Novel trifluoromethylated 9-amino-3,4-dihydroacridin-1(2H)-ones act as covalent poisons of human topoisomerase II?.
ABSTRACT: A number of topoisomerase II-targeted anticancer drugs, including amsacrine, utilize an acridine or related aromatic core as a scaffold. Therefore, to further explore the potential of acridine-related compounds to act as topoisomerase II poisons, we synthesized a series of novel trifluoromethylated 9-amino-3,4-dihydroacridin-1(2H)-one derivatives and examined their ability to enhance DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase II?. Derivatives containing a H, Cl, F, and Br at C7 enhanced enzyme-mediated double-stranded DNA cleavage ?5.5- to 8.5-fold over baseline, but were less potent than amsacrine. The inclusion of an amino group at C9 was critical for activity. The compounds lost their activity against topoisomerase II? in the presence of a reducing agent, displayed no activity against the catalytic core of topoisomerase II?, and inhibited DNA cleavage when incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. These findings strongly suggest that the compounds act as covalent, rather than interfacial, topoisomerase II poisons.
Project description:The ability to cleave DNA is critical to the cellular and pharmacological functions of human type II topoisomerases. However, the low level of cleavage at equilibrium and the tight coupling of the cleavage and ligation reactions make it difficult to characterize the mechanism by which these enzymes cut DNA. Therefore, to establish a system that isolates topoisomerase II-mediated DNA scission from ligation, oligonucleotide substrates were developed that contained a 3'-bridging phosphorothiolate at the scissile bond. Scission of these substrates generates a 3'-terminal -SH moiety that is a poor nucleophile relative to the normal 3'-terminal -OH group. Consequently, topoisomerase II cannot efficiently ligate phosphorothiolate substrates once they are cleaved. The characteristics of topoisomerase IIalpha-mediated cleavage of phosphorothiolate oligonucleotides were identical to those seen with wild-type substrates, except that no ligation was observed. This unidirectional accumulation of cleavage complexes provided critical information regarding coordination of the protomer subunits of topoisomerase IIalpha and the mechanism of action of topoisomerase II poisons. Results indicate that the two enzyme subunits are partially coordinated and that cleavage at one scissile bond increases the degree of cleavage at the other. Furthermore, anticancer drugs such as etoposide and amsacrine that strongly inhibit topoisomerase II-mediated DNA ligation have little effect on the forward scission reaction. In contrast, abasic sites that increase levels of cleavage complexes without affecting ligation stimulate the forward rate of scission. Phosphorothiolate substrates provide significant advantages over traditional "suicide substrates" and should be valuable for future studies on DNA scission and the topoisomerase II-DNA cleavage complex.
Project description:Amsacrine (m-AMSA) is an anticancer agent that displays activity against refractory acute leukemias as well as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The drug is comprised of an intercalative acridine moiety coupled to a 4'-amino-methanesulfon-m-anisidide headgroup. m-AMSA is historically significant in that it was the first drug demonstrated to function as a topoisomerase II poison. Although m-AMSA was designed as a DNA binding agent, the ability to intercalate does not appear to be the sole determinant of drug activity. Therefore, to more fully analyze structure-function relationships and the role of DNA binding in the action of m-AMSA, we analyzed a series of derivatives for the ability to enhance DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase II? and topoisomerase II? and to intercalate DNA. Results indicate that the 3'-methoxy (m-AMSA) positively affects drug function, potentially by restricting the rotation of the headgroup in a favorable orientation. Shifting the methoxy to the 2'-position (o-AMSA), which abrogates drug function, appears to increase the degree of rotational freedom of the headgroup and may impair interactions of the 1'-substituent or other portions of the headgroup within the ternary complex. Finally, the nonintercalative m-AMSA headgroup enhanced enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage when it was detached from the acridine moiety, albeit with 100-fold lower affinity. Taken together, our results suggest that much of the activity and specificity of m-AMSA as a topoisomerase II poison is embodied in the headgroup, while DNA intercalation is used primarily to increase the affinity of m-AMSA for the topoisomerase II-DNA cleavage complex.
Project description:Amsacrine, which inhibits eukaryotic type II topoisomerase via DNA intercalation and stabilization of the cleavable topoisomerase-DNA complex, promotes DNA damage and eventually cell death. Amsacrine has also been shown to inhibit structurally distinct bacterial type I topoisomerases (TopAs), including mycobacterial TopA, the only and essential topoisomerase I in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we describe the modifications of an amsacrine sulfonamide moiety that presumably interacts with mycobacterial TopA, which notably increased the enzyme inhibition and drug selectivity in vivo. To analyse the effects of amsacrine and its derivatives treatment on cell cycle, we used time-lapse fluorescence microscopy (TLMM) and fusion of the ?-subunit of DNA polymerase III with enhanced green fluorescence protein (DnaN-EGFP). We determined that treatment with amsacrine and its derivatives increased the number of DnaN-EGFP complexes and/or prolonged the time of chromosome replication and cell cycle notably. The analysis of TopA depletion strain confirmed that lowering TopA level results in similar disturbances of chromosome replication. In summary, since TopA is crucial for mycobacterial cell viability, the compounds targeting the enzyme disturbed the cell cycle and thus may constitute a new class of anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Project description:Several quinone-based metabolites of drugs and environmental toxins are potent topoisomerase II poisons. These compounds act by adducting the protein and appear to increase levels of enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes by at least two potentially independent mechanisms. Treatment of topoisomerase IIalpha with quinones inhibits DNA religation and blocks the N-terminal gate of the protein by cross-linking its two protomer subunits. It is not known whether these two effects result from adduction of quinone to the same amino acid residue(s) in topoisomerase IIalpha or whether they are mediated by modification of separate residues. Therefore, this study identified amino acid residues in human topoisomerase IIalpha that are modified by quinones and determined their role in the actions of these compounds as topoisomerase II poisons. Four cysteine residues were identified by mass spectrometry as sites of quinone adduction: Cys170, Cys392, Cys405, and Cys455. Mutations (Cys --> Ala) were individually generated at each position. Only mutations at Cys392 or Cys405 reduced sensitivity ( approximately 50% resistance) to benzoquinone. Top2alphaC392A and top2alphaC405A displayed faster rates ( approximately 2-fold) of DNA religation than wild-type topoisomerase IIalpha in the presence of the quinone. In contrast, as determined by DNA binding, protein clamp closing, and protomer cross-linking experiments, mutations at Cys392 and Cys405 did not affect the ability of benzoquinone to block the N-terminal gate of topoisomerase IIalpha. These findings indicate that adduction of Cys392 and Cys405 is important for the actions of quinones against the enzyme and increases levels of cleavage complexes primarily by inhibiting DNA religation.
Project description:The TOPRIM DXDXXG residues of type IA and II topoisomerases are involved in Mg(II) binding and the cleavage-rejoining of DNA. Mutation of the strictly conserved glycine to serine in Yersinia pestis and Escherichia coli topoisomerase I results in bacterial cell killing due to inhibition of DNA religation after DNA cleavage. In this study, all other substitutions at the TOPRIM glycine of Y. pestis topoisomerase I were examined. While the Gly to Ala substitution allowed both DNA cleavage and religation, other mutations abolished DNA cleavage. DNA cleavage activity retained by the Gly to Ser mutant could be significantly enhanced by a second mutation of the methionine residue adjacent to the active site tyrosine. Induction of mutant topoisomerase with both the TOPRIM glycine and active site region methionine mutations resulted in up to 40-fold higher cell killing rate when compared with the single TOPRIM Gly to Ser mutant. Bacterial type IA topoisomerases are potential targets for discovery of novel antibiotics. These results suggest that compounds that interact simultaneously with the TOPRIM motif and the molecular surface around the active site tyrosine could be highly efficient topoisomerase poisons through both enhancement of DNA cleavage and inhibition of DNA rejoining.
Project description:DNA topoisomerases are enzymes responsible for the relaxation of DNA torsional strain, as well as for the untangling of DNA duplexes after replication, and are important cancer drug targets. One class of topoisomerase inhibitors, "poisons", binds to the transient enzyme-DNA complex which occurs during the mechanism of action, and inhibits the religation of DNA. This ultimately leads to the accumulation of DNA double strand breaks and cell death. Different types of topoisomerases occur in human cells and several poisons of topoisomerase I and II are widely used clinically. However, their use is compromised by a variety of side effects. Recent studies confirm that the inhibition of the α-isoform of topoisomerase II is responsible for the cytotoxic effect, whereas the inhibition of the β-isoform leads to development of adverse drug reactions. Thus, the discovery of agents selective for topoisomerase IIα is an important strategy for the development of topoisomerase II poisons with improved clinical profiles. Here, we present a computer-aided drug design study leading to the identification of structurally novel topoisomerase IIα poisons. The study combines ligand- and structure-based drug design methods including pharmacophore models, homology modelling, docking, and virtual screening of the National Cancer Institute compound database. From the 8 compounds identified from the computational work, 6 were tested for their capacity to poison topoisomerase II in vitro: 4 showed selective inhibitory activity for the α- over the β-isoform and 3 of these exhibited cytotoxic activity. Thus, our study confirms the applicability of computer-aided methods for the discovery of novel topoisomerase II poisons, and presents compounds which could be investigated further as selective topoisomerase IIα inhibitors.
Project description:Topoisomerase II modulates DNA topology by generating double-stranded breaks in DNA. Results of the current study indicate that the presence of a nick at one scissile bond dramatically increases the rate of cleavage by human topoisomerase IIalpha at the scissile bond on the opposite strand. We propose that this enhanced activity at the second strand coordinates the two protomer subunits of topoisomerase II and allows the enzyme to create double-stranded breaks. Finally, the presence of a nick on one strand induces cleavage on the opposite strand. Thus, nicks are topoisomerase II poisons that generate novel sites of DNA cleavage.
Project description:Coordination between the N-terminal gate and the catalytic core of topoisomerase II allows the proper capture, cleavage, and transport of DNA during the catalytic cycle. Because the activities of these domains are tightly linked, it has been difficult to discern their individual contributions to enzyme-DNA interactions and drug mechanism. To further address the roles of these domains, we analyzed the activity of the catalytic core of human topoisomerase IIα. The catalytic core and the wild-type enzyme both maintained higher levels of cleavage with negatively (as compared to positively) supercoiled plasmid, indicating that the ability to distinguish supercoil handedness is embedded within the catalytic core. However, the catalytic core alone displayed little ability to cleave DNA substrates that did not intrinsically provide the enzyme with a transport segment (i.e., substrates that did not contain crossovers). Finally, in contrast to interfacial topoisomerase II poisons, covalent poisons did not enhance DNA cleavage mediated by the catalytic core. This distinction allowed us to further characterize the mechanism of etoposide quinone, a drug metabolite that functions primarily as a covalent poison. Etoposide quinone retained some ability to enhance DNA cleavage mediated by the catalytic core, indicating that it still can function as an interfacial poison. These results further define the distinct contributions of the N-terminal gate and the catalytic core to topoisomerase II function. The catalytic core senses the handedness of DNA supercoils during cleavage, while the N-terminal gate is critical for capturing the transport segment and for the activity of covalent poisons.
Project description:The Pneumocystis carinii topoisomerase I-encoding gene has been cloned and sequenced, and the expressed enzyme interactions with several classes of topoisomerase I poisons have been characterized. The P. carinii topoisomerase I protein contains 763 amino acids and has a molecular mass of ca. 90 kDa. The expressed enzyme relaxes supercoiled DNA to completion and has no Mg2+ requirement. Cleavage assays reveal that both the human and P. carinii enzymes form covalent complexes in the presence of camptothecin, Hoechst 33342, and the terbenzimidazole QS-II-48. As with the human enzyme, no cleavage is stimulated in the presence of 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or berenil. A yeast cytotoxicity assay shows that P. carinii topoisomerase I is also a cytotoxic target for the mixed intercalative plus minor-groove binding drug nogalamycin. In contrast to the human enzyme, P. carinii topoisomerase I is resistant to both nitidine and potent protoberberine human topoisomerase I poisons. The differences in the sensitivities of P. carinii and human topoisomerase I to various topoisomerase I poisons support the use of the fungal enzyme as a molecular target for drug development. Additionally, we have characterized the interaction of pentamidine with P. carinii topoisomerase I. We show, by catalytic inhibition, cleavage, and yeast cytotoxicity assays, that pentamidine does not target topoisomerase I.
Project description:The seeds of Nigella sativa (often referred to as black seed) have long been utilized as a medicinal herb in Middle Eastern, Northern African, and Indian cultures. Historically, black seed has been used to treat a variety of illnesses associated with inflammation. More recent studies have found that it induces apoptosis and displays anticancer activity in animal and cellular models. The major bioactive compound of black seed is thymoquinone, which shares structural features with 1,4-benzoquinone and other covalent topoisomerase II poisons. Because a number of anticancer drugs target type II topoisomerases, we determined the effects of thymoquinone and a series of related quinones on human topoisomerase IIα. Thymoquinone enhanced enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage ~5-fold, which is similar to the increase seen with the anticancer drug etoposide. In order to enhance cleavage, compounds had to have at least two positions available for acylation. Furthermore, activity was decreased by the inclusion of electron-donating groups or bulky substituents. As predicted for a covalent topoisomerase II poison, the activity of thymoquinone (and related compounds) was abrogated by the addition of a reducing agent. Also, thymoquinone inhibited topoisomerase IIα activity when incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. Cleavage complexes formed in the presence of the compound were stable for at least 8 h. Lastly, black seed extract and black seed oil both increased levels of enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage, suggesting that thymoquinone is active even in more complex herbal formulations. These findings indicate that thymoquinone can be added to the growing list of dietary and medicinal natural products with activity against human type II topoisomerases.