Transcription factor Gfi1 regulates self-renewal and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells.
ABSTRACT: The generation of all blood cells depends on the ability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. We show here that the transcription factor Gfi1 is expressed in HSCs and in more mature cells such as common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and granulo/monocytic progenitors, but is absent in common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors. When Gfi1 is deleted in mice, HSC frequencies are significantly reduced and CLPs all but disappear from the bone marrow. This specific requirement of Gfi1 for the maintenance of HSC numbers is cell autonomous. Transplantation of Gfi1-deficient bone marrow results in a compromised radioprotection and lower numbers of colony forming units in the spleen of wild-type recipients. Strikingly, Gfi1-/- bone marrow cells are severely impaired in competitive long-term reconstituting abilities after transplantation and show a surprisingly high proportion of actively cycling HSCs, suggesting that Gfi1 restrains proliferation of HSCs and thereby regulates their self-renewal and long-term engraftment abilities.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) self-renew in bone marrow niches formed by mesenchymal progenitors and endothelial cells expressing the chemokine CXCL12, but whether a separate niche instructs multipotent progenitor (MPP) differentiation remains unclear. We show that MPPs resided in HSC niches, where they encountered lineage-instructive differentiation signals. Conditional deletion of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in MPPs reduced differentiation into common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), which decreased lymphopoiesis. CXCR4 was required for CLP positioning near Interleukin-7+ (IL-7) cells and for optimal IL-7 receptor signaling. IL-7+ cells expressed CXCL12 and the cytokine SCF, were mesenchymal progenitors capable of differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes, and comprised a minor subset of sinusoidal endothelial cells. Conditional Il7 deletion in mesenchymal progenitors reduced B-lineage committed CLPs, while conditional Cxcl12 or Scf deletion from IL-7+ cells reduced HSC and MPP numbers. Thus, HSC maintenance and multilineage differentiation are distinct cell lineage decisions that are both controlled by HSC niches.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a perivascular niche in bone marrow, in which leptin receptor+ (LepR) stromal cells and endothelial cells synthesize factors required for HSC maintenance, including stem cell factor (SCF). An important question is why LepR+ cells are one hundred times more frequent than HSCs. Here, we show that SCF from LepR+ cells is also necessary to maintain many c-kit+-restricted hematopoietic progenitors. Conditional deletion of Scf from LepR+ cells depleted common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs), pre-megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (PreMegEs), and colony-forming units-erythroid (CFU-Es), as well as myeloid and erythroid blood cells. This was not caused by HSC depletion, as many other restricted progenitors were unaffected. Moreover, Scf deletion from endothelial cells depleted HSCs, but not progenitors. Early erythroid progenitors were closely associated with perisinusoidal LepR+ cells. This reveals cellular specialization within the niche: SCF from LepR+ cells is broadly required by HSCs and restricted progenitors while SCF from endothelial cells is required mainly by HSCs.
Project description:The selective and temporal DNA methylation plays an important role in the self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but the molecular mechanism that controls the dynamics of DNA methylation is not understood. Here, we report that the PIAS1 epigenetic pathway plays an important role in regulating HSC self-renewal and differentiation. PIAS1 is required for maintaining the quiescence of dormant HSCs and the long-term repopulating capacity of HSC. Pias1 disruption caused the abnormal expression of lineage-associated genes. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed the premature promoter demethylation of Gata1, a key myeloerythroid transcription factor and a PIAS1-target gene, in Pias1(-/-) HSCs. As a result, Pias1 disruption caused the inappropriate induction of Gata1 in HSCs and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). The expression of other myeloerythroid genes was also enhanced in CLPs and lineage-negative progenitors, with a concurrent repression of B cell-specific genes. Consistently, Pias1 disruption caused enhanced myeloerythroid, but reduced B lymphoid lineage differentiation. These results identify a novel role of PIAS1 in maintaining the quiescence of dormant HSCs and in the epigenetic repression of the myeloerythroid program.
Project description:Epigenetic histone modifications play critical roles in the control of self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Mysm1 is a recently identified histone H2A deubiquitinase with essential and intrinsic roles for maintaining functional HSCs. In this study, in addition to confirming this function of Mysm1, by using Mysm1-deficient (Mysm1(-/-)) mice, we provide more evidence for how Mysm1 controls HSC homeostasis. Mysm1 deletion drives HSCs from quiescence into rapid cycling and increases their apoptotic rate, resulting in an exhaustion of the stem cell pool, which leads to an impaired self-renewal and lineage reconstituting abilities in the Mysm1-deficient mice. Our study identified Gfi1 as one of the candidate genes responsible for the HSC defect in Mysm1-deficient mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that Mysm1 modulates histone modifications and directs the recruitment of key transcriptional factors such as Gata2 and Runx1 to the Gfi1 locus in HSCs. We found that Mysm1 directly associates with the Gfi1 enhancer element and promotes its transcription through Gata2 and Runx1 transactivation. Thus, our study not only elaborates on the initial reports of Mysm1 association with HSC homeostasis but also delineates a possible epigenetic mechanism through which Mysm1 carries out this function in the HSCs.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside within a specialized niche where interactions with vasculature, osteoblasts, and stromal components regulate their self-renewal and differentiation. Little is known about bone marrow niche formation or the role of its cellular components in HSC development; therefore, we established the timing of murine fetal long bone vascularization and ossification relative to the onset of HSC activity. Adult-repopulating HSCs emerged at embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5), coincident with marrow vascularization, and were contained within the c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-) (KSL) population. We used Osterix-null (Osx(-/-)) mice that form vascularized marrow but lack osteolineage cells to dissect the role(s) of these cellular components in HSC development. Osx(-/-) fetal bone marrow cells formed multilineage colonies in vitro but were hyperproliferative and failed to home to and/or engraft transplant recipients. Thus, in developing bone marrow, the vasculature can sustain multilineage progenitors, but interactions with osteolineage cells are needed to regulate long-term HSC proliferation and potential.
Project description:Hematopoiesis is a tightly controlled process maintained by a small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here, we demonstrate that the LT-HSC, MPP, premegakaryocytic/erythroid, Pre CFU-E, Pre GM, MkP, and granulocyte-macrophage compartments were all significantly reduced in E2A-deficient bone marrow. Despite a severe depletion of erythroid progenitors, the erythrocyte and megakaryocyte compartments were equivalent in E2A-deficient bone marrow as compared with wild-type mice. E2A-deficient HSCs also failed to efficiently maintain the HSC pool on serial transplantation, and we demonstrate that the E2A proteins regulate cell cycle progression of HSCs by regulating the expression of p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), and the thrombopoietin receptor, known regulators of HSC self-renewal activity. Based on these observations, we propose that the E2A proteins promote the developmental progression of the entire spectrum of early hematopoietic progenitors and to suppress an erythroid specific program of gene expression in alternative cell lineages. Last, the data mechanistically link E2A, cell cycle regulators, and the maintenance of the HSC pool in a common pathway.
Project description:Ubiquitination is a posttranslational mechanism that controls diverse cellular processes. We focus here on the ubiquitin ligase Fbw7, a recently identified hematopoietic tumor suppressor that can target for degradation several important oncogenes, including Notch1, c-Myc, and cyclin E. We have generated conditional Fbw7 knockout animals and inactivated the gene in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), progenitors, and their differentiated progeny. Deletion of Fbw7 specifically and rapidly affects hematopoiesis in a cell-autonomous manner. Fbw7(-/-) HSCs show defective maintenance of quiescence, leading to impaired self-renewal and a severe loss of competitive repopulating capacity. Furthermore, Fbw7(-/-) progenitors are unable to colonize the thymus, leading to a profound depletion of T cell progenitors. Deletion of Fbw7 in bone marrow (BM) stem cells and progenitors leads to the stabilization of c-Myc, a transcription factor previously implicated in HSC self-renewal. On the other hand, neither Notch1 nor cyclin E is visibly stabilized in the BM of Fbw7-deficient mice. Gene expression studies of Fbw7(-/-) HSCs and hematopoietic progenitors indicate that Fbw7 regulates, through the regulation of HSC cycle entry, the transcriptional "signature" that is associated with the quiescent, self-renewing HSC phenotype.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) serve as a life-long reservoir for all blood cell types and are clinically useful for a variety of HSC transplantation-based therapies. Understanding the role of chromatin organization and regulation in HSC homeostasis may provide important insights into HSC development. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) is a multivalent chromatin regulator that possesses 4 nucleosome-binding domains and activates 3 lysine acetyltransferases (KAT6A, KAT6B, and KAT7), suggesting that this protein has the potential to stimulate crosstalk between different chromatin modifications. Here, we investigated the function of BRPF1 in hematopoiesis by selectively deleting its gene in murine blood cells. Brpf1-deficient pups experienced early lethality due to acute bone marrow failure and aplastic anemia. The mutant bone marrow and fetal liver exhibited severe deficiency in HSCs and hematopoietic progenitors, along with elevated reactive oxygen species, senescence, and apoptosis. BRPF1 deficiency also reduced the expression of multipotency genes, including Slamf1, Mecom, Hoxa9, Hlf, Gfi1, Egr, and Gata3. Furthermore, BRPF1 was required for acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 23, a highly abundant but not well-characterized epigenetic mark. These results identify an essential role of the multivalent chromatin regulator BRPF1 in definitive hematopoiesis and illuminate a potentially new avenue for studying epigenetic networks that govern HSC ontogeny.
Project description:Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) primarily reside in the bone marrow where signals generated by stromal cells regulate their self-renewal, proliferation and trafficking. Endosteal osteoblasts and perivascular stromal cells including endothelial cells, CXCL12-abundant reticular cells, leptin-receptor-positive stromal cells, and nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive mesenchymal progenitors have all been implicated in HSC maintenance. However, it is unclear whether specific haematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) subsets reside in distinct niches defined by the surrounding stromal cells and the regulatory molecules they produce. CXCL12 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12) regulates both HSCs and lymphoid progenitors and is expressed by all of these stromal cell populations. Here we selectively deleted Cxcl12 from candidate niche stromal cell populations and characterized the effect on HPCs. Deletion of Cxcl12 from mineralizing osteoblasts has no effect on HSCs or lymphoid progenitors. Deletion of Cxcl12 from osterix-expressing stromal cells, which include CXCL12-abundant reticular cells and osteoblasts, results in constitutive HPC mobilization and a loss of B-lymphoid progenitors, but HSC function is normal. Cxcl12 deletion from endothelial cells results in a modest loss of long-term repopulating activity. Strikingly, deletion of Cxcl12 from nestin-negative mesenchymal progenitors using Prx1-cre (Prx1 also known as Prrx1) is associated with a marked loss of HSCs, long-term repopulating activity, HSC quiescence and common lymphoid progenitors. These data suggest that osterix-expressing stromal cells comprise a distinct niche that supports B-lymphoid progenitors and retains HPCs in the bone marrow, and that expression of CXCL12 from stromal cells in the perivascular region, including endothelial cells and mesenchymal progenitors, supports HSCs.
Project description:Arid3a and Arid3b belong to a subfamily of ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) transcription factors. The Arid family is involved in regulating chromatin accessibility, proliferation, and differentiation. Arid3a and Arid3b are closely related and share a unique REKLES domain that mediates their homo- and hetero-multimerization. Arid3a was originally isolated as a B cell transcription factor binding to the AT rich matrix attachment regions (MARS) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic enhancer. Deletion of Arid3a results in a highly penetrant embryonic lethality with severe defects in erythropoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The few surviving Arid3a-/- (<1%) animals have decreased HSCs and early progenitors in the bone marrow, but all mature lineages are normally represented in the bone marrow and periphery except for B cells. Arid3b-/- animals die around E7.5 precluding examination of hematopoietic development. So it is unclear whether the phenotype of Arid3a loss on hematopoiesis is dependent or independent of Arid3b. In this study we circumvented this limitation by also examining hematopoiesis in mice with a conditional allele of Arid3b. Bone marrow lacking Arid3b shows decreased common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and downstream B cell populations while the T cell and myeloid lineages are unchanged, reminiscent of the adult hematopoietic defect in Arid3a mice. Unlike Arid3a-/- mice, HSC populations are unperturbed in Arid3b-/- mice. This study demonstrates that HSC development is independent of Arid3b, whereas B cell development requires both Arid3a and Arid3b transcription factors.