Comprehensive Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) Gene Screening in Pregnant Women with Diabetes in India.
ABSTRACT: Pregnant women with diabetes may have underlying beta cell dysfunction due to mutations/rare variants in genes associated with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). MODY gene screening would reveal those women genetically predisposed and previously unrecognized with a monogenic form of diabetes for further clinical management, family screening and genetic counselling. However, there are minimal data available on MODY gene variants in pregnant women with diabetes from India. In this study, utilizing the Next generation sequencing (NGS) based protocol fifty subjects were screened for variants in a panel of thirteen MODY genes. Of these subjects 18% (9/50) were positive for definite or likely pathogenic or uncertain MODY variants. The majority of these variants was identified in subjects with autosomal dominant family history, of whom five were in women with pre-GDM and four with overt-GDM. The identified variants included one patient with HNF1A Ser3Cys, two PDX1 Glu224Lys, His94Gln, two NEUROD1 Glu59Gln, Phe318Ser, one INS Gly44Arg, one GCK, one ABCC8 Arg620Cys and one BLK Val418Met variants. In addition, three of the seven offspring screened were positive for the identified variant. These identified variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, these findings in pregnant women with diabetes, imply that a proportion of GDM patients with autosomal dominant family history may have MODY. Further NGS based comprehensive studies with larger samples are required to confirm these finding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) regulates the activity of the glucokinase (GCK), which plays a key role in glucose homeostasis. Genetic variants in GCK have been associated with diabetes and gestational diabetes (GDM). Due to the relationship between GCKRP and GCK, polymorphisms in GCKR are also candidates for genetic association with GDM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the GCKR rs780094 polymorphism and GDM in a Brazilian population. METHODS:252 unrelated Euro-Brazilian pregnant women were classified as control (healthy pregnant women, n = 125) and GDM (pregnant women with GDM, n = 127) age-matched groups. Clinical and anthropometric data were obtained from all subjects. The GCKR rs780094 polymorphism was genotyped using fluorescent probes (TaqMan® , code C_2862873_10). RESULTS:Both groups were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The GCKR rs780094 polymorphism was associated with GDM in codominant and dominant models (P = 0.022 and P = 0.010, respectively). The minor allele (T) frequency for the control group in the study was 38.4% (95% CI: 32-44%), similar to frequencies reported for other Caucasian populations. CONCLUSION:Carriers of the C allele of rs780094 were 1.41 (odds ratio, 95% CI, 0.97-2.03) times more likely to develop GDM.
Project description:Many conditions interfere with butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity, e.g., pregnancy or presence of the BCHE gene variant -116A can decrease activity whereas obesity and types I and II diabetes mellitus can increase activity. In this study, we examined BChE activity, -116A and 1615A BCHE gene variants, and anthropometric and biochemical variables associated with diabetes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and in healthy pregnant women. BChE activity was measured spectrophotometrically using propionylthiocholine as substrate and genotyping of the -116 and 1615 sites of the BCHE gene was done with a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Three groups were studied: 150 patients with GDM, 295 healthy pregnant women and 156 non-pregnant healthy women. Mean BChE activity was significantly lower in healthy pregnant women than in women from the general population and was further reduced in GDM patients. BChE activity was significantly reduced in carriers of -116A in GDM patients and healthy pregnant women. Although GDM patients had a significantly higher mean body mass index (BMI) and triglycerides than healthy pregnant women, they had lower mean BChE activity, suggesting that the lowering effect of GDM on BChE activity was stronger than the characteristic enhancing effect of increased BMI and triglycerides.
Project description:AIM:Sympathetic activation suppresses insulin secretion via pancreatic ADRA2A. Because sympathetic activity and insulin demand increase during pregnancy, we tested the hypothesis that ADRA2A variants are associated with gestational diabetes (GDM). PATIENTS & METHODS:Among Caucasian pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes, we genotyped 458 who had GDM and 1537 without GDM for seven ADRA2A variants. RESULTS:rs1800038 (OR: 2.34; p = 0.020) and rs3750625 (OR: 1.56; p = 0.010) increased the risk of GDM, and rs11195418 decreased it (OR: 0.62; p = 0.025). The associations remained significant after adjustment for maternal age, maternal BMI, parity and a genetic risk score that included variants previously associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and GDM. CONCLUSION:ADRA2A genetic variation contributes independently to the risk of GDM in Caucasian women.
Project description:Pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) share a common pathophysiology associated with similar risk factors. Genetic variants used to determine the risk of developing T2DM might also be associated with the prevalence of GDM. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the relationship between the G972R polymorphism of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) gene with GDM in the Saudi female population. This is a case-control study that monitored 500 Saudi women. Subjects with GDM (n = 200) were compared with non-GDM (n = 300) controls. We opted to evaluate rs1801278 polymorphism in the IRS1 gene, which plays a critical role in the insulin-signaling pathway. Genotyping was performed with the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The frequency of the rs1801278 polymorphism was significantly higher in women with GDM than in women with non-GDM (for TT + CT versus CC: P = 0.02). Additionally, there was a significant increase in the frequency of the Arg-encoding mutant allele from GDM to non-GDM (for T versus C: P = 0.01). Our results suggest that the rs1801278 polymorphism in the IRS-1 gene is involved in the occurrence of GDM in the Saudi population.
Project description:The hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-? (HNF4?) gene codes for a transcription factor which is responsible for regulating gene transcription in pancreatic beta cells, in addition to its primary role in hepatic gene regulation. Mutations in this gene can lead to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), an uncommon, autosomal dominant, non-insulin dependent form of diabetes. Mutations in HNF4? have been found in few individuals, and infrequently have they segregated completely with MODY in families. In addition, due to similarity of phenotypes, it is unclear what proportion of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the general population is due to MODY or HNF4? mutations specifically. In this study, 27 documented rare and common variants were genotyped in a European American population of 1270 T2DM cases and 1017 controls from review of databases and literature implicating HNF4? variants in MODY and T2DM. Seventeen variants were found to be monomorphic. Two cases and one control subject had one copy of a 6-bp P2 promoter deletion. The intron 1 variant (rs6103716; MAF = 0.31) was not significantly associated with disease status (p>0.8) and the missense variant Thr130Ile (rs1800961; MAF = 0.027) was also not significantly different between cases and controls (p>0.2), but showed a trend consistent with association with T2DM. Four variants were found to be rare as heterozygotes in small numbers of subjects. Since many variants were infrequent, a pooled chi-squared analysis of rare variants was used to assess the overall burden of variants between cases and controls. This analysis revealed no significant difference (P=0.22). We conclude there is little evidence to suggest that HNF4? variants contribute significantly to risk of T2DM in the general population, but a modest contribution cannot be excluded. In addition, the observation of some mutations in controls suggests they are not highly penetrant MODY-causing variants.
Project description:Studies have found that the measurement of body composition can be used to identify the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk in pregnant women. However, few studies focused on the relationship between body composition and GDM development in low GDM risk population. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the association between body composition and the development of GDM in pregnant women with low risk of gestational diabetes.A retrospective case-control study was conducted. We reviewed the medical records of 3965 pregnant women who had body composition measurement from March, 2016 to May, 2018 in our hospital. Their sociodemographic, clinical data, and body composition information were collected from medical record. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used.A total of 2698 subjects were eligible for the study. The mean age of the gravidas was 30.95?±?4.01 years old. Of all gravidas, 462 had gestational diabetes. Percentage body fat was the strongest risk factor for gestational diabetes after adjusting pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio?=?1.786, 95% confidence interval?=?1.112-2.866, P?=?.02). The age and extracellular water/intracellular water ratio were independently associated with gestational diabetes.Percentage body fat was the strongest risk factor for gestational diabetes after adjusting pre-pregnancy BMI. Assessment of body composition may provide important guidance to identify gestational diabetes in pregnant women with low gestational diabetes risk.
Project description:There are no earlier studies that reported the association of the 12Glu9 polymorphism in the alpha-2B adrenoceptor (ADRA2B) gene with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We examined the potential association between the ADRA2B gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the Saudi population with GDM. Pregnant women with GDM have been reported to exhibit the same susceptibility as that observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We have selected I/D polymorphism of the ADRA2B gene located in chromosome 2q11.1 that has been extensively related to T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. This case-control study was conducted with 200 GDM and 300 non-GDM pregnant women. Genotyping of I/D polymorphism was performed by conventional PCR method. Biochemical analyses were found to be significantly different between GDM and non-GDM subjects (p < 0.05). Genotype (ID + DD vs II, p = 0.0002) and allele (D vs I, p = 0.0002) frequencies of the 12Glu9 polymorphism were found to be statistically significant. However, a significant difference was found between allele and genotypes of I/D polymorphism of the ADRA2B gene or the clinical characteristics of the subjects. Our results obtained in this study indicate the ADRA2B gene in the Saudi women was associated with the development of GDM.
Project description:AIMS:Serum cystatin C (CysC) has recently been shown to be associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and progression to the pre-diabetic state. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum CysC and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women. METHODS:This cross-sectional study consisted of 400 pregnant women including 111 with GDM and 289 with normal glucose tolerance at 24-28 weeks of gestation. The subjects were further divided into four groups according to the CysC quartiles, and their clinical characteristics were compared. The serum CysC concentration was measured using immunoturbidimetry and the degree of insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS:Serum CysC levels were significantly higher in pregnant women with GDM than in the healthy pregnant women[1.0(0.8-1.8) vs 0.7(0.6-1.0), P<0.01). The Spearman's correlation analysis showed that serum CysC was positively associated with HOMA-IR(r = 0.118, P<0.05) and the occurrence of GDM(r = 0.348, P<0.01). The pregnant women were divided into quartiles according to their serum CysC concentrations. Compared to the first quartile, pregnant women in Q2 (OR, 2.441; P = 0.025), Q3 (OR, 3.383; P = 0.001) and Q4 (OR, 5.516; P<0.001) had higher risk of GDM after adjusted for age, BMI, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. Further, with a rise in the serum CysC, there was an increasing trend in the HOMA-IR levels (P<0.05). A binary logistic regression analysis after adjusting for other confounding variables revealed a significant and independent association between serum CysC and GDM [OR = 14.269; 95% confidence interval, 4.977-40.908, P<0.01].The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the optimal cutoff point for serum CysC to indicate GDM was 0.95 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS:Serum CysC is significantly and independently associated with insulin resistance and GDM. It may be a helpful biomarker to identify the risk of GDM in Chinese pregnant women.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have identified loci that are firmly associated with obesity. The Src-homology-2 B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1) loci is abundantly expressed in the brain, liver, heart, muscle, and fat tissues. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing health concern that usually appears during the latter half of pregnancy, and it is characterized by carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity. The SH2B1 gene polymorphism has been linked with an increased risk of weight gain in several but not all population studies. This study aimed to investigate the genetic association of rs4788102 variants in the SH2B1 gene with GDM in Saudi pregnant women. Genomic DNA samples from 200 women with GDM and 300 women without GDM were genotyped using the TaqMan method. The distribution of the GG, GA, and AA genotypes was significantly different between GDM and non-GDM women (p < 0.05). Thus, we identified rs4788102 variants as additional risk factors for GDM in Saudi women, and we suggest that these variants may have a prognostic value.
Project description:The rising prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects up to 18% of pregnant women with immediate and long-term metabolic consequences for both mother and infant. Abnormal glucose uptake and lipid oxidation are hallmark features of GDM prompting us to use an exploratory proteomics approach to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying differences in skeletal muscle metabolism between obese pregnant women with GDM (OGDM) and obese pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (ONGT). Functional validation was performed in a second cohort of obese OGDM and ONGT pregnant women. Quantitative proteomic analysis in rectus abdominus skeletal muscle tissue collected at delivery revealed reduced protein content of mitochondrial complex I (C-I) subunits (NDUFS3, NDUFV2) and altered content of proteins involved in calcium homeostasis/signaling (calcineurin A, ?1-syntrophin, annexin A4) in OGDM (n?=?6) vs. ONGT (n?=?6). Follow-up analyses showed reduced enzymatic activity of mitochondrial complexes C-I, C-III, and C-IV (-60-75%) in the OGDM (n?=?8) compared with ONGT (n?=?10) subjects, though no differences were observed for mitochondrial complex protein content. Upstream regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation were not different between groups. However, AMPK phosphorylation was dramatically reduced by 75% in the OGDM women. These data suggest that GDM is associated with reduced skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation and disordered calcium homeostasis. These relationships deserve further attention as they may represent novel risk factors for development of GDM and may have implications on the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on both treatment strategies for GDM and for prevention of type 2 diabetes postpartum.