Effect of desflurane-remifentanil vs. Propofol-remifentanil anesthesia on arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery: a prospective randomized trial.
ABSTRACT: One-lung ventilation during thoracic surgery frequently disturbs normal systemic oxygenation. However, the effect of anesthetics on arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation has not been well established in human study. In this clinical trial, we investigated whether a difference between desflurane-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil anesthesia can be observed with regard to oxygenation during one-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery.Adult patients with lung cancer, scheduled for video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy without preoperative oxygen support, were screened and randomized to receive desflurane or propofol, with remifentanil continuous infusion in both groups. Mechanical ventilation was performed with tidal volume of 8 ml/kg and FIO2 0.5 during two-lung ventilation, and 6 ml/kg and 1.0 during one-lung ventilation, both with positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed preoperatively, during two-lung ventilation, and after 15, 30, 45, and 60 min of one-lung ventilation. The primary endpoint was PaO2 at 30 min after initiating one-lung ventilation. Statistical analyses included the independent t-test for the primary endpoint and a mixed model with a post-hoc analysis to evaluate the serial changes in values.Patients were recruited between July 9 and December 2, 2014. In total, 103 patients were analyzed (n?=?52 in desflurane group and n?=?51 in propofol group). The primary endpoint, PaO2 at 30 min of one-lung ventilation was lower in the desflurane group than the propofol group (170?±?72 vs. 202?±?82 mmHg; p?=?0.039). Serial changes in PaO2 during one-lung ventilation showed lower levels during desflurane anesthesia compared with propofol anesthesia (mean difference, 45 mmHg; 95% confidence interval, 16-75 mmHg; p?=?0.003).In conclusion, desflurane-remifentanil anesthesia resulted in decreased arterial oxygenation compared with that of propofol-remifentanil anesthesia during one-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery in patients with lung cancer.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02191371 , registered on July 7, 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vitrectomy under general anesthesia is considered as a candidate for ambulatory surgery. An anesthetic method with high quality of postoperative recovery should be selected for successful ambulatory surgery. We thus compared quality of postoperative recovery on the day of vitrectomy using the Quality of Recovery (QoR)-40 questionnaire between propofol total intravenous anesthesia (propofol group) and desflurane inhalation anesthesia (desflurane group) as the 2 representative anesthetic methods. METHODS:Eighty-four patients (20-80 years old) undergoing elective vitrectomy under general anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups. The propofol group received propofol and remifentanil using effect-site target-controlled infusion (TCI), and the desflurane group received desflurane inhalation and remifentanil using effect-site TCI. We assessed quality of recovery at 6?hours after surgery through interviews using the QoR-40 questionnaire. We also collected data related to recovery and complications during emergence and recovery period. RESULTS:The median of QoR-40 score on the day of surgery was significantly higher in the propofol group than that in the desflurane group (181.0 vs 169.5, respectively; P?=?.033). In particular, propofol group had significantly higher scores for physical comfort and physical independence dimensions. The amount of remifentanil administered was significantly higher, and the emergence time was significantly longer in propofol group. However, there were no significant differences in other complications between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS:Propofol total intravenous anesthesia provided significantly better quality of recovery on the day of surgery than desflurane inhalation anesthesia.
Project description:Background:Dexmedetomidine (Dex), a selective a2-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been previously reported to attenuate intrapulmonary shunt during one-lung ventilation (OLV) and to alleviate bronchoconstriction. However, the therapeutic effects of nebulized Dex on pulmonary shunt and lung mechanics during OLV have not been evaluated. Here we determine whether nebulized dexmedetomidine improved pulmonary shunt and lung mechanics in patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery in a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Methods:One hundred and twenty-eight patients undergoing elective thoracoscopic surgery were included in this study and randomly divided into four groups: 0.9% saline (Placebo group), 0.5 µg/kg (Dex0.5 group), 1 µg/kg (Dex1 group) and 2 µg/kg (Dex2group) dexmedetomidine. After bronchial intubation, patients received different nebulized doses of dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg/kg, 1 µg/kg and 2 µg/kg) or 0.9% saline placebo during two-lung ventilation(TLV). OLV was initiated 15 min after bronchial intubation. Anesthesia was maintained with intravenous infusion of cisatracurium and propofol. Bispectral Index values were maintained within 40-50 by adjusting the infusion of propofol in all groups. Arterial blood gas samples and central venous blood gas samples were taken as follows: 15 min after bronchial intubation during two-lung ventilation (TLV15), after 30 and 60 min of OLV (OLV30and OLV60, respectively) and 15 min after reinstitution of TLV (ReTLV). Dynamic compliance was also calculated at TLV15, OLV30, OLV60 and ReTLV. Results:Dex decreased the requirement of propofol in a dose-dependent manner(P = 0.000). Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) displayed no significant difference among groups (P = 0.397 and 0.863). Compared with the placebo group, Dex administered between 0.5 and 2 µg/kg increased partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) significantly at OLV30 and OLV60(P = 0.000); however, Dex administered between 1 and 2 µg/kg decreased pulmonary shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) at OLV30 and OLV60(P = 0.000). Compared with the placebo group, there were significant increases with dynamic compliance (Cdyn) after OLV in Dex0.5, Dex1 and Dex2group(P = 0.000). Conclusions. Nebulized dexmedetomidine improved oxygenation not only by decreasing pulmonary shunt but also by improving lung compliance during OLV, which may be effective in managing OLV.
Project description:Background:To examine the influence of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings on lung mechanics and oxygenation in elderly patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgery. Methods:One hundred patients aged >65 years were randomly allocated into either the PEEP5 or the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) group (PEEPEIT). Each group underwent volume-controlled ventilation (tidal volume 6 mL/kg predicted body weight) with the PEEP either fixed at 5 cmH2O or set at an individualized EIT setting. The primary endpoint was the ratio of the arterial oxygen partial pressure to the fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2). The secondary endpoints included the driving pressure, and dynamic respiratory system compliance (Cdyn). Other outcomes, such as the mean airway pressure (Pmean), mean arterial pressure (MAP), lung complications and the length of hospital stay were explored. Results:The optimal PEEP set by EIT was significantly higher (range from 9-13 cmH2O) than the fixed PEEP. PaO2/FiO2 was 47 mmHg higher (95% CI: 7-86 mmHg; P=0.021), Cdyn was 4.3 mL/cmH2O higher (95% CI: 2.1-6.7 cmH2O; P<0.001), and the driving pressure was 3.7 cmH2O lower (95% CI: 2.2-5.1 mmH2O; P<0.001) at 0.5 h during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in the PEEPEIT group than in the PEEP5 group. At 1 h during OLV, PaO2/FiO2 was 93 mmHg higher (95% CI: 58-128 mmHg; P<0.001), Cdyn was 4.4 mL/cmH2O higher (95% CI: 1.9-6.9 mL/cmH2O; P=0.001), and the driving pressure was 4.9 cmH2O lower (95% CI: 3.8-6.1 cmH2O; P<0.001) in the PEEPEIT group than in the PEEP5 group. PaO2/FiO2 was 107 mmHg higher (95% CI: 56-158 mmHg; P<0.001) in the PEEPEIT group than in the PEEP5 group during double-lung ventilation at the end of surgery. Conclusions:PEEP values determined with EIT effectively improved oxygenation and lung mechanics during one lung ventilation in elderly patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgery.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in adults undergoing thoracic surgery. DESIGN:Prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial. SETTING:Tertiary care, University-based hospital. PATIENTS:Nineteen adult patients undergoing thoracic surgery requiring OLV. INTERVENTIONS:During inhalational anesthesia with desflurane, patients were randomized to receive either dexmedetomidine (bolus dose of 0.3 ?g/kg followed by an infusion of 0.3 ?g/kg/hr) or saline placebo. MEASUREMENTS:Three arterial blood gas samples (ABG) were obtained to evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine on oxygenation. Secondary outcomes included differences in hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and mean arterial pressure), end-tidal desflurane concentration required to maintain the bispectral index (BIS) at 40-60, supplemental fentanyl to maintain hemodynamic stability, and phenylephrine to keep the mean arterial pressure (MAP) within 10% of baseline values. MAIN RESULTS:Oxygenation during OLV did not change following the administration of dexmedetomidine (PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 188 ± 115 in dexmedetomidine patients versus 135 ± 70 mmHg in placebo patients). There were no differences in hemodynamic variables or depth of anaesthesia between the two groups. With the administration of dexmedetomidine, there was a decrease in the expired concentration of desflurane required to maintain the BIS at 40-60 when compared with the control group (4.5 ± 0.8% versus 5.1 ± 0.8%). In patients receiving dexmedetomidine, fentanyl requirements were decreased when compared to placebo (2.7 ?g/kg/patient versus 3.1 ?g/kg/patient). However, more patients receiving dexmedetomidine required phenylephrine to maintain hemodynamic stability (6 of 9 patients versus 3 of 10 patients) and the total dose of phenylephrine was greater in patients receiving dexmedetomidine when compared with placebo 10.3 ?g/kg/patient versus 1.1 ?g/kg/patient). CONCLUSION:Dexmedetomidine does not adversely affect oxygenation during OLV in adults undergoing thoracic surgical procedures. The improvement in oxygenation in the dexmedetomidine patients may be related to a decrease in the requirements for inhalational anaesthetic agents thereby limiting its effects on HPV.
Project description:Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) is a minimally invasive procedure; however, some amount of surgical trauma that can trigger systemic inflammation remains. Moreover, pneumoperitoneum during RALRP induces ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Propofol, an anesthetic, is known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In the present study, we compared the effects of propofol with those of desflurane on inflammation and IRI during RALRP via measurements of different biomarkers and evaluation of perioperative renal function. Fifty patients were randomized to receive either desflurane (n = 25) or propofol (n = 25) with remifentanil during RALRP. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein, and nitric oxide were measured 10 min after anesthesia induction (T1), 100 min after carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation (T2), and 10 min after CO2 deflation (T3). Perioperative urine outputs and the serum creatinine level at 24 h after surgery were also recorded. We found that IL-6 levels at T2 and T3 were higher than those at T1 in both groups, although the increases were significant attenuated only in the propofol group. The other parameters showed no differences among the three time points in both groups. The intraoperative urine output was significantly higher in the propofol group than in the desflurane group, while the creatinine level showed no significant changes in either group. Our findings suggest that propofol can not only attenuate the inflammatory response during and after pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing RALRP but also prevent oliguria during pneumoperitoneum.
Project description:We investigated the effect of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RLRP) in patients at low risk of developing PONV, in comparison to balanced anesthesia with desflurane.Sixty two patients were randomly assigned to the Des or TIVA group. Propofol and remifentanil were used for induction of anesthesia in both groups and for maintenance of the anesthesia in the TIVA group. In the Des group, anesthesia was maintained with desflurane and remifentanil. In both groups, postoperative pain was controlled using fentanyl-based intravenous patient controlled analgesia, and ramosetron 0.3 mg was administered at the end of surgery. The incidence of PONV, severity of nausea and pain, and requirements of rescue antiemetics and analgesics were recorded.The incidence of nausea in the post-anesthetic care unit was 22.6% in the Des group and 6.5% in the TIVA (p=0.001) group. The incidence of nausea at postoperative 1-6 hours was 54.8% in the Des group and 16.1% in the TIVA group (p=0.001). At postoperative 6-48 hours, there were no significant differences in the incidence of nausea between groups.In order to prevent PONV after RLRP in the early postoperative period, anesthesia using TIVA with propofol is required regardless of patient-related risk factors.
Project description:Fluid is usually restricted during thoracic surgery, and vasoactive agents are often administered to maintain blood pressure. One-lung ventilation (OLV) decreases arterial oxygenation; thus oxygen delivery to the brain can be decreased. In this study, we compared phenylephrine and dopamine with respect to maintaining cerebral oxygenation during OLV in major thoracic surgery.Sixty-three patients undergoing lobectomies were randomly assigned to the dopamine (D) or phenylephrine (P) group. The patients' mean arterial pressure was maintained within 20% of baseline by a continuous infusion of dopamine or phenylephrine. Maintenance fluid was kept at 5?mL/kg/h. The depth of anesthesia was maintained with desflurane 1MAC and remifentanil infusion under bispectral index guidance. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and hemodynamic variables were recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy and esophageal cardiac Doppler.The rScO2 was higher in the D group than the P group during OLV (OLV 60?min: 71?±?6% vs 63?±?12%; P?=?0.03). The number of patients whose rScO2 dropped more than 20% from baseline was 0 and 6 in the D and P groups, respectively (P?=?0.02). The D group showed higher cardiac output, but lower mean arterial pressure than the P group (4.7?±?1.0 vs 3.9?±?1.2?L/min; 76.7?±?8.1 vs 84.5?±?7.5?mm Hg; P?=?0.02, P?=?0.02). Among the variables, age, hemoglobin concentration, and cardiac output were associated with rScO2 by correlation analysis.Dopamine was superior to phenylephrine in maintaining cerebral oxygenation during OLV in thoracic surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a well-known surrogate marker for intracranial pressure during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies (RALP). ONSD during RALP is known to increase due to elevated intracranial pressure as a result of the steep Trendelenburg position and carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum. We aimed to compare the effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and desflurane anesthesia (DES) on ONSD during RALP. METHODS:Patients scheduled for RALP were enrolled and randomly assigned to the TIVA (propofol and remifentanil) or DES (desflurane and remifentanil) group in this randomized trial. Ultrasonographic measurements of ONSD were conducted before administration of anesthesia (T0), 10 minutes after the Trendelenburg position (T1), 1 hour after the Trendelenburg position (T2), 2?hours after the Trendelenburg position (T3), 10 minutes after resuming the supine position (T4), and at the time of arrival in the post-anaesthetic care unit (T5). The primary outcome measure was the mean ONSD at T2 of the TIVA and DES group during RALP. RESULTS:A total of 56 patients were analysed in this study. The mean ONSD at T1, T2, T3, and T4 were significantly lower for patients in the TIVA group compared with those in the DES group (P?=?.023, .000, .000, and .003, respectively). CONCLUSION:The mean ONSD for patients in the TIVA group was significantly lower than that in the DES group during the RALP procedure. Our findings suggest that TIVA may be a more suitable anesthetic option for patients at risk of cerebral hypoperfusion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ophthalmic ambulatory surgery is preferred to be performed under general anesthesia either by total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) or by inhalational anesthesia to increase the patient comfort. However, anesthesia-controlled time (ACT) can cause increased non-operative operating room (OR) time which may adversely affect the ORs efficiency. This study was aimed to compare the ACT of desflurane with that of propofol-remifentanil in strabismus ambulatory surgery. METHODS:From November 2016 to December 2017, a total of 200 strabismus patients (aged 18-60 years old, and scheduled for elective ambulatory surgery at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center) were randomly assigned to receive either propofol-based TIVA (group TIVA) or desflurane anesthesia (group DES) for maintenance of anesthesia. The primary outcome was the extubation time. Secondary outcomes included surgical time, anesthetic time, OR exit time, and Phase I and II recovery time. The intraoperative incidences of hypotension, bradycardia and oculocardiac reflex (OCR), and the incidences of any post-operative complications were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used to compare the two groups. RESULTS:We found that the extubation time (5.5 [3.9-7.0] vs. 9.7 [8.5-11.4] min, P?<?0.001) and the incidence of prolonged time to extubation (0 vs. 6%, P?=?0.029) in the DES group were significantly decreased compared with those in the TIVA group. The patients in the DES group displayed shorter OR exit time as compared with that in the TIVA group (7.3 [5.5-8.7] vs. 10.8 [9.3-12.3] min, P?<?0.001). The patients using desflurane exhibited more stable hemodynamics during surgery than the patients using propofol-based TIVA, as demonstrated by lower incidences of hypotension (1% vs. 22%, P?<?0.001), bradycardia (2% vs. 13%, P?=?0.002), and OCR (17% vs. 44%, P?<?0.001). CONCLUSION:DES enhanced the ophthalmic OR efficiency by reducing the extubation time and OR exit time, and provided more stable hemodynamics intra-operatively than TIVA in patients undergoing strabismus ambulatory surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, No. NCT02922660; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02922660?id=NCT02922660&draw=2&rank=1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and several perioperative factors may account for tumor recurrence and metastasis. The anesthetic agents employed during cancer surgery might play a crucial role in cancer cell survival and patient outcomes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between the type of anesthesia and overall survival in patients who underwent breast cancer surgery performed by one experienced surgeon. METHODS:All patients who underwent breast cancer surgery by an experienced surgeon between January 2006 and December 2010 were included in this study. Patients were separated into two groups according to the use of desflurane or propofol anesthesia during surgery. Locoregional recurrence and overall survival rates were assessed for the two groups (desflurane or propofol anesthesia). Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models and propensity score matching analyses were used to compare the hazard ratios for death and adjust for potential confounders (age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, TNM stage, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, Charlson Comorbidity Index, anesthesiologists, and functional status). RESULTS:Of the 976 breast cancer patients, 632 patients underwent breast cancer surgery with desflurane anesthesia, while 344 received propofol anesthesia. After propensity scoring, 592 patients remained in the desflurane group and 296 patients in the propofol group. The mortality rate was similar in the desflurane (38 deaths, 4%) and propofol (22 deaths, 4%; p = 0.812) groups in 5-year follow-up. The crude hazard ratio (HR) for all patients was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-1.92, p = 0.646). No significant difference in the locoregional recurrence or overall 5-year survival rates were found after breast surgery using desflurane or propofol anesthesia (p = 0.454). Propensity score-matched analyses demonstrated similar outcomes in both groups. Patients who received propofol anesthesia had a higher mortality rate than those who received desflurane anesthesia in the matched groups (7% vs 6%, respectively) without significant difference (p = 0.561). In the propensity score-matched analyses, univariable analysis showed an insignificant finding (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 0.72-2.11, p = 0.449). After adjustment for the time since the earliest included patient, the HR remained insignificant (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 0.70-2.16, p = 0.475). CONCLUSION:In our non-randomized retrospective analysis, neither propofol nor desflurane anesthesia for breast cancer surgery by an experienced surgeon can affect patient prognosis and survival. The influence of propofol anesthesia on breast cancer outcome requires further investigation.