effect of low dose ionizing radiation on residual IRIF in human lymphocytes to the aim of potential biodosimetry and possible extrapolation of high-dose ?H2AX/53BP1 effects to low doses and compared kinetics of DSB and IRIF. We also analyzed whether DNaseI, which is used for reducing of clumps, affects the IRIF level. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The cryopreserved human lymphocytes from umbilical cord blood (UCB) were thawed with/without DNaseI, ?-irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, and 50 cGy and ?H2AX/53BP1 foci were analyzed 30 min, 2 h, and 22 h post-irradiation using appropriate antibodies. We also analyzed kinetics of DSB using PFGE. RESULTS:No significant difference was observed between data obtained by ?H2AX foci evaluation in cells that were irradiated by low doses and data obtained by extrapolation from higher doses. Residual 53BP1 foci induced by low doses significantly outreached the data extrapolated from irradiation by higher doses. 53BP1 foci induced by low dose-radiation remain longer at DSB loci than foci induced by higher doses. There was no significant effect of DNaseI on DNA repair foci. CONCLUSIONS:Primary ?H2AX, 53BP1 foci and their co-localization represent valuable markers for biodosimetry of low doses, but their usefulness is limited by short time window. Residual ?H2AX and 53BP1 foci are more useful markers for biodosimetry in vitro. Effects of low doses can be extrapolated from high dose using ?H2AX residual foci while ?H2AX/53BP1 foci are valuable markers for evaluation of initial DSB induced by ionizing radiation. Residual IRIF induced by low doses persist longer time than those induced by higher doses.
Project description:The human body is constantly exposed to ionizing radiation of different qualities. Especially the exposure to high-LET (linear energy transfer) particles increases due to new tumor therapy methods using e.g. carbon ions. Furthermore, upon radiation accidents, a mixture of radiation of different quality is adding up to human radiation exposure. Finally, long-term space missions such as the mission to mars pose great challenges to the dose assessment an astronaut was exposed to. Currently, DSB counting using γH2AX foci is used as an exact dosimetric measure for individuals. Due to the size of the γH2AX IRIF of ~ 0.6 µm, it is only possible to count DSB when they are separated by this distance. For high-LET particle exposure, the distance of the DSB is too small to be separated and the dose will be underestimated. In this study, we developed a method where it is possible to count DSB which are separated by a distance of ~ 140 nm. We counted the number of ionizing radiation-induced pDNA-PKcs (DNA-PKcs phosphorylated at T2609) foci (size = 140 nm ± 20 nm) in human HeLa cells using STED super-resolution microscopy that has an intrinsic resolution of 100 nm. Irradiation was performed at the ion microprobe SNAKE using high-LET 20 MeV lithium (LET = 116 keV/µm) and 27 MeV carbon ions (LET = 500 keV/µm). pDNA-PKcs foci label all DSB as proven by counterstaining with 53BP1 after low-LET γ-irradiation where separation of individual DSB is in most cases larger than the 53BP1 gross size of about 0.6 µm. Lithium ions produce (1.5 ± 0.1) IRIF/µm track length, for carbon ions (2.2 ± 0.2) IRIF/µm are counted. These values are enhanced by a factor of 2-3 compared to conventional foci counting of high-LET tracks. Comparison of the measurements to PARTRAC simulation data proof the consistency of results. We used these data to develop a measure for dosimetry of high-LET or mixed particle radiation exposure directly in the biological sample. We show that proper dosimetry for radiation up to a LET of 240 keV/µm is possible.
Project description:Nuclear architecture plays a significant role in DNA repair mechanisms. It is evident that proteins involved in DNA repair are compartmentalized in not only spontaneously occurring DNA lesions or ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF), but a specific clustering of these proteins can also be observed within the whole cell nucleus. For example, 53BP1-positive and BRCA1-positive DNA repair foci decorate chromocenters and can appear close to nuclear speckles. Both 53BP1 and BRCA1 are well-described factors that play an essential role in double-strand break (DSB) repair. These proteins are members of two protein complexes: 53BP1-RIF1-PTIP and BRCA1-CtIP, which make a "decision" determining whether canonical nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR) is activated. It is generally accepted that 53BP1 mediates the NHEJ mechanism, while HDR is activated via a BRCA1-dependent signaling pathway. Interestingly, the 53BP1 protein appears relatively quickly at DSB sites, while BRCA1 is functional at later stages of DNA repair, as soon as the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex is recruited to the DNA lesions. A function of the 53BP1 protein is also linked to a specific histone signature, including phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?H2AX) or methylation of histone H4 at the lysine 20 position (H4K20me); therefore, we also discuss an epigenetic landscape of 53BP1-positive DNA lesions.
Project description:The Cancer/Testes (CT) Antigen HORMAD1 is germ cell-restricted and plays developmental roles in generation and processing of meiotic DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSB). Many tumors aberrantly overexpress HORMAD1 yet the potential impact of this CT antigen on cancer biology is unclear. We tested a potential role of HORMAD1 in genome maintenance in lung adenocarcinoma cells. We show that HORMAD1 re-distributes to nuclear foci and co-localizes with the DSB marker ?H2AX in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapeutic agents. The HORMA domain and C-term disordered oligomerization motif are necessary for localization of HORMAD1 to IR-induced foci (IRIF). HORMAD1-depleted cells are sensitive to IR and camptothecin. In reporter assays, Homologous Recombination (HR)-mediated repair of targeted ISce1-induced DSBs is attenuated in HORMAD1-depleted cells. In Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) reporter assays, HORMAD1-depletion does not affect repair of ISce1-induced DSB. Early DSB signaling events (including ATM phosphorylation and formation of ?H2AX, 53BP1 and NBS1 foci) are intact in HORMAD1-depleted cells. However, generation of RPA-ssDNA foci and redistribution of RAD51 to DSB are compromised in HORMAD1-depleted cells, suggesting that HORMAD1 promotes DSB resection. HORMAD1-mediated HR is a neomorphic activity that is independent of its meiotic partners (including HORMAD2 and CCDC36. Bioinformatic analysis of TCGA data show that similar to known HR pathway genes HORMAD1 is overexpressed in lung adenocarcinomas. Overexpression of HR genes is associated with specific mutational profiles (including copy number variation). Taken together, we identify HORMAD1-dependent DSB repair as a new mechanism of radioresistance and a probable determinant of mutability in lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR) is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR) and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs) and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR), showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ]) in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.
Project description:The response to DNA damage in vertebrate cells involves successive recruitment of DNA signalling and repair factors. We used light microscopy to monitor the genetic dependencies of such localization to a single, induced DNA double strand break (DSB) in vertebrate cells. We used an inducible version of the rare-cutting I-SceI endonuclease to cut a chromosomally integrated I-SceI site beside a Tet operator array that was visualized by binding a Tet repressor-GFP fusion. Formation of gamma-H2AX foci at a single DSB was independent of ATM or Ku70. ATM-deficient cells showed normal kinetics of 53Bp1 recruitment to DSBs, but Rad51 localization was retarded. 53Bp1 and Rad51 foci formation at a single DSB was greatly reduced in H2AX-null DT40 cells. We also observed decreased inter-sister chromatid distances after DSB induction, suggesting that cohesin loading at DSBs causes elevated sister chromatid cohesion. Loss of ATM reduced DSB-induced cohesion, consistent with cohesin being an ATM target in the DSB response. These data show that the same genetic pathways control how cells respond to single DSBs and to multiple lesions induced by whole-cell DNA damage.
Project description:Combined deficiencies of poly(ADP)ribosyl polymerase 1 (PARP1) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) result in synthetic lethality and, in the mouse, early embryonic death. Here, we investigated the genetic requirements for this lethality via analysis of mice deficient for PARP1 and either of two ATM-regulated DNA damage response (DDR) factors: histone H2AX and 53BP1. We found that, like ATM, H2AX is essential for viability in a PARP1-deficient background. In contrast, deficiency for 53BP1 modestly exacerbates phenotypes of growth retardation, genomic instability, and organismal radiosensitivity observed in PARP1-deficient mice. To gain mechanistic insights into these different phenotypes, we examined roles for 53BP1 in the repair of replication-associated double-strand breaks (DSBs) in several cellular contexts. We show that 53BP1 is required for DNA-PKcs-dependent repair of hydroxyurea (HU)-induced DSBs but dispensable for RPA/RAD51-dependent DSB repair in the same setting. Moreover, repair of mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DSBs and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), two RAD51-dependent processes, are 53BP1 independent. Overall, our findings define 53BP1 as a main facilitator of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) during the S phase of the cell cycle, beyond highly specialized lymphocyte rearrangements. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the mechanisms whereby ATM-regulated DDR prevents human aging and cancer.
Project description:Recruitment of RAD18 to stalled replication forks facilitates monoubiquitination of PCNA during S-phase, promoting translesion synthesis at sites of UV irradiation-induced DNA damage. In this study, we show that RAD18 is also recruited to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) forming foci which are co-localized with 53BP1, NBS1, phosphorylated ATM, BRCA1 and gamma-H2AX. RAD18 associates with 53BP1 and is recruited to DSB sites in a 53BP1-dependent manner specifically during G1-phase, RAD18 monoubiquitinates KBD domain of 53BP1 at lysine 1268 in vitro. A monoubiquitination-resistant 53BP1 mutant harboring a substitution at lysine 1268 is not retained efficiently at the chromatin in the vicinity of DSBs. In Rad18-null cells, retention of 53BP1 foci, efficiency of DSB repair and post-irradiation viability are impaired compared with wild-type cells. Taken together, these results suggest that RAD18 promotes 53BP1-directed DSB repair by enhancing retention of 53BP1, possibly through an interaction between RAD18 and 53BP1 and the modification of 53BP1.
Project description:Higher order chromatin structure presents a barrier to the recognition and repair of DNA damage. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce histone H2AX phosphorylation, which is associated with the recruitment of repair factors to damaged DNA. To help clarify the physiological role of H2AX, we targeted H2AX in mice. Although H2AX is not essential for irradiation-induced cell-cycle checkpoints, H2AX-/- mice were radiation sensitive, growth retarded, and immune deficient, and mutant males were infertile. These pleiotropic phenotypes were associated with chromosomal instability, repair defects, and impaired recruitment of Nbs1, 53bp1, and Brca1, but not Rad51, to irradiation-induced foci. Thus, H2AX is critical for facilitating the assembly of specific DNA-repair complexes on damaged DNA.
Project description:We examined the influence of the tetratricopeptide repeat factor XAB2 on chromosomal break repair, and found that XAB2 promotes end resection that generates the 3' ssDNA intermediate for homologous recombination (HR). Namely, XAB2 is important for chromosomal double-strand break (DSB) repair via two pathways of HR that require end resection as an intermediate step, end resection of camptothecin (Cpt)-induced DNA damage, and RAD51 recruitment to ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF), which requires end resection. Furthermore, XAB2 mediates specific aspects of the DNA damage response associated with end resection proficiency: CtIP hyperphosphorylation induced by Cpt and BRCA1 IRIF. XAB2 also promotes histone acetylation events linked to HR proficiency. From truncation mutation analysis, the capacity for XAB2 to promote HR correlates with its ability to form a complex with ISY1 and PRP19, which show a similar influence as XAB2 on HR. This XAB2 complex localizes to punctate structures consistent with interchromatin granules that show a striking adjacent-localization to the DSB marker ?H2AX. In summary, we suggest that the XAB2 complex mediates DNA damage response events important for the end resection step of HR, and speculate that its adjacent-localization relative to DSBs marked by ?H2AX is important for this function.