Identification of New World Quails Susceptible to Infection with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J.
ABSTRACT: The J subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chickens, jungle fowl, and turkeys. This virus enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by the tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1. The resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup J in a great majority of galliform species has been explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of Na+/H+ exchanger 1. Because there are concerns of transspecies virus transmission, we studied natural polymorphisms and susceptibility/resistance in wild galliforms and found the presence of tryptophan 38 in four species of New World quails. The embryo fibroblasts of New World quails are susceptible to infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J, and the cloned Na+/H+ exchanger 1 confers susceptibility on the otherwise resistant host. New World quails are also susceptible to new avian leukosis virus subgroup J variants but resistant to subgroups A and B and weakly susceptible to subgroups C and D of avian sarcoma/leukosis virus due to obvious defects of the respective receptors. Our results suggest that the avian leukosis virus subgroup J could be transmitted to New World quails and establish a natural reservoir of circulating virus with a potential for further evolution. IMPORTANCE:Since its spread in broiler chickens in China and Southeast Asia in 2000, ALV-J remains a major enzootic challenge for the poultry industry. Although the virus diversifies rapidly in the poultry, its spillover and circulation in wild bird species has been prevented by the resistance of most species to ALV-J. It is, nevertheless, important to understand the evolution of the virus and its potential host range in wild birds. Because resistance to avian retroviruses is due particularly to receptor incompatibility, we studied Na+/H+ exchanger 1, the receptor for ALV-J. In New World quails, we found a receptor compatible with virus entry, and we confirmed the susceptibilities of four New World quail species in vitro We propose that a prospective molecular epidemiology study be conducted to identify species with the potential to become reservoirs for ALV-J.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is a recently identified avian oncogenic retrovirus responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. In contrast with the other ALV subgroups, ALV-J predominantly induces myeloid leukosis in meat-type chickens. Despite significant homology with the other ALV subgroups across most of the genome, the envelope protein of ALV-J (EnvJ) shares low homology with the others. Pathogenicity and myeloid leukosis induction map to the env gene of ALV-J. A chimeric protein composed of the surface domain of EnvJ fused to the constant region of a rabbit IgG and mass spectrometry were used to identify the chicken Na(+)/H(+) exchanger type 1 (chNHE1) as a binding protein for ALV-J. Flow cytometry analysis and coprecipitation experiments demonstrated a specific interaction between EnvJ and chNHE1. When introduced into nonpermissive human 293T cells and quail QT6 cells, chNHE1 conferred susceptibility to EnvJ-mediated infection. Furthermore, 293T cells expressing chNHE1 fused with 293T cells expressing EnvJ in a low-pH-dependent manner. Together, these data identify chNHE1 as a cellular receptor for the highly pathogenic ALV-J.
Project description:Subgroup A of the avian leukosis virus (ALV-A) can cause severe pathological lesions and death in infected chickens, and its reported hosts have increased recently. To assess the susceptibility of adult chickens, quails, and pigeons to ALV-A, three sets of 250-day-old birds were intraperitoneally inoculated with ALV-A. Viremia and cloacal virus shedding were dynamically detected using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ALV-P27 antigen ELISA or RT-PCR; pathological lesions were assessed using tissue sections; ALV-A in tissues was detected by IFA; and ALV-A antibody responses were detected using antibody ELISA kits and an immune diffusion test. The results indicated that persistent viremia occurred in 80% (8/10) of infected chickens, and transient viremia occurred in 17% (2/12) of infected quails, but no viremia occurred in infected pigeons. Cloacal virus shedding occurred intermittently in 80% (8/10) of infected chickens and in 8% (1/12) of infected quails but did not occur in infected pigeons. Severe inflammatory pathological lesions occurred in the visceral tissues of most infected chickens, and mild lesions occurred in a few of the infected quails, but no pathological lesions occurred in the infected pigeons. The ALV-A virus was detected in the visceral tissues of most infected chickens but not in the infected quails and pigeons. Obviously different ALV-A antibody responses occurred in the infected chickens, quails and pigeons. It can be concluded that adult chickens, quails and pigeons have dramatically different susceptibilities to ALV-A. This is the first report on artificial infection by ALV-A in different birds.
Project description:J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chicken, jungle fowl, and turkey and enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1). The resistance to ALV-J in a great majority of examined galliform species was explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of NHE1, and genetic polymorphisms around this site predict the susceptibility or resistance of a given species or individual. In this study, we examined the NHE1 polymorphism in domestic chicken breeds and documented quantitative differences in their susceptibility to ALV-J in vitro. In a panel of chicken breeds assembled with the aim to cover the maximum variability encountered in domestic chickens, we found a completely uniform sequence of NHE1 extracellular loop 1 (ECL1) without any source of genetic variation for the selection of ALV-J-resistant poultry. In parallel, we studied the natural polymorphisms of NHE1 in wild ducks and geese because of recent reports on ALV-J positivity in feral Asian species. In anseriform species, we demonstrate a specific and highly conserved critical ECL1 sequence without any homologue of tryptophan 38 in accordance with the resistance of duck cells to prototype ALV-J. Last, we demonstrated that the new Asian strains of ALV-J have not evolved their envelope glycoprotein to the entry the duck cells. Our results contribute substantially to the current discussion of possible heterotransmission of ALV-J and its spill-over into the wild ducks and geese.
Project description:We report the complete genome sequence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) isolate PDRC-59831, which causes myeloid leukosis and hemangiomas in chickens. This is an American ALV-J isolate, which was found in a 38-week-old broiler breeder chicken on a farm in Georgia in 2007.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), the most recent member of the avian retroviruses, is predominantly associated with myeloid leukosis in meat-type chickens. We have previously demonstrated that the acutely transforming virus strain 966, isolated from an ALV-J-induced tumor, transformed peripheral blood monocyte and bone marrow cells in vitro and induced rapid-onset tumors, suggesting transduction of oncogenes (L. N. Payne, A. M. Gillespie, and K. Howes, Avian Dis. 37:438-450, 1993). In order to understand the molecular basis for the rapid transformation and tumor induction, we have determined the complete genomic structure of the provirus of the 966 strain. The sequence of the 966 provirus clone revealed that its genome is closely related to that of HPRS-103 but is defective, with the entire pol and parts of the gag and env genes replaced by a 1,491-bp sequence representing exons 2 and 3 of the c-myc gene. LSTC-IAH30, a stable cell line derived from turkey monocyte cultures transformed by the 966 strain of ALV-J, expressed a 72-kDa Gag-Myc fusion protein. The identification of the myc gene in 966 virus as well as in several other ALV-J-induced tumors suggested that the induction of myeloid tumors by this new subgroup of ALV occurs through mechanisms involving the activation of the c-myc oncogene.
Project description:Background:Previously, we showed that targeted disruption of viral receptor genes in avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroups using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9))-based genome editing confers resistance to ALV subgroups B and J. Here, we used the same strategy to target the receptor expressed by ALV subgroup A (TVA) and generate chicken cells resistant to infection by this virus. Results:CRISPR/Cas9-based disruption of exon 2 within the tva gene of DF-1 fibroblasts conferred resistance to infection by ALV subgroup A regardless of whether frameshift mutations were introduced during editing. Conversely, overexpression of the wild-type TVA receptor (wtTVA) by tva-modified DF-1 clones restored susceptibility to ALV subgroup A. The results confirm that exon 2, which contains the low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain of TVA, is critical for virus entry. Furthermore, we sequentially modified DF-1 cells by editing the tva, tvb, and Na+/H+ exchange 1 (chNHE1) genes, which are the specific receptors for ALV subgroups A, B, and J, respectively. Conclusions:Simultaneous editing of multiple receptors to block infection by different subgroups of ALV confirmed that ALV subgroups A, B, and J do not share host receptors. This strategy could be used to generate cells resistant to multiple viral pathogens that use distinct receptors for cell entry.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens that developed myeloid leukosis (ML). In recent years, field cases of hemangioma (HE) or HE and ML, rather than ML alone, have been reported in commercial layer flocks exposed to ALV-J with a high incidence in China. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of an ALV-J isolate that caused both HE and ML in egg-type and meat-type chickens in China. These findings will provide additional insights into the molecular characteristics in genomes, host range, and pathogenicity of ALV-J.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Avian leukosis (AL), which is caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV), has led to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. The kit used to detect all ALV-positive chickens in breeder flocks is very important for efficiently controlling AL. However, a new emerging ALV subtype is currently a severe challenge in the poultry industry. RESULTS:In this paper, we compared different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for detecting p27 of ALV in the same batch of meconium samples. Different positive samples were further analyzed by PCR or virus isolation. The results showed that 36 positive samples among the 1812 chicken meconium samples could be detected by a sandwich ELISA (sELISA) kit, but only 17 positive samples could be identified by a commercial kit. To verify this result, cloacal swabs and viruses isolated from the positive chickens (2 days old) were used to detect the presence of p27. The results showed that the positive rate of p27 was 100% for the swabs and 40% for virus isolation. Surprisingly, PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the env gene of ALV in these positive samples belonged to the novel subgroup K (ALV-K). CONCLUSION:These data not only demonstrate the relatively high sensitivity of the sELISA kit but also highlight the challenge of controlling ALV-K.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is an emerging ALV tumor virus of chickens. We developed a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid and economical detection of ALV-K in chicken flocks. The assay was specific for ALV-K and did not cross-react with other ALV subgroup or avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, or Marek's Disease virus. The method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the P27 antigen. The assay was also more sensitive than conventional PCR in tests of 86 clinical plasma samples. DF-1 tissue culture cells infected with 1 TCID50 ALV-K particle were identified as negative using ELISA but tested positive with the real-time PCR method. The viral loads in organs and tissues in infected chickens were highest in kidney, lungs, and glandular stomach, and these results matched ELISA findings.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a retrovirus that causes tumors in avian species, and its vertical and horizontal transmission in poultry flocks results in enormous economic losses. Despite the discovery of specific host receptors, there have been few reports on the modulation of viral susceptibility via genetic modification. We therefore engineered acquired resistance to ALV subgroup B using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts. Using this method, we efficiently modified the tumor virus locus B (tvb) gene, encoding the TVB receptor, which is essential for ALV subgroup B entry into host cells. By expanding individual DF-1 clones, we established that artificially generated premature stop codons in the cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of TVB receptor confer resistance to ALV subgroup B. Furthermore, we found that a cysteine residue (C80) of CRD2 plays a crucial role in ALV subgroup B entry. These results suggest that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing can be used to efficiently modify avian cells and establish novel chicken cell lines with resistance to viral infection.