APE2 Zf-GRF facilitates 3'-5' resection of DNA damage following oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT: The Xenopus laevis APE2 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2) nuclease participates in 3'-5' nucleolytic resection of oxidative DNA damage and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response (DDR) pathway via ill-defined mechanisms. Here we report that APE2 resection activity is regulated by DNA interactions in its Zf-GRF domain, a region sharing high homology with DDR proteins Topoisomerase 3? (TOP3?) and NEIL3 (Nei-like DNA glycosylase 3), as well as transcription and RNA regulatory proteins, such as TTF2 (transcription termination factor 2), TFIIS, and RPB9. Biochemical and NMR results establish the nucleic acid-binding activity of the Zf-GRF domain. Moreover, an APE2 Zf-GRF X-ray structure and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses show that the Zf-GRF fold is typified by a crescent-shaped ssDNA binding claw that is flexibly appended to an APE2 endonuclease/exonuclease/phosphatase (EEP) catalytic core. Structure-guided Zf-GRF mutations impact APE2 DNA binding and 3'-5' exonuclease processing, and also prevent efficient APE2-dependent RPA recruitment to damaged chromatin and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway in response to oxidative stress in Xenopus egg extracts. Collectively, our data unveil the APE2 Zf-GRF domain as a nucleic acid interaction module in the regulation of a key single-strand break resection function of APE2, and also reveal topologic similarity of the Zf-GRF to the zinc ribbon domains of TFIIS and RPB9.
Project description:As the most common type of DNA damage, DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) are primarily repaired by the SSB repair mechanism. If not repaired properly or promptly, unrepaired SSBs lead to genome stability and have been implicated in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, it remains unknown how unrepaired SSBs are recognized by DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, largely because of the lack of a feasible experimental system. Here, we demonstrate evidence showing that an ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling is activated by a defined plasmid-based site-specific SSB structure in Xenopus HSS (high-speed supernatant) system. Notably, the distinct SSB signaling requires APE2 and canonical checkpoint proteins, including ATR, ATRIP, TopBP1, Rad9 and Claspin. Importantly, the SSB-induced ATR DDR is essential for SSB repair. We and others show that APE2 interacts with PCNA via its PIP box and preferentially interacts with ssDNA via its C-terminus Zf-GRF domain, a conserved motif found in >100 proteins involved in DNA/RNA metabolism. Here, we identify a novel mode of APE2-PCNA interaction via APE2 Zf-GRF and PCNA C-terminus. Mechanistically, the APE2 Zf-GRF-PCNA interaction facilitates 3'-5' SSB end resection, checkpoint protein complex assembly, and SSB-induced DDR pathway. Together, we propose that APE2 promotes ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway from a single-strand break.
Project description:APE2 is a rising vital player in the maintenance of genome and epigenome integrity. In the past several years, a series of studies have shown the critical roles and functions of APE2. We seek to provide the first comprehensive review on several aspects of APE2 in genome and epigenome integrity. We first summarize the distinct functional domains or motifs within APE2 including EEP (endonuclease/exonuclease/phosphatase) domain, PIP box and Zf-GRF motifs from eight species (i.e., Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Xenopus laevis, Ciona intestinalis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Trypanosoma cruzi). Then we analyze various APE2 nuclease activities and associated DNA substrates, including AP endonuclease, 3'-phosphodiesterase, 3'-phosphatase, and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. We also examine several APE2 interaction proteins, including PCNA, Chk1, APE1, Myh1, and homologous recombination (HR) factors such as Rad51, Rad52, BRCA1, BRCA2, and BARD1. Furthermore, we provide insights into the roles of APE2 in various DNA repair pathways (base excision repair, single-strand break repair, and double-strand break repair), DNA damage response (DDR) pathways (ATR-Chk1 and p53-dependent), immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, as well as active DNA demethylation. Lastly, we summarize critical functions of APE2 in growth, development, and diseases. In this review, we provide the first comprehensive perspective which dissects all aspects of the multiple-function protein APE2 in genome and epigenome integrity.
Project description:The maintenance of genome integrity and fidelity is vital for the proper function and survival of all organisms. Recent studies have revealed that APE2 is required to activate an ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response (DDR) pathway in response to oxidative stress and a defined DNA single-strand break (SSB) in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. However, it remains unclear whether APE2 is a general regulator of the DDR pathway in mammalian cells. Here, we provide evidence using human pancreatic cancer cells that APE2 is essential for ATR DDR pathway activation in response to different stressful conditions including oxidative stress, DNA replication stress, and DNA double-strand breaks. Fluorescence microscopy analysis shows that APE2-knockdown (KD) leads to enhanced γH2AX foci and increased micronuclei formation. In addition, we identified a small molecule compound Celastrol as an APE2 inhibitor that specifically compromises the binding of APE2 but not RPA to ssDNA and 3′-5′ exonuclease activity of APE2 but not APE1. The impairment of ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway by Celastrol in Xenopus egg extracts and human pancreatic cancer cells highlights the physiological significance of Celastrol in the regulation of APE2 functionalities in genome integrity. Notably, cell viability assays demonstrate that APE2-KD or Celastrol sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs. Overall, we propose APE2 as a general regulator for the DDR pathway in genome integrity maintenance.
Project description:The DNA glycosylase NEIL3 has been implicated in DNA repair pathways including the base excision repair and the interstrand cross-link repair pathways via its DNA glycosylase and/or AP lyase activity, which are considered canonical roles of NEIL3 in genome integrity. Compared with the other DNA glycosylases NEIL1 and NEIL2, <i>Xenopus laevis</i> NEIL3 C terminus has two highly conserved zinc finger motifs containing GR<i>X</i>F residues (designated as Zf-GRF). It has been demonstrated that the minor AP endonuclease APE2 contains only one Zf-GRF motif mediating interaction with single-strand DNA (ssDNA), whereas the major AP endonuclease APE1 does not. It appears that the two NEIL3 Zf-GRF motifs (designated as Zf-GRF repeat) are dispensable for its DNA glycosylase and AP lyase activity; however, the potential function of the NEIL3 Zf-GRF repeat in genome integrity remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate evidence that the NEIL3 Zf-GRF repeat was associated with a higher affinity for shorter ssDNA than one single Zf-GRF motif. Notably, our protein-protein interaction assays show that the NEIL3 Zf-GRF repeat but not one Zf-GRF motif interacted with APE1 but not APE2. We further reveal that APE1 endonuclease activity on ssDNA but not on dsDNA is compromised by a NEIL3 Zf-GRF repeat, whereas one Zf-GRF motif within NEIL3 is not sufficient to prevent such activity of APE1. In addition, COMET assays show that excess NEIL3 Zf-GRF repeat reduces DNA damage in oxidative stress in <i>Xenopus</i> egg extracts. Together, our results suggest a noncanonical role of NEIL3 in genome integrity via its distinct Zf-GRF repeat in suppressing APE1 endonuclease-mediated ssDNA breakage.
Project description:The base excision repair pathway is largely responsible for the repair of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. However, it remains unclear how the DNA damage checkpoint is activated by oxidative stress at the molecular level. Here, we provide evidence showing that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) triggers checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) phosphorylation in an ATR [ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and Rad3-related]-dependent but ATM-independent manner in Xenopus egg extracts. A base excision repair protein, Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 2 (APE2, APN2, or APEX2), is required for the generation of replication protein A (RPA)-bound single-stranded DNA, the recruitment of a checkpoint protein complex [ATR, ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), and Rad9] to damage sites, and H2O2-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. A conserved proliferating cell nuclear antigen interaction protein box of APE2 is important for the recruitment of APE2 to H2O2-damaged chromatin. APE2 3'-phosphodiesterase and 3'-5' exonuclease activity is essential for single-stranded DNA generation in the 3'-5' direction from single-stranded breaks, referred to as single-stranded break end resection. In addition, APE2 associates with Chk1, and a serine residue (S86) in the Chk1-binding motif of APE2 is essential for Chk1 phosphorylation, indicating a Claspin-like but distinct role for APE2 in ATR-Chk1 signaling. Our data indicate that APE2 plays a vital and previously unexpected role in ATR-Chk1 checkpoint signaling in response to oxidative stress. Thus, our findings shed light on a distinct mechanism of how an ATR-Chk1-dependent DNA damage checkpoint is mediated by APE2 in the oxidative stress response.
Project description:Although APE2 plays essential roles in base excision repair and ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, it remains unknown how the APE2 gene is altered in the human genome and whether APE2 is differentially expressed in cancer patients. Here, we report multiple-cancer analyses of APE2 genomic alterations and mRNA expression from cancer patients using available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We observe that APE2 genomic alterations occur at ~17% frequency in 14 cancer types (n?=?21,769). Most frequent somatic mutations of APE2 appear in uterus (2.89%) and skin (2.47%) tumor samples. Furthermore, APE2 expression is upregulated in tumor tissue compared with matched non-malignant tissue across 5 cancer types including kidney, breast, lung, liver, and uterine cancers, but not in prostate cancer. We also examine the mRNA expression of 13 other DNA repair and DDR genes from matched samples for 6 cancer types. We show that APE2 mRNA expression is positively correlated with PCNA, APE1, XRCC1, PARP1, Chk1, and Chk2 across these 6 tumor tissue types; however, groupings of other DNA repair and DDR genes are correlated with APE2 with different patterns in different cancer types. Taken together, this study demonstrates alterations and abnormal expression of APE2 from multiple cancers.
Project description:DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) represent the most abundant type of DNA damage. Unrepaired SSBs impair DNA replication and transcription, leading to cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Although PARP1 and XRCC1 are implicated in the SSB repair pathway, it remains unclear how SSB repair and SSB signaling pathways are coordinated and regulated. Using Xenopus egg extract and in vitro reconstitution systems, here we show that SSBs are first sensed by APE1 to initiate 3'-5' SSB end resection, followed by APE2 recruitment to continue SSB end resection. Notably, APE1's exonuclease activity is critical for SSB repair and SSB signaling pathways. An APE1 exonuclease-deficient mutant identified in somatic tissue from a cancer patient highlighted the significance of APE1 exonuclease activity in cancer etiology. In addition, APE1 interacts with APE2 and PCNA, although PCNA is dispensable for APE1's exonuclease activity. Taken together, we propose a two-step APE1/APE2-mediated mechanism for SSB end resection that couples DNA damage response with SSB repair in a eukaryotic system.
Project description:Oxidative DNA damage represents one of the most abundant DNA lesions. It remains unclear how DNA repair and DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are co-ordinated and regulated following oxidative stress. While XRCC1 has been implicated in DNA repair, it remains unknown how exactly oxidative DNA damage is repaired and sensed by XRCC1. In this communication, we have demonstrated evidence that XRCC1 is dispensable for ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway following oxidative stress in Xenopus egg extracts. Whereas APE2 is essential for SSB repair, XRCC1 is not required for the repair of defined SSB and gapped plasmids with a 5'-OH or 5'-P terminus, suggesting that XRCC1 and APE2 may contribute to SSB repair via different mechanisms. Neither Polymerase beta nor Polymerase alpha is important for the repair of defined SSB structure. Nonetheless, XRCC1 is important for the repair of DNA damage following oxidative stress. Our observations suggest distinct roles of XRCC1 for genome integrity in oxidative stress in Xenopus egg extracts.
Project description:The NEIL3 DNA glycosylase maintains genome integrity during replication by excising oxidized bases from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and unhooking interstrand cross-links (ICLs) at fork structures. In addition to its N-terminal catalytic glycosylase domain, NEIL3 contains two tandem C-terminal GRF-type zinc fingers that are absent in the other NEIL paralogs. ssDNA binding by the GRF-ZF motifs helps recruit NEIL3 to replication forks converged at an ICL, but the nature of DNA binding and the effect of the GRF-ZF domain on catalysis of base excision and ICL unhooking is unknown. Here, we show that the tandem GRF-ZFs of NEIL3 provide affinity and specificity for DNA that is greater than each individual motif alone. The crystal structure of the GRF domain shows that the tandem ZF motifs adopt a flexible head-to-tail configuration well-suited for binding to multiple ssDNA conformations. Functionally, we establish that the NEIL3 GRF domain inhibits glycosylase activity against monoadducts and ICLs. This autoinhibitory activity contrasts GRF-ZF domains of other DNA-processing enzymes, which typically use ssDNA binding to enhance catalytic activity, and suggests that the C-terminal region of NEIL3 is involved in both DNA damage recruitment and enzymatic regulation.
Project description:Genetic recombination in all kingdoms of life initiates when helicases and nucleases process (resect) the free DNA ends to expose single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhangs. Resection regulation in bacteria is programmed by a DNA sequence, but a general mechanism limiting resection in eukaryotes has remained elusive. Using single-molecule imaging of reconstituted human DNA repair factors, we identify phosphorylated RPA (pRPA) as a negative resection regulator. Bloom's syndrome (BLM) helicase together with exonuclease 1 (EXO1) and DNA2 nucleases catalyze kilobase-length DNA resection on nucleosome-coated DNA. The resulting ssDNA is rapidly bound by RPA, which further stimulates DNA resection. RPA is phosphorylated during resection as part of the DNA damage response (DDR). Remarkably, pRPA inhibits DNA resection in cellular assays and in vitro via inhibition of BLM helicase. pRPA suppresses BLM initiation at DNA ends and promotes the intrinsic helicase strand-switching activity. These findings establish that pRPA provides a feedback loop between DNA resection and the DDR.