Body Mass Index at Accession and Incident Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in US Army Soldiers, 2001-2011.
ABSTRACT: Individuals entering US Army service are generally young and healthy, but many are overweight, which may impact cardiometabolic risk despite physical activity and fitness requirements. This analysis examines the association between Soldiers' BMI at accession and incident cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) using longitudinal data from 731,014 Soldiers (17.0% female; age: 21.6 [3.9] years; BMI: 24.7 [3.8] kg/m2) who were assessed at Army accession, 2001-2011. CRF were defined as incident diagnoses through 2011, by ICD-9 code, of metabolic syndrome, glucose/insulin disorder, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or overweight/obesity (in those not initially overweight/obese). Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI categories at accession and CRF. Initially underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) were 2.4% of Soldiers, 53.5% were normal weight (18.5-<25), 34.2% were overweight (25-<30), and 10.0% were obese (?30). Mean age range at CRF diagnosis was 24-29 years old, with generally low CRF incidence: 228 with metabolic syndrome, 3,880 with a glucose/insulin disorder, 26,373 with hypertension, and 13,404 with dyslipidemia. Of the Soldiers who were not overweight or obese at accession, 5,361 were eventually diagnosed as overweight or obese. Relative to Soldiers who were normal weight at accession, those who were overweight or obese, respectively, had significantly higher risk of developing each CRF after multivariable adjustment (HR [95% CI]: metabolic syndrome: 4.13 [2.87-5.94], 13.36 [9.00-19.83]; glucose/insulin disorder: 1.39 [1.30-1.50], 2.76 [2.52-3.04]; hypertension: 1.85 [1.80-1.90], 3.31 [3.20-3.42]; dyslipidemia: 1.81 [1.75-1.89], 3.19 [3.04-3.35]). Risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight/obesity in initially underweight Soldiers was 40%, 31%, and 79% lower, respectively, versus normal-weight Soldiers. BMI in early adulthood has important implications for cardiometabolic health, even within young, physically active populations.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to assess the accuracy of body mass index (BMI) percentile, waist circumference (WC) percentile, waist-height ratio, and waist-hip ratio for identifying cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese children and adolescents stratified by sex and BMI categories. METHODS:We measured anthropometric indices, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile and blood pressure for 15698 participants aged 6-17 in a national survey between September and December 2013. The predictive accuracy of anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic risk factors was examined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The DeLong test and Z test were used for the comparisons of areas under ROC curves (AUCs). RESULTS:The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, hypertension and cluster of risk factors were 2.9%, 27.3%, 10.5% and 5.7% respectively. The four anthropometric indices showed poor to fair discriminatory ability for cardiometabolic risk factors with the AUCs ranging from 0.53-0.72. Each index performed significantly better AUCs for dyslipidemia (0.59-0.63 vs. 0.56-0.59), hypertension (0.62-0.70 vs. 0.55-0.65) and clustered risk factors (0.70-0.73 vs. 0.60-0.64) in boys than that in girls. BMI percentile performed the best accuracy for hypertension in both sexes; WC percentile had the highest AUC for dyslipidemia and BMI percentile and waist-height ratio performed similarly the best AUCs for clustered risk factors in boys while BMI percentile, WC percentile and waist-height ratio performed similar and better AUCs for dyslipidemia and clustered risk factors in girls; whereas waist-hip ratio was consistently the poorest predictor for them regardless of sex. Though the anthropometric indices were more predictive of dyslipidemia, hypertension and clustered risk factors in overweight/obese group compared to their normal BMI peers, the AUCs in overweight/obese group remained in the poor range below 0.70. CONCLUSIONS:Anthropometric indices are not effective screening tools for pediatric cardiometabolic risk factors, even in overweight/obese children.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 46,024 participants aged ?20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007-2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96-2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67-2.12) and 1.12 (0.99-1.26); 5.70 (5.24-6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39-1.65) and 1.69 (1.57-1.82); and 3.73 (3.42-4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98-2.35) and 1.33 (1.25-1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.
Project description:US Hispanics/Latinos have high prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities. We compared overall and central obesity measures in associations with cardiometabolic outcomes among US Hispanics/Latinos.Multivariable regression assessed cross-sectional relationships of six obesity measures with cardiometabolic outcomes among 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years.BMI was moderately correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; women, r?=?0.37; men, r?=?0.58) and highly correlated with other obesity measures (r???0.87) (P?<?0.0001). All measures of obesity were correlated with unfavorable levels of glycemic traits, blood pressure, and lipids, with similar r-estimates for each obesity measure (P?<?0.05). Multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for diabetes (women, 6.7 [3.9, 11.5]; men, 3.9 [2.2, 6.9]), hypertension (women, 2.4 [1.9, 3.1]; men, 2.5 [1.9, 3.4]), and dyslipidemia (women, 2.1 [1.8, 2.4]; men, 2.2 [1.9, 2.6]) were highest for individuals characterized as overweight/obese (BMI???25 kg/m(2)) and with abnormal WHR (women ?0.85; men, ?0.90), compared with those with normal BMI and WHR (P?<?0.0001). Among normal-weight individuals, abnormal WHR was associated with increased cardiometabolic condition prevalence (P?<?0.05), particularly diabetes (women, PR?=?4.0 [2.2, 7.1]; men, PR?=?3.0 [1.6, 5.7]).Obesity measures were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors to a similar degree in US Hispanics/Latinos. WHR is useful to identify individuals with normal BMI at increased cardiometabolic risk.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To identify novel biomarkers through metabolomic profiles that distinguish metabolically well (MW) from metabolically unwell (MUW) individuals, independent of body mass index (BMI). MATERIALS/METHODS:This study was conducted as part of the Measurement to Understand the Reclassification of Disease of Cabarrus/Kannapolis (MURDOCK) project. Individuals from 3 cohorts were classified as lean (BMI<25kg/m²), overweight (BMI?25kg/m², BMI<30kg/m²) or obese (BMI?30kg/m²). Cardiometabolic abnormalities were defined as: (1) impaired fasting glucose (?100mg/dL and ?126mg/dL); (2) hypertension; (3) triglycerides ?150mg/dL; (4) HDL-C <40mg/dL in men, <50mg/dL in women; and (5) insulin resistance (calculated Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index of >5.13). MW individuals were defined as having <2 cardiometabolic abnormalities and MUW individuals had?two cardiometabolic abnormalities. Targeted profiling of 55 metabolites used mass-spectroscopy-based methods. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the large number of correlated metabolites into clusters of fewer uncorrelated factors. RESULTS:Of 1872 individuals, 410 were lean, 610 were overweight, and 852 were obese. Of lean individuals, 67% were categorized as MUW, whereas 80% of overweight and 87% of obese individuals were MUW. PCA-derived factors with levels that differed the most between MW and MUW groups were factors 4 (branched chain amino acids [BCAA]) [p<.0001], 8 (various metabolites) [p<.0001], 9 (C4/Ci4, C3, C5 acylcarnitines) [p<.0001] and 10 (amino acids) [p<.0002]. Further, Factor 4, distinguishes MW from MUW individuals independent of BMI. CONCLUSION:BCAA and related metabolites are promising biomarkers that may aid in understanding cardiometabolic health independent of BMI category.
Project description:Background:The interaction between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the interaction between obesity and incidence of AF have been explored separately. Therefore, we evaluated the association between CRF, body mass index (BMI), and risk of developing AF in a cohort of middle-aged and older US Veterans. Methods:Symptom limited exercise tests (ETT) were conducted among 16,397 Veterans (97% male) from January 9,1987 to December 31,2017. No history of AF was evident at the time of the ETTs. CRF was expressed as quartiles of peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved within each age decile. Weight status was classified as normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2), obese (BMI 30-35 kg/m2), or severely obese (BMI > 35 kg/m2). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to compare the association between BMI, CRF categories, and incidence of AF. Results:Over a median follow-up of 10.7 years, 2,155 (13.1%) developed AF. Obese and severely obese subjects had 13% and 32% higher risks for incidence of AF, respectively, vs. normal weight subjects. Overweight and obese subjects in the most fit quartile had 50% decline in AF risk compared to the least-fit subjects. Severely obese subjects had marked increases in AF risk (~50-60%) regardless of fitness level. Risk of developing AF increases with higher BMI and lower CRF. Conclusion:Improving CRF should be advocated when assessing those at risk for developing AF.
Project description:Overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25 kg m(-2)) or obesity (BMI 30>kg m(-2)) affects more than two-thirds of Americans. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with multiple coexisting conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea and cancer. Lifestyle modification can induce a modest weight loss, which is associated with the prevention or improvement of many of these comorbidities. A combination of diet, exercise and behavioral therapy is considered the cornerstone of treatment for all overweight and obese individuals. As the etiology and therapy of obesity is complex, what is needed for these patients is a multidisciplinary clinic where specialists from different disciplines share their knowledge and participate in the treatment of the obese patient.
Project description:To examine the effects of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) combination therapy on weight and weight-related risk factors in overweight and obese participants.CONTRAVE Obesity Research-II (COR-II) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 1,496 obese (BMI 30-45 kg/m(2) ) or overweight (27-45 kg/m(2) with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension) participants randomized 2:1 to combined naltrexone sustained-release (SR) (32 mg/day) plus bupropion SR (360 mg/day) (NB32) or placebo for up to 56 weeks. The co-primary endpoints were percent weight change and proportion achieving ? 5% weight loss at week 28.Significantly (P < 0.001) greater weight loss was observed with NB32 versus placebo at week 28 (-6.5% vs. -1.9%) and week 56 (-6.4% vs. -1.2%). More NB32-treated participants (P < 0.001) experienced ? 5% weight loss versus placebo at week 28 (55.6% vs. 17.5%) and week 56 (50.5% vs. 17.1%). NB32 produced greater improvements in various cardiometabolic risk markers, participant-reported weight-related quality of life, and control of eating. The most common adverse event with NB was nausea, which was generally mild to moderate and transient. NB was not associated with increased events of depression or suicidality versus placebo.NB represents a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of obesity, and may become a valuable new therapeutic option.
Project description:Whether asymptomatic hyperuricemia in the absence of comorbidities increases the risk for cardiometabolic disorders and chronic kidney disease remains controversial. This study was conducted to clarify the association between asymptomatic hyperuricemia and cardiometabolic conditions. Subjects consisting of Japanese adults between 30 and 85 years of age were enrolled in the study at Center for Preventive Medicine, St Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, and were available at enrollment (2004) and at 5-year follow-up (2009). Subjects were excluded if they were overweight or obese, hypertensive, diabetic, and dyslipidemic, had a history of gout or hyperuricemia on medications, or had chronic kidney disease as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between hyperuricemia and development of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and overweight/obesity (unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, smoking, drinking habits, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, and body mass index). Five thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine subjects without comorbidities (mean age of 47±10 years, 1864 men) were followed for 5 years. Hyperuricemia (defined as >7 mg/dL in men and ?6 mg/dL in women) was associated with increased cumulative incidence of hypertension (14.9% versus 6.1%; P<0.001), dyslipidemia (23.1% versus 15.5%; P<0.001), chronic kidney disease (19.0% versus 10.7%; P<0.001), and overweight/obesity (8.9% versus 3.0%; P<0.001), while diabetes mellitus (1.7% versus 0.9%; P=0.087) showed a trend but did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, asymptomatic hyperuricemia carries a significant risk for developing cardiometabolic conditions in Japanese individual without comorbidities.
Project description:This study examined patterns of change in adiposity across four decades starting in young adulthood as well as associations between change and midlife cardiometabolic outcomes.BMI was assessed at ages 20, 40, 56, and 62 years in 977 male veterans from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Age 62 (range 56-66) cardiometabolic outcomes included hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and ischemic heart disease. Analyses included latent growth modeling (LGM), latent class growth modeling (LCGM), and logistic regression models.Linear BMI slope was associated with all outcomes. Accelerated (quadratic) BMI slope was significantly associated with greater risk for hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and inflammation; odds ratios ranged from 1.93 (diabetes) to 3.15 (dyslipidemia). Initial BMI did not predict later outcomes. Linear slope contributed significant unique variance for diabetes and dyslipidemia even controlling for age 62 BMI. LCGM revealed three trajectories. Men with the relatively stable, lower BMI trajectory had significantly better outcomes than those with trajectories with accelerated increases, especially those including obesity.How individuals reach late-midlife BMI is important. Steepness of BMI change across 40 years from young adulthood to late midlife, in addition to late-midlife BMI itself, was robustly associated with greater risk for poor cardiometabolic outcomes.
Project description:The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multicomponent study designed to generate actionable recommendations to reduce Army suicides and increase knowledge of risk and resilience factors for suicidality.To present data on prevalence, trends, and basic sociodemographic and Army experience correlates of suicides and accident deaths among active duty Regular Army soldiers between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009, and thereby establish a foundation for future Army STARRS investigations.Analysis of trends and predictors of suicide and accident deaths using Army and Department of Defense administrative data systems. Participants were all members of the US Regular Army serving at any time between 2004 and 2009.Death by suicide or accident during active Army service.The suicide rate rose between 2004 and 2009 among never deployed and currently and previously deployed Regular Army soldiers. The accident death rate fell sharply among currently deployed soldiers, remained constant among the previously deployed, and trended upward among the never deployed. Increased suicide risk was associated with being a man (or a woman during deployment), white race/ethnicity, junior enlisted rank, recent demotion, and current or previous deployment. Sociodemographic and Army experience predictors were generally similar for suicides and accident deaths. Time trends in these predictors and in the Army's increased use of accession waivers (which relaxed some qualifications for new soldiers) do not explain the rise in Army suicides.Predictors of Army suicides were largely similar to those reported elsewhere for civilians, although some predictors distinct to Army service emerged that deserve more in-depth analysis. The existence of a time trend in suicide risk among never-deployed soldiers argues indirectly against the view that exposure to combat-related trauma is the exclusive cause of the increase in Army suicides.